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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hoopes
cipher variations:
ippqft jqqrgu krrshv lsstiw mttujx
nuuvky ovvwlz pwwxma qxxynb ryyzoc
szzapd taabqe ubbcrf vccdsg wddeth
xeefui yffgvj zgghwk ahhixl biijym
cjjkzn dkklao ellmbp fmmncq gnnodr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hoopes
Cipher: sllkvh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hoopes
Cipher: AABBB ABBAB ABBAB ABBBA AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hoopes
cipher variations:
ippqftwrrundkttyvnyvvcdxmxxglhazzktrcddsjlqffwrv
ehhazfsjjehpgllipzunnmxjjqqrguxssvoeluuzwozwwdey
nyyhmibaalusdeetkmrggxswfiibagtkkfiqhmmjqavoonyk
krrshvyttwpfmvvaxpaxxefzozzinjcbbmvteffulnshhytx
gjjcbhullgjrinnkrbwppozllsstiwzuuxqgnwwbyqbyyfga
paajokdccnwufggvmotiizuyhkkdcivmmhksjoolscxqqpam
mttujxavvyrhoxxczrczzghbqbbkpleddoxvghhwnpujjavz
illedjwnniltkppmtdyrrqbnnuuvkybwwzsipyydasdaahic
rcclqmfeepywhiixoqvkkbwajmmfekxoojmulqqnuezssrco
ovvwlzcxxatjqzzebtebbijdsddmrngffqzxijjyprwllcxb
knngflyppknvmrrovfattsdppwwxmadyybukraafcufccjke
teensohggrayjkkzqsxmmdycloohgmzqqlownsspwgbuuteq
qxxynbezzcvlsbbgdvgddklfuffotpihhsbzkllartynnezd
mppihnarrmpxottqxhcvvufrryyzocfaadwmtcchewheelmg
vggpuqjiitcalmmbsuzoofaenqqjiobssnqypuuryidwwvgs
szzapdgbbexnuddifxiffmnhwhhqvrkjjudbmnnctvappgbf
orrkjpcttorzqvvszjexxwhttaabqehccfyoveejgyjggnoi
xiirwslkkvecnooduwbqqhcgpsslkqduupsarwwtakfyyxiu
ubbcrfiddgzpwffkhzkhhopjyjjsxtmllwfdoppevxcrridh
qttmlrevvqtbsxxublgzzyjvvccdsgjeehaqxgglialiipqk
zkktyunmmxgepqqfwydssjeiruunmsfwwructyyvcmhaazkw
wddethkffibryhhmjbmjjqrlalluzvonnyhfqrrgxzettkfj
svvontgxxsvduzzwdnibbalxxeefuilggjcsziinkcnkkrsm
bmmvawpoozigrsshyafuulgktwwpouhyytwevaaxeojccbmy
yffgvjmhhkdtajjoldollstncnnwbxqppajhsttizbgvvmhl
uxxqpvizzuxfwbbyfpkddcnzzgghwkniileubkkpmepmmtuo
dooxcyrqqbkituujachwwnimvyyrqwjaavygxcczgqleedoa
ahhixlojjmfvcllqnfqnnuvpeppydzsrrcljuvvkbdixxojn
wzzsrxkbbwzhyddahrmffepbbiijympkkngwdmmrogroovwq
fqqzeatssdmkvwwlcejyypkoxaatsylccxaizeebisnggfqc
cjjkznqllohxennsphsppwxrgrrafbuttenlwxxmdfkzzqlp
ybbutzmddybjaffcjtohhgrddkklaormmpiyfootqitqqxys
hssbgcvuufomxyyneglaarmqzccvuaneezckbggdkupiihse
ellmbpsnnqjzgppurjurryztittchdwvvgpnyzzofhmbbsnr
addwvboffadlchhelvqjjitffmmncqtoorkahqqvskvsszau
juudiexwwhqozaapgincctosbeexwcpggbemdiifmwrkkjug
gnnodruppslbirrwtlwttabvkvvejfyxxirpabbqhjoddupt
cffyxdqhhcfnejjgnxsllkvhhoopesvqqtmcjssxumxuubcw
lwwfkgzyyjsqbccrikpeevqudggzyeriidgofkkhoytmmlwi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hoopes
Cipher: ubbcrf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hoopes
Cipher: 324343535134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hoopes
method variations:
nttukxsyyzpcxddeuhciikzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h o o p e s 
3 4 4 5 5 3 
2 3 3 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
344553233314
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hoopes
Cipher: sypmnq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hoopes
method variations:
rsxxlo sxxlor xxlors
xlorsx lorsxx orsxxl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hoopes

all 720 cipher variations:
hoopes hoopse hooeps hooesp hoosep hoospe hopoes hopose hopeos hopeso hopseo
hopsoe hoepos hoepso hoeops hoeosp hoesop hoespo hospeo hospoe hosepo hoseop
hosoep hosope hoopes hoopse hooeps hooesp hoosep hoospe hopoes hopose hopeos
hopeso hopseo hopsoe hoepos hoepso hoeops hoeosp hoesop hoespo hospeo hospoe
hosepo hoseop hosoep hosope hpooes hpoose hpoeos hpoeso hposeo hposoe hpooes
hpoose hpoeos hpoeso hposeo hposoe hpeoos hpeoso hpeoos hpeoso hpesoo hpesoo
hpsoeo hpsooe hpseoo hpseoo hpsoeo hpsooe heopos heopso heoops heoosp heosop
heospo hepoos heposo hepoos heposo hepsoo hepsoo heopos heopso heoops heoosp
heosop heospo hespoo hespoo hesopo hesoop hesoop hesopo hsopeo hsopoe hsoepo
hsoeop hsooep hsoope hspoeo hspooe hspeoo hspeoo hspoeo hspooe hsepoo hsepoo
hseopo hseoop hseoop hseopo hsopeo hsopoe hsoepo hsoeop hsooep hsoope ohopes
ohopse ohoeps ohoesp ohosep ohospe ohpoes ohpose ohpeos ohpeso ohpseo ohpsoe
ohepos ohepso oheops oheosp ohesop ohespo ohspeo ohspoe ohsepo ohseop ohsoep
ohsope oohpes oohpse ooheps oohesp oohsep oohspe oophes oophse oopehs oopesh
oopseh oopshe ooephs ooepsh ooehps ooehsp ooeshp ooesph oospeh oosphe ooseph
oosehp ooshep ooshpe opohes opohse opoehs opoesh oposeh oposhe ophoes ophose
opheos opheso ophseo ophsoe opehos opehso opeohs opeosh opesoh opesho opsheo
opshoe opseho opseoh opsoeh opsohe oeophs oeopsh oeohps oeohsp oeoshp oeosph
oepohs oeposh oephos oephso oepsho oepsoh oehpos oehpso oehops oehosp oehsop
oehspo oespho oespoh oeshpo oeshop oesohp oesoph osopeh osophe osoeph osoehp
osohep osohpe ospoeh ospohe ospeoh ospeho ospheo osphoe osepoh osepho oseoph
oseohp osehop osehpo oshpeo oshpoe oshepo osheop oshoep oshope oohpes oohpse
ooheps oohesp oohsep oohspe oophes oophse oopehs oopesh oopseh oopshe ooephs
ooepsh ooehps ooehsp ooeshp ooesph oospeh oosphe ooseph oosehp ooshep ooshpe
ohopes ohopse ohoeps ohoesp ohosep ohospe ohpoes ohpose ohpeos ohpeso ohpseo
ohpsoe ohepos ohepso oheops oheosp ohesop ohespo ohspeo ohspoe ohsepo ohseop
ohsoep ohsope ophoes ophose opheos opheso ophseo ophsoe opohes opohse opoehs
opoesh oposeh oposhe opeohs opeosh opehos opehso opesho opesoh opsoeh opsohe
opseoh opseho opsheo opshoe oehpos oehpso oehops oehosp oehsop oehspo oephos
oephso oepohs oeposh oepsoh oepsho oeophs oeopsh oeohps oeohsp oeoshp oeosph
oespoh oespho oesoph oesohp oeshop oeshpo oshpeo oshpoe oshepo osheop oshoep
