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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hobnob
cipher variations:
ipcopc jqdpqd kreqre lsfrsf mtgstg
nuhtuh oviuvi pwjvwj qxkwxk rylxyl
szmyzm tanzan uboabo vcpbcp wdqcdq
xerder yfsefs zgtfgt ahughu bivhiv
cjwijw dkxjkx elykly fmzlmz gnamna

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hobnob
Cipher: slymly

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hobnob
Cipher: AABBB ABBAB AAAAB ABBAA ABBAB AAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hobnob
cipher variations:
ipcopcwreorektgotgyviovimxkoxkazmozmcdqodqqfsofs
ehuohusjwojwglyolyunaonajqdpqdxsfpsfluhpuhzwjpwj
nylpylbanpanderperrgtpgtfivpivtkxpkxhmzpmzvobpob
kreqreytgqtgmviqviaxkqxkozmqzmcboqboefsqfsshuqhu
gjwqjwulyqlyinaqnawpcqpclsfrsfzuhruhnwjrwjbylryl
panrandcprcpfgtrgttivrivhkxrkxvmzrmzjobrobxqdrqd
mtgstgavisvioxksxkczmszmqbosboedqsdqghushuujwsjw
ilyslywnasnakpcspcyresrenuhtuhbwjtwjpyltyldantan
rcptcpferterhivtivvkxtkxjmztmzxobtoblqdtqdzsftsf
oviuvicxkuxkqzmuzmeboubosdqudqgfsufsijwujwwlyuly
knaunaypcupcmreureatgutgpwjvwjdylvylranvanfcpvcp
terverhgtvgtjkxvkxxmzvmzlobvobzqdvqdnsfvsfbuhvuh
qxkwxkezmwzmsbowbogdqwdqufswfsihuwhuklywlyynawna
mpcwpcarewreotgwtgcviwvirylxylfanxantcpxcpherxer
vgtxgtjivxivlmzxmzzobxobnqdxqdbsfxsfpuhxuhdwjxwj
szmyzmgboyboudqydqifsyfswhuyhukjwyjwmnaynaapcypc
oreyrectgytgqviyviexkyxktanzanhcpzcpverzerjgtzgt
xivzivlkxzkxnobzobbqdzqdpsfzsfduhzuhrwjzwjfylzyl
uboaboidqadqwfsafskhuahuyjwajwmlyalyopcapccreare
qtgatgeviavisxkaxkgzmazmvcpbcpjerberxgtbgtlivbiv
zkxbkxnmzbmzpqdbqddsfbsfruhbuhfwjbwjtylbylhanban
wdqcdqkfscfsyhuchumjwcjwalyclyonacnaqrecreetgctg
svicvigxkcxkuzmczmibocboxerderlgtdgtzivdivnkxdkx
bmzdmzpobdobrsfdsffuhduhtwjdwjhyldylvandanjcpdcp
yfsefsmhuehuajwejwolyelycnaenaqpcepcstgetggvievi
uxkexkizmezmwboebokdqedqzgtfgtnivfivbkxfkxpmzfmz
dobfobrqdfqdtuhfuhhwjfwjvylfyljanfanxcpfcplerfer
ahughuojwgjwclyglyqnagnaepcgpcsregreuvigviixkgxk
wzmgzmkbogboydqgdqmfsgfsbivhivpkxhkxdmzhmzrobhob
fqdhqdtsfhsfvwjhwjjylhylxanhanlcphcpzerherngthgt
cjwijwqlyilyenainaspcipcgreireutgitgwxkixkkzmizm
yboibomdqidqafsifsohuihudkxjkxrmzjmzfobjobtqdjqd
hsfjsfvuhjuhxyljyllanjanzcpjcpnerjerbgtjgtpivjiv
elyklysnaknagpckpcurekreitgktgwvikviyzmkzmmbokbo
adqkdqofskfschukhuqjwkjwfmzlmztoblobhqdlqdvsflsf
juhluhxwjlwjzanlanncplcpberlerpgtlgtdivlivrkxlkx
gnamnaupcmpciremrewtgmtgkvimviyxkmxkabomboodqmdq
cfsmfsqhumhuejwmjwslymlyhobnobvqdnqdjsfnsfxuhnuh
lwjnwjzylnylbcpncppernerdgtngtrivnivfkxnkxtmznmz

