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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hexone
cipher variations:
ifypof jgzqpg kharqh libsri mjctsj
nkdutk olevul pmfwvm qngxwn rohyxo
spizyp tqjazq urkbar vslcbs wtmdct
xunedu yvofev zwpgfw axqhgx byrihy
czsjiz datkja ebulkb fcvmlc gdwnmd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hexone
Cipher: svclmv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hexone
Cipher: AABBB AABAA BABAB ABBAB ABBAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hexone
cipher variations:
ifypofwnsronkvmtovydgvodmlaxolatuzotcjidojqrcfor
ezwhozshqjohgpklopuxenoxjgzqpgxotspolwnupwzehwpe
nmbypmbuvapudkjepkrsdgpsfaxipatirkpihqlmpqvyfopy
kharqhyputqpmxovqxafixqfonczqncvwbqvelkfqlstehqt
gbyjqbujslqjirmnqrwzgpqzlibsrizqvurqnypwrybgjyrg
podarodwxcrwfmlgrmtufiruhczkrcvktmrkjsnorsxahqra
mjctsjarwvsrozqxszchkzshqpebspexydsxgnmhsnuvgjsv
idalsdwlunslktopstybirsbnkdutkbsxwtsparytadilati
rqfctqfyzetyhonitovwhktwjebmtexmvotmlupqtuzcjstc
olevulctyxutqbszubejmbujsrgdurgzafuzipojupwxilux
kfcnufynwpunmvqruvadktudpmfwvmduzyvurctavcfkncvk
tshevshabgvajqpkvqxyjmvylgdovgzoxqvonwrsvwbeluve
qngxwnevazwvsdubwdglodwlutifwtibchwbkrqlwryzknwz
mhepwhapyrwpoxstwxcfmvwfrohyxofwbaxwtevcxehmpexm
vujgxujcdixclsrmxszaloxanifqxibqzsxqpytuxydgnwxg
spizypgxcbyxufwdyfinqfynwvkhyvkdejydmtsnytabmpyb
ojgryjcratyrqzuvyzehoxyhtqjazqhydczyvgxezgjorgzo
xwlizwlefkzenutozubcnqzcpkhszkdsbuzsravwzafipyzi
urkbarizedazwhyfahkpshapyxmjaxmfglafovupavcdorad
qlitaletcvatsbwxabgjqzajvslcbsjafebaxizgbilqtibq
zynkbynghmbgpwvqbwdepsbermjubmfudwbutcxybchkrabk
wtmdctkbgfcbyjahcjmrujcrazolczohinchqxwrcxefqtcf
snkvcngvexcvudyzcdilsbclxunedulchgdczkbidknsvkds
bapmdapijodiryxsdyfgrudgtolwdohwfydwvezadejmtcdm
yvofevmdihedalcjelotwletcbqnebqjkpejszytezghsveh
upmxepixgzexwfabefknudenzwpgfwnejifebmdkfmpuxmfu
dcrofcrklqfktazufahitwfivqnyfqjyhafyxgbcfglovefo
axqhgxofkjgfcnelgnqvyngvedspgdslmrglubavgbijuxgj
wrozgrkzibgzyhcdghmpwfgpbyrihypglkhgdofmhorwzohw
fetqhetmnshmvcbwhcjkvyhkxspahslajchazidehinqxghq
czsjizqhmlihepgnipsxapixgfurifunotinwdcxidklwzil
ytqbitmbkdibajefijoryhirdatkjarinmjifqhojqtybqjy
hgvsjgvopujoxedyjelmxajmzurcjunclejcbkfgjkpszijs
ebulkbsjonkjgripkruzcrkzihwtkhwpqvkpyfezkfmnybkn
avsdkvodmfkdclghklqtajktfcvmlctkpolkhsjqlsvadsla
jixulixqrwlqzgfalgnozclobwtelwpengledmhilmrubklu
gdwnmdulqpmlitkrmtwbetmbkjyvmjyrsxmrahgbmhopadmp
cxufmxqfohmfenijmnsvclmvhexonevmrqnmjulsnuxcfunc
lkzwnkzstynsbihcnipqbenqdyvgnyrgpingfojknotwdmnw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hexone
Cipher: urkbar

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hexone
Cipher: 325135433351

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hexone
method variations:
nkctsksphyxpxundcuczsihz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h e x o n e 
3 5 3 4 3 5 
2 1 5 3 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
353435215331
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hexone
Cipher: xsxbpc

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hexone
method variations:
wlunxl lunxlw unxlwl
nxlwlu xlwlun lwlunx

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hexone

all 720 cipher variations:
hexone hexoen hexnoe hexneo hexeno hexeon heoxne heoxen heonxe heonex heoenx
heoexn henoxe henoex henxoe henxeo henexo heneox heeonx heeoxn heenox heenxo
heexno heexon hxeone hxeoen hxenoe hxeneo hxeeno hxeeon hxoene hxoeen hxonee
hxonee hxoene hxoeen hxnoee hxnoee hxneoe hxneeo hxneeo hxneoe hxeone hxeoen
hxenoe hxeneo hxeeno hxeeon hoxene hoxeen hoxnee hoxnee hoxene hoxeen hoexne
hoexen hoenxe hoenex hoeenx hoeexn honexe honeex honxee honxee honexe honeex
hoeenx hoeexn hoenex hoenxe hoexne hoexen hnxoee hnxoee hnxeoe hnxeeo hnxeeo
hnxeoe hnoxee hnoxee hnoexe hnoeex hnoeex hnoexe hneoxe hneoex hnexoe hnexeo
hneexo hneeox hneoex hneoxe hneeox hneexo hnexeo hnexoe hexone hexoen hexnoe
hexneo hexeno hexeon heoxne heoxen heonxe heonex heoenx heoexn henoxe henoex
henxoe henxeo henexo heneox heeonx heeoxn heenox heenxo heexno heexon ehxone
ehxoen ehxnoe ehxneo ehxeno ehxeon ehoxne ehoxen ehonxe ehonex ehoenx ehoexn
ehnoxe ehnoex ehnxoe ehnxeo ehnexo ehneox eheonx eheoxn ehenox ehenxo ehexno
ehexon exhone exhoen exhnoe exhneo exheno exheon exohne exohen exonhe exoneh
exoenh exoehn exnohe exnoeh exnhoe exnheo exneho exneoh exeonh exeohn exenoh
exenho exehno exehon eoxhne eoxhen eoxnhe eoxneh eoxenh eoxehn eohxne eohxen
eohnxe eohnex eohenx eohexn eonhxe eonhex eonxhe eonxeh eonexh eonehx eoehnx
eoehxn eoenhx eoenxh eoexnh eoexhn enxohe enxoeh enxhoe enxheo enxeho enxeoh
enoxhe enoxeh enohxe enohex enoehx enoexh enhoxe enhoex enhxoe enhxeo enhexo
enheox eneohx eneoxh enehox enehxo enexho enexoh eexonh eexohn eexnoh eexnho
eexhno eexhon eeoxnh eeoxhn eeonxh eeonhx eeohnx eeohxn eenoxh eenohx eenxoh
eenxho eenhxo eenhox eehonx eehoxn eehnox eehnxo eehxno eehxon xehone xehoen
xehnoe xehneo xeheno xeheon xeohne xeohen xeonhe xeoneh xeoenh xeoehn xenohe
xenoeh xenhoe xenheo xeneho xeneoh xeeonh xeeohn xeenoh xeenho xeehno xeehon
xheone xheoen xhenoe xheneo xheeno xheeon xhoene xhoeen xhonee xhonee xhoene
xhoeen xhnoee xhnoee xhneoe xhneeo xhneeo xhneoe xheone xheoen xhenoe xheneo
xheeno xheeon xohene xoheen xohnee xohnee xohene xoheen xoehne xoehen xoenhe
xoeneh xoeenh xoeehn xonehe xoneeh xonhee xonhee xonehe xoneeh xoeenh xoeehn
xoeneh xoenhe xoehne xoehen xnhoee xnhoee xnheoe xnheeo xnheeo xnheoe xnohee
