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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: heisel
cipher variations:
ifjtfm jgkugn khlvho limwip mjnxjq
nkoykr olpzls pmqamt qnrbnu roscov
sptdpw tqueqx urvfry vswgsz wtxhta
xuyiub yvzjvc zwakwd axblxe bycmyf
czdnzg daeoah ebfpbi fcgqcj gdhrdk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: heisel
Cipher: svrhvo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: heisel
Cipher: AABBB AABAA ABAAA BAAAB AABAA ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: heisel
cipher variations:
ifjtfmwnzdnikvpnveydfxdamlvhlwatlrtscjrljkqrhvrg
ezxfzcshnphygpdzpuuxtjxqjgkugnxoaeojlwqowfzegyeb
nmwimxbumsutdksmklrsiwshfaygadtioqizhqeaqvvyukyr
khlvhoypbfpkmxrpxgafhzfconxjnycvntvueltnlmstjxti
gbzhbeujprjairfbrwwzvlzslimwipzqcgqlnysqyhbgiagd
poykozdwouwvfmuomntukyujhcaicfvkqskbjsgcsxxawmat
mjnxjqardhrmoztrzichjbheqpzlpaexpvxwgnvpnouvlzvk
idbjdgwlrtlckthdtyybxnbunkoykrbseisnpausajdikcif
rqamqbfyqwyxhowqopvwmawljeckehxmsumdluieuzzcyocv
olpzlsctfjtoqbvtbkejldjgsrbnrcgzrxzyipxrpqwxnbxm
kfdlfiyntvnemvjfvaadzpdwpmqamtdugkuprcwuclfkmekh
tscosdhasyazjqysqrxyocynlgemgjzouwofnwkgwbbeaqex
qnrbnuevhlvqsdxvdmglnfliutdpteibtzbakrztrsyzpdzo
mhfnhkapvxpgoxlhxccfbrfyroscovfwimwrteywenhmogmj
vuequfjcuacblsaustzaqeapnigoilbqwyqhpymiyddgcsgz
sptdpwgxjnxsufzxfoinphnkwvfrvgkdvbdcmtbvtuabrfbq
ojhpjmcrxzriqznjzeehdthatqueqxhykoytvgaygpjoqiol
xwgswhlewcednucwuvbcsgcrpkiqkndsyasjraokaffieuib
urvfryizlpzuwhbzhqkprjpmyxhtximfxdfeovdxvwcdthds
qljrloetzbtksbplbggjfvjcvswgszjamqavxicairlqskqn
zyiuyjngyegfpweywxdeuietrmksmpfuacultcqmchhkgwkd
wtxhtakbnrbwyjdbjsmrtlroazjvzkohzfhgqxfzxyefvjfu
snltnqgvbdvmudrndiilhxlexuyiublcoscxzkecktnsumsp
bakwalpiagihrygayzfgwkgvtomuorhwcewnvesoejjmiymf
yvzjvcmdptdyalfdluotvntqcblxbmqjbhjiszhbzaghxlhw
upnvpsixdfxowftpfkknjzngzwakwdnequezbmgemvpuwour
dcmycnrkcikjtaicabhiymixvqowqtjyegypxguqgllokaoh
axblxeofrvfacnhfnwqvxpvsednzdosldjlkubjdbcijznjy
wrpxrukzfhzqyhvrhmmplbpibycmyfpgswgbdoigoxrwyqwt
feoaeptmekmlvckecdjkaokzxsqysvlagiarziwsinnqmcqj
czdnzgqhtxhcepjhpysxzrxugfpbfqunflnmwdlfdeklbpla
ytrztwmbhjbsajxtjoorndrkdaeoahriuyidfqkiqztyasyv
hgqcgrvogmonxemgeflmcqmbzusauxncikctbkyukppsoesl
ebfpbisjvzjegrljrauzbtzwihrdhswphnpoyfnhfgmndrnc
avtbvyodjlduclzvlqqtpftmfcgqcjtkwakfhsmksbvacuax
jiseitxqioqpzgoighnoesodbwucwzpekmevdmawmrruqgun
gdhrdkulxblgitnltcwbdvbykjtfjuyrjprqahpjhiopftpe
cxvdxaqflnfwenbxnssvrhvoheiselvmycmhjuomudxcewcz
lkugkvzskqsrbiqkijpqguqfdyweybrgmogxfocyottwsiwp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: heisel
Cipher: urvfry

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: heisel
Cipher: 325142345113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: heisel
method variations:
nkoxkqsptcpvxuyhuaczdnzf

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h e i s e l 
3 5 4 3 5 1 
2 1 2 4 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
354351212413
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: heisel
Cipher: xoebrl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: heisel
method variations:
wqmyan qmyanw myanwq
yanwqm anwqmy nwqmya

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: heisel

all 720 cipher variations:
heisel heisle heiesl heiels heiles heilse hesiel hesile heseil heseli heslei
heslie heesil heesli heeisl heeils heelis heelsi helsei helsie helesi heleis
helies helise hiesel hiesle hieesl hieels hieles hielse hiseel hisele hiseel
hisele hislee hislee hiesel hiesle hieesl hieels hieles hielse hilsee hilsee
hilese hilees hilees hilese hsieel hsiele hsieel hsiele hsilee hsilee hseiel
hseile hseeil hseeli hselei hselie hseeil hseeli hseiel hseile hselie hselei
hsleei hsleie hsleei hsleie hsliee hsliee heisel heisle heiesl heiels heiles
heilse hesiel hesile heseil heseli heslei heslie heesil heesli heeisl heeils
heelis heelsi helsei helsie helesi heleis helies helise hlisee hlisee hliese
hliees hliees hliese hlsiee hlsiee hlseie hlseei hlseei hlseie hlesie hlesei
hleise hleies hleeis hleesi hlesei hlesie hleesi hleeis hleies hleise ehisel
ehisle ehiesl ehiels ehiles ehilse ehsiel ehsile ehseil ehseli ehslei ehslie
ehesil ehesli eheisl eheils ehelis ehelsi ehlsei ehlsie ehlesi ehleis ehlies
ehlise eihsel eihsle eihesl eihels eihles eihlse eishel eishle eisehl eiselh
eisleh eislhe eieshl eieslh eiehsl eiehls eielhs eielsh eilseh eilshe eilesh
eilehs eilhes eilhse esihel esihle esiehl esielh esileh esilhe eshiel eshile
esheil esheli eshlei eshlie esehil esehli eseihl eseilh eselih eselhi eslhei
eslhie eslehi esleih eslieh eslihe eeishl eeislh eeihsl eeihls eeilhs eeilsh
eesihl eesilh eeshil eeshli eeslhi eeslih eehsil eehsli eehisl eehils eehlis
eehlsi eelshi eelsih eelhsi eelhis eelihs eelish eliseh elