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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hereto
cipher variations:
ifsfup jgtgvq khuhwr livixs mjwjyt
nkxkzu olylav pmzmbw qnancx robody
spcpez tqdqfa urergb vsfshc wtgtid
xuhuje yvivkf zwjwlg axkxmh bylyni
czmzoj danapk ebobql fcpcrm gdqdsn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hereto
Cipher: svivgl

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hereto
Cipher: AABBB AABAA BAAAA AABAA BAABA ABBAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hereto
cipher variations:
ifsfupwnangrkvivstydqdevmlylqxatgtczcjwjadqrermf
ezmzyhshuhkjgpcpwluxkxinjgtgvqxobohslwjwtuzerefw
nmzmrybuhudadkxkbersfsngfanazitivilkhqdqxmvylyjo
khuhwrypcpitmxkxuvafsfgxonanszcvivebelylcfstgtoh
gbobajujwjmlirerynwzmzkplivixszqdqjunylyvwbgtghy
pobotadwjwfcfmzmdgtuhupihcpcbkvkxknmjsfszoxanalq
mjwjytarerkvozmzwxchuhizqpcpubexkxgdgnanehuvivqj
idqdclwlylonktgtapybobmrnkxkzubsfslwpanaxydivija
rqdqvcfylyhehobofivwjwrkjeredmxmzmpoluhubqzcpcns
olylavctgtmxqbobyzejwjkbsrerwdgzmzifipcpgjwxkxsl
kfsfenynanqpmvivcradqdotpmzmbwduhunyrcpczafkxklc
tsfsxehanajgjqdqhkxylytmlgtgfozoborqnwjwdsberepu
qnancxevivozsdqdabglylmdutgtyfibobkhkrerilyzmzun
mhuhgpapcpsroxkxetcfsfqvrobodyfwjwpaterebchmzmne
vuhuzgjcpclilsfsjmzanavonivihqbqdqtspylyfudgtgrw
spcpezgxkxqbufsfcdinanofwvivahkdqdmjmtgtknabobwp
ojwjircrerutqzmzgvehuhsxtqdqfahylyrcvgtgdejobopg
xwjwbilerenknuhulobcpcxqpkxkjsdsfsvuranahwfivity
urergbizmzsdwhuhefkpcpqhyxkxcjmfsfolovivmpcdqdyr
qlylktetgtwvsbobixgjwjuzvsfshcjanatexivifglqdqri
zylydkngtgpmpwjwnqderezsrmzmlufuhuxwtcpcjyhkxkva
wtgtidkbobufyjwjghmrersjazmzelohuhqnqxkxorefsfat
snanmvgvivyxudqdkzilylwbxuhujelcpcvgzkxkhinsfstk
banafmpivirorylypsfgtgbutobonwhwjwzyverelajmzmxc
yvivkfmdqdwhalylijotgtulcbobgnqjwjspszmzqtghuhcv
upcpoxixkxazwfsfmbknanydzwjwlgnerexibmzmjkpuhuvm
dcpchorkxktqtanaruhividwvqdqpyjylybaxgtgncloboze
axkxmhofsfyjcnanklqvivwnedqdipslylurubobsvijwjex
wrerqzkzmzcbyhuhodmpcpafbylynipgtgzkdobolmrwjwxo
ferejqtmzmvsvcpctwjkxkfyxsfsralanadczivipenqdqbg
czmzojqhuhalepcpmnsxkxypgfsfkrunanwtwdqduxklylgz
ytgtsbmbobedajwjqforerchdanapkrivibmfqdqnotylyzq
hgtglsvoboxuxerevylmzmhazuhutcncpcfebkxkrgpsfsdi
ebobqlsjwjcngreropuzmzarihuhmtwpcpyvyfsfwzmnanib
avivudodqdgfclylshqtgtejfcpcrmtkxkdohsfspqvanabs
jivinuxqdqzwzgtgxanobojcbwjwveperehgdmzmtiruhufk
gdqdsnulylepitgtqrwbobctkjwjovyreraxahuhybopcpkd
cxkxwfqfsfihenanujsvivglheretovmzmfqjuhursxcpcdu
lkxkpwzsfsbybivizcpqdqledylyxgrgtgjifobovktwjwhm

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hereto
Cipher: urergb

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hereto
Cipher: 325124514443

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hereto
method variations:
nkwkytspbpdyxuguidczmzoi

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h e r e t o 
3 5 2 5 4 4 
2 1 4 1 4 3 
They are then read out in rows:
352544214143
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hereto
Cipher: xwtbdo

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hereto
method variations:
wfyqtn fyqtnw yqtnwf
qtnwfy tnwfyq nwfyqt