xnohee xnoehe xnoeeh xnoeeh xnoehe xneohe xneoeh xnehoe xneheo xneeho xneeoh
xneoeh xneohe xneeoh xneeho xneheo xnehoe xehone xehoen xehnoe xehneo xeheno
xeheon xeohne xeohen xeonhe xeoneh xeoenh xeoehn xenohe xenoeh xenhoe xenheo
xeneho xeneoh xeeonh xeeohn xeenoh xeenho xeehno xeehon oexhne oexhen oexnhe
oexneh oexenh oexehn oehxne oehxen oehnxe oehnex oehenx oehexn oenhxe oenhex
oenxhe oenxeh oenexh oenehx oeehnx oeehxn oeenhx oeenxh oeexnh oeexhn oxehne
oxehen oxenhe oxeneh oxeenh oxeehn oxhene oxheen oxhnee oxhnee oxhene oxheen
oxnhee oxnhee oxnehe oxneeh oxneeh oxnehe oxehne oxehen oxenhe oxeneh oxeenh
oxeehn ohxene ohxeen ohxnee ohxnee ohxene ohxeen ohexne ohexen ohenxe ohenex
oheenx oheexn ohnexe ohneex ohnxee ohnxee ohnexe ohneex oheenx oheexn ohenex
ohenxe ohexne ohexen onxhee onxhee onxehe onxeeh onxeeh onxehe onhxee onhxee
onhexe onheex onheex onhexe onehxe onehex onexhe onexeh oneexh oneehx onehex
onehxe oneehx oneexh onexeh onexhe oexhne oexhen oexnhe oexneh oexenh oexehn
oehxne oehxen oehnxe oehnex oehenx oehexn oenhxe oenhex oenxhe oenxeh oenexh
oenehx oeehnx oeehxn oeenhx oeenxh oeexnh oeexhn nexohe nexoeh nexhoe nexheo
nexeho nexeoh neoxhe neoxeh neohxe neohex neoehx neoexh nehoxe nehoex nehxoe
nehxeo nehexo neheox neeohx neeoxh neehox neehxo neexho neexoh nxeohe nxeoeh
nxehoe nxeheo nxeeho nxeeoh nxoehe nxoeeh nxohee nxohee nxoehe nxoeeh nxhoee
nxhoee nxheoe nxheeo nxheeo nxheoe nxeohe nxeoeh nxehoe nxeheo nxeeho nxeeoh
noxehe noxeeh noxhee noxhee noxehe noxeeh noexhe noexeh noehxe noehex noeehx
noeexh nohexe noheex nohxee nohxee nohexe noheex noeehx noeexh noehex noehxe
noexhe noexeh nhxoee nhxoee nhxeoe nhxeeo nhxeeo nhxeoe nhoxee nhoxee nhoexe
nhoeex nhoeex nhoexe nheoxe nheoex nhexoe nhexeo nheexo nheeox nheoex nheoxe
nheeox nheexo nhexeo nhexoe nexohe nexoeh nexhoe nexheo nexeho nexeoh neoxhe
neoxeh neohxe neohex neoehx neoexh nehoxe nehoex nehxoe nehxeo nehexo neheox
neeohx neeoxh neehox neehxo neexho neexoh eexonh eexohn eexnoh eexnho eexhno
eexhon eeoxnh eeoxhn eeonxh eeonhx eeohnx eeohxn eenoxh eenohx eenxoh eenxho
eenhxo eenhox eehonx eehoxn eehnox eehnxo eehxno eehxon exeonh exeohn exenoh
exenho exehno exehon exoenh exoehn exoneh exonhe exohne exohen exnoeh exnohe
exneoh exneho exnheo exnhoe exhone exhoen exhnoe exhneo exheno exheon eoxenh
eoxehn eoxneh eoxnhe eoxhne eoxhen eoexnh eoexhn eoenxh eoenhx eoehnx eoehxn
eonexh eonehx eonxeh eonxhe eonhxe eonhex eohenx eohexn eohnex eohnxe eohxne
eohxen enxoeh enxohe enxeoh enxeho enxheo enxhoe enoxeh enoxhe enoexh enoehx
enohex enohxe eneoxh eneohx enexoh enexho enehxo enehox enhoex enhoxe enheox
enhexo enhxeo enhxoe ehxone ehxoen ehxnoe ehxneo ehxeno ehxeon ehoxne ehoxen
ehonxe ehonex ehoenx ehoexn ehnoxe ehnoex ehnxoe ehnxeo ehnexo ehneox eheonx
eheoxn ehenox ehenxo ehexno ehexon

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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