oshope ospheo osphoe ospeho ospeoh ospoeh ospohe osepho osepoh osehpo osehop
oseohp oseoph osopeh osophe osoeph osoehp osohep osohpe poohes poohse pooehs
pooesh pooseh pooshe pohoes pohose poheos poheso pohseo pohsoe poehos poehso
poeohs poeosh poesoh poesho posheo poshoe poseho poseoh posoeh posohe poohes
poohse pooehs pooesh pooseh pooshe pohoes pohose poheos poheso pohseo pohsoe
poehos poehso poeohs poeosh poesoh poesho posheo poshoe poseho poseoh posoeh
posohe phooes phoose phoeos phoeso phoseo phosoe phooes phoose phoeos phoeso
phoseo phosoe pheoos pheoso pheoos pheoso phesoo phesoo phsoeo phsooe phseoo
phseoo phsoeo phsooe peohos peohso peoohs peoosh peosoh peosho pehoos pehoso
pehoos pehoso pehsoo pehsoo peohos peohso peoohs peoosh peosoh peosho peshoo
peshoo pesoho pesooh pesooh pesoho psoheo psohoe psoeho psoeoh psooeh psoohe
pshoeo pshooe psheoo psheoo pshoeo pshooe psehoo psehoo pseoho pseooh pseooh
pseoho psoheo psohoe psoeho psoeoh psooeh psoohe eoophs eoopsh eoohps eoohsp
eooshp eoosph eopohs eoposh eophos eophso eopsho eopsoh eohpos eohpso eohops
eohosp eohsop eohspo eospho eospoh eoshpo eoshop eosohp eosoph eoophs eoopsh
eoohps eoohsp eooshp eoosph eopohs eoposh eophos eophso eopsho eopsoh eohpos
eohpso eohops eohosp eohsop eohspo eospho eospoh eoshpo eoshop eosohp eosoph
epoohs epoosh epohos epohso eposho eposoh epoohs epoosh epohos epohso eposho
eposoh ephoos ephoso ephoos ephoso ephsoo ephsoo epsoho epsooh epshoo epshoo
epsoho epsooh ehopos ehopso ehoops ehoosp ehosop ehospo ehpoos ehposo ehpoos
ehposo ehpsoo ehpsoo ehopos ehopso ehoops ehoosp ehosop ehospo ehspoo ehspoo
ehsopo ehsoop ehsoop ehsopo esopho esopoh esohpo esohop esoohp esooph espoho
espooh esphoo esphoo espoho espooh eshpoo eshpoo eshopo eshoop eshoop eshopo
esopho esopoh esohpo esohop esoohp esooph soopeh soophe sooeph sooehp soohep
soohpe sopoeh sopohe sopeoh sopeho sopheo sophoe soepoh soepho soeoph soeohp
soehop soehpo sohpeo sohpoe sohepo soheop sohoep sohope soopeh soophe sooeph
sooehp soohep soohpe sopoeh sopohe sopeoh sopeho sopheo sophoe soepoh soepho
soeoph soeohp soehop soehpo sohpeo sohpoe sohepo soheop sohoep sohope spooeh
spoohe spoeoh spoeho spoheo spohoe spooeh spoohe spoeoh spoeho spoheo spohoe
speooh speoho speooh speoho spehoo spehoo sphoeo sphooe spheoo spheoo sphoeo
sphooe seopoh seopho seooph seoohp seohop seohpo sepooh sepoho sepooh sepoho
sephoo sephoo seopoh seopho seooph seoohp seohop seohpo sehpoo sehpoo sehopo
sehoop sehoop sehopo shopeo shopoe shoepo shoeop shooep shoope shpoeo shpooe
shpeoo shpeoo shpoeo shpooe shepoo shepoo sheopo sheoop sheoop sheopo shopeo
shopoe shoepo shoeop shooep shoope

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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