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hereto

all 720 cipher variations:
hereto hereot herteo hertoe herote heroet heerto heerot heetro heetor heeotr
heeort hetero heteor hetreo hetroe hetore hetoer heoetr heoert heoter heotre
heorte heoret hreeto hreeot hreteo hretoe hreote hreoet hreeto hreeot hreteo
hretoe hreote hreoet hrteeo hrteoe hrteeo hrteoe hrtoee hrtoee hroete hroeet
hrotee hrotee hroete hroeet hereto hereot herteo hertoe herote heroet heerto
heerot heetro heetor heeotr heeort hetero heteor hetreo hetroe hetore hetoer
heoetr heoert heoter heotre heorte heoret htreeo htreoe htreeo htreoe htroee
htroee htereo hteroe hteero hteeor hteoer hteore hteero hteeor htereo hteroe
hteore hteoer htoeer htoere htoeer htoere htoree htoree horete horeet hortee
hortee horete horeet hoerte hoeret hoetre hoeter hoeetr hoeert hotere hoteer
hotree hotree hotere hoteer hoeetr hoeert hoeter hoetre hoerte hoeret ehreto
ehreot ehrteo ehrtoe ehrote ehroet eherto eherot ehetro ehetor eheotr eheort
ehtero ehteor ehtreo ehtroe ehtore ehtoer ehoetr ehoert ehoter ehotre ehorte
ehoret erheto erheot erhteo erhtoe erhote erhoet erehto erehot eretho eretoh
ereoth ereoht erteho erteoh ertheo erthoe ertohe ertoeh eroeth eroeht eroteh
erothe erohte erohet eerhto eerhot eertho eertoh eeroth eeroht eehrto eehrot
eehtro eehtor eehotr eehort eethro eethor eetrho eetroh eetorh eetohr eeohtr
eeohrt eeothr eeotrh eeorth eeorht etreho etreoh etrheo etrhoe etrohe etroeh
eterho eteroh etehro etehor eteohr eteorh ethero etheor ethreo ethroe ethore
ethoer etoehr etoerh etoher etohre etorhe etoreh eoreth eoreht eorteh eorthe
eorhte eorhet eoerth eoerht eoetrh eoethr eoehtr eoehrt eoterh eotehr eotreh
eotrhe eothre eother eohetr eohert eohter eohtre eohrte eohret reheto reheot
rehteo rehtoe rehote rehoet reehto reehot reetho reetoh reeoth reeoht reteho
reteoh retheo rethoe retohe retoeh reoeth reoeht reoteh reothe reohte reohet
rheeto rheeot rheteo rhetoe rheote rheoet rheeto rheeot rheteo rhetoe rheote
rheoet rhteeo rhteoe rhteeo rhteoe rhtoee rhtoee rhoete rhoeet rhotee rhotee
rhoete rhoeet reheto reheot rehteo rehtoe rehote rehoet reehto reehot reetho
reetoh reeoth reeoht reteho reteoh retheo rethoe retohe retoeh reoeth reoeht
reoteh reothe reohte reohet rtheeo rtheoe rtheeo rtheoe rthoee rthoee rteheo
rtehoe rteeho rteeoh rteoeh rteohe rteeho rteeoh rteheo rtehoe rteohe rteoeh
rtoeeh rtoehe rtoeeh rtoehe rtohee rtohee rohete roheet rohtee rohtee rohete
roheet roehte roehet roethe roeteh roeeth roeeht rotehe roteeh rothee rothee
rotehe roteeh roeeth roeeht roeteh roethe roehte roehet eerhto eerhot eertho
eertoh eeroth eeroht eehrto eehrot eehtro eehtor eehotr eehort eethro eethor
eetrho eetroh eetorh eetohr eeohtr eeohrt eeothr eeotrh eeorth eeorht erehto
erehot eretho eretoh ereoth ereoht erheto erheot erhteo erhtoe erhote erhoet
ertheo erthoe erteho erteoh ertoeh ertohe erohte erohet erothe eroteh eroeth
eroeht ehreto ehreot ehrteo ehrtoe ehrote ehroet eherto eherot ehetro ehetor
eheotr eheort ehtero ehteor ehtreo ehtroe ehtore ehtoer ehoetr ehoert ehoter
ehotre ehorte ehoret etrheo etrhoe etreho etreoh etroeh etrohe ethreo ethroe
ethero etheor ethoer ethore etehro etehor eterho eteroh eteorh eteohr etoher
etohre etoehr etoerh etoreh etorhe eorhte eorhet eorthe eorteh eoreth eoreht
eohrte eohret eohtre eohter eohetr eohert eothre eother eotrhe eotreh eoterh
eotehr eoehtr eoehrt eoethr eoetrh eoerth eoerht tereho tereoh terheo terhoe
terohe teroeh teerho teeroh teehro teehor teeohr teeorh tehero teheor tehreo
tehroe tehore tehoer teoehr teoerh teoher teohre teorhe teoreh treeho treeoh
treheo trehoe treohe treoeh treeho treeoh treheo trehoe treohe treoeh trheeo
trheoe trheeo trheoe trhoee trhoee troehe troeeh trohee trohee troehe troeeh
tereho tereoh terheo terhoe terohe teroeh teerho teeroh teehro teehor teeohr
teeorh tehero teheor tehreo tehroe tehore tehoer teoehr teoerh teoher teohre
teorhe teoreh threeo threoe threeo threoe throee throee thereo theroe theero
theeor theoer theore theero theeor thereo theroe theore theoer thoeer thoere
thoeer thoere thoree thoree torehe toreeh torhee torhee torehe toreeh toerhe
toereh toehre toeher toeehr toeerh tohere toheer tohree tohree tohere toheer
toeehr toeerh toeher toehre toerhe toereh oereth oereht oerteh oerthe oerhte
oerhet oeerth oeerht oeetrh oeethr oeehtr oeehrt oeterh oetehr oetreh oetrhe
oethre oether oehetr oehert oehter oehtre oehrte oehret oreeth oreeht oreteh
orethe orehte orehet oreeth oreeht oreteh orethe orehte orehet orteeh ortehe
orteeh ortehe orthee orthee orhete orheet orhtee orhtee orhete orheet oereth
oereht oerteh oerthe oerhte oerhet oeerth oeerht oeetrh oeethr oeehtr oeehrt
oeterh oetehr oetreh oetrhe oethre oether oehetr oehert oehter oehtre oehrte
oehret otreeh otrehe otreeh otrehe otrhee otrhee otereh oterhe oteerh oteehr
oteher otehre oteerh oteehr otereh oterhe otehre oteher otheer othere otheer
othere othree othree ohrete ohreet ohrtee ohrtee ohrete ohreet oherte oheret
ohetre oheter oheetr oheert ohtere ohteer ohtree ohtree ohtere ohteer oheetr
oheert oheter ohetre oherte oheret

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