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hobnob
Cipher: uboabo

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hobnob
Cipher: 324321334321

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hobnob
method variations:
ntgstgsymxymxdrcdrciwhiw

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h o b n o b 
3 4 2 3 4 2 
2 3 1 3 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
342342231331
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hobnob
Cipher: smimlc

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hobnob
method variations:
rhlshl hlshlr lshlrh
shlrhl hlrhls lrhlsh

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hobnob

all 720 cipher variations:
hobnob hobnbo hobonb hobobn hobbon hobbno honbob honbbo honobb honobb honbob
honbbo hoonbb hoonbb hoobnb hoobbn hoobbn hoobnb hobnob hobnbo hobonb hobobn
hobbon hobbno hbonob hbonbo hboonb hboobn hbobon hbobno hbnoob hbnobo hbnoob
hbnobo hbnboo hbnboo hbonob hbonbo hboonb hboobn hbobon hbobno hbbnoo hbbnoo
hbbono hbboon hbboon hbbono hnboob hnbobo hnboob hnbobo hnbboo hnbboo hnobob
hnobbo hnoobb hnoobb hnobob hnobbo hnoobb hnoobb hnobob hnobbo hnobbo hnobob
hnboob hnbobo hnboob hnbobo hnbboo hnbboo hobnob hobnbo hobonb hobobn hobbon
hobbno honbob honbbo honobb honobb honbob honbbo hoonbb hoonbb hoobnb hoobbn
hoobbn hoobnb hobnob hobnbo hobonb hobobn hobbon hobbno hbbnoo hbbnoo hbbono
hbboon hbboon hbbono hbnboo hbnboo hbnobo hbnoob hbnoob hbnobo hbonbo hbonob
hbobno hbobon hboobn hboonb hbonob hbonbo hboonb hboobn hbobon hbobno ohbnob
ohbnbo ohbonb ohbobn ohbbon ohbbno ohnbob ohnbbo ohnobb ohnobb ohnbob ohnbbo
ohonbb ohonbb ohobnb ohobbn ohobbn ohobnb ohbnob ohbnbo ohbonb ohbobn ohbbon
ohbbno obhnob obhnbo obhonb obhobn obhbon obhbno obnhob obnhbo obnohb obnobh
obnboh obnbho obonhb obonbh obohnb obohbn obobhn obobnh obbnoh obbnho obbonh
obbohn obbhon obbhno onbhob onbhbo onbohb onbobh onbboh onbbho onhbob onhbbo
onhobb onhobb onhbob onhbbo onohbb onohbb onobhb onobbh onobbh onobhb onbhob
onbhbo onbohb onbobh onbboh onbbho oobnhb oobnbh oobhnb oobhbn oobbhn oobbnh
oonbhb oonbbh oonhbb oonhbb oonbhb oonbbh oohnbb oohnbb oohbnb oohbbn oohbbn
oohbnb oobnhb oobnbh oobhnb oobhbn oobbhn oobbnh obbnoh obbnho obbonh obbohn
obbhon obbhno obnboh obnbho obnobh obnohb obnhob obnhbo obonbh obonhb obobnh
obobhn obohbn obohnb obhnob obhnbo obhonb obhobn obhbon obhbno bohnob bohnbo
bohonb bohobn bohbon bohbno bonhob bonhbo bonohb bonobh bonboh bonbho boonhb
boonbh boohnb boohbn boobhn boobnh bobnoh bobnho bobonh bobohn bobhon bobhno
bhonob bhonbo bhoonb bhoobn bhobon bhobno bhnoob bhnobo bhnoob bhnobo bhnboo
bhnboo bhonob bhonbo bhoonb bhoobn bhobon bhobno bhbnoo bhbnoo bhbono bhboon
bhboon bhbono bnhoob bnhobo bnhoob bnhobo bnhboo bnhboo bnohob bnohbo bnoohb
bnoobh bnoboh bnobho bnoohb bnoobh bnohob bnohbo bnobho bnoboh bnbooh bnboho
bnbooh bnboho bnbhoo bnbhoo bohnob bohnbo bohonb bohobn bohbon bohbno bonhob
bonhbo bonohb bonobh bonboh bonbho boonhb boonbh boohnb boohbn boobhn boobnh
bobnoh bobnho bobonh bobohn bobhon bobhno bbhnoo bbhnoo bbhono bbhoon bbhoon
bbhono bbnhoo bbnhoo bbnoho bbnooh bbnooh bbnoho bbonho bbonoh bbohno bbohon
bboohn bboonh bbonoh bbonho bboonh bboohn bbohon bbohno nobhob nobhbo nobohb
nobobh nobboh nobbho nohbob nohbbo nohobb nohobb nohbob nohbbo noohbb noohbb
noobhb noobbh noobbh noobhb nobhob nobhbo nobohb nobobh nobboh nobbho nbohob
nbohbo nboohb nboobh nboboh nbobho nbhoob nbhobo nbhoob nbhobo nbhboo nbhboo
nbohob nbohbo nboohb nboobh nboboh nbobho nbbhoo nbbhoo nbboho nbbooh nbbooh
nbboho nhboob nhbobo nhboob nhbobo nhbboo nhbboo nhobob nhobbo nhoobb nhoobb
nhobob nhobbo nhoobb nhoobb nhobob nhobbo nhobbo nhobob nhboob nhbobo nhboob
nhbobo nhbboo nhbboo nobhob nobhbo nobohb nobobh nobboh nobbho nohbob nohbbo
nohobb nohobb nohbob nohbbo noohbb noohbb noobhb noobbh noobbh noobhb nobhob
nobhbo nobohb nobobh nobboh nobbho nbbhoo nbbhoo nbboho nbbooh nbbooh nbboho
nbhboo nbhboo nbhobo nbhoob nbhoob nbhobo nbohbo nbohob nbobho nboboh nboobh
nboohb nbohob nbohbo nboohb nboobh nboboh nbobho oobnhb oobnbh oobhnb oobhbn
oobbhn oobbnh oonbhb oonbbh oonhbb oonhbb oonbhb oonbbh oohnbb oohnbb oohbnb
oohbbn oohbbn oohbnb oobnhb oobnbh oobhnb oobhbn oobbhn oobbnh obonhb obonbh
obohnb obohbn obobhn obobnh obnohb obnobh obnhob obnhbo obnbho obnboh obhnob
obhnbo obhonb obhobn obhbon obhbno obbnho obbnoh obbhno obbhon obbohn obbonh
onbohb onbobh onbhob onbhbo onbbho onbboh onobhb onobbh onohbb onohbb onobhb
onobbh onhobb onhobb onhbob onhbbo onhbbo onhbob onbohb onbobh onbhob onbhbo
onbbho onbboh ohbnob ohbnbo ohbonb ohbobn ohbbon ohbbno ohnbob ohnbbo ohnobb
ohnobb ohnbob ohnbbo ohonbb ohonbb ohobnb ohobbn ohobbn ohobnb ohbnob ohbnbo
ohbonb ohbobn ohbbon ohbbno obbnho obbnoh obbhno obbhon obbohn obbonh obnbho
obnboh obnhbo obnhob obnohb obnobh obhnbo obhnob obhbno obhbon obhobn obhonb
obonhb obonbh obohnb obohbn obobhn obobnh bobnoh bobnho bobonh bobohn bobhon
bobhno bonboh bonbho bonobh bonohb bonhob bonhbo boonbh boonhb boobnh boobhn
boohbn boohnb bohnob bohnbo bohonb bohobn bohbon bohbno bbonoh bbonho bboonh
bboohn bbohon bbohno bbnooh bbnoho bbnooh bbnoho bbnhoo bbnhoo bbonoh bbonho
bboonh bboohn bbohon bbohno bbhnoo bbhnoo bbhono bbhoon bbhoon bbhono bnbooh
bnboho bnbooh bnboho bnbhoo bnbhoo bnoboh bnobho bnoobh bnoohb bnohob bnohbo
bnoobh bnoohb bnoboh bnobho bnohbo bnohob bnhoob bnhobo bnhoob bnhobo bnhboo
bnhboo bobnoh bobnho bobonh bobohn bobhon bobhno bonboh bonbho bonobh bonohb
bonhob bonhbo boonbh boonhb boobnh boobhn boohbn boohnb bohnob bohnbo bohonb
bohobn bohbon bohbno bhbnoo bhbnoo bhbono bhboon bhboon bhbono bhnboo bhnboo
bhnobo bhnoob bhnoob bhnobo bhonbo bhonob bhobno bhobon bhoobn bhoonb bhonob
bhonbo bhoonb bhoobn bhobon bhobno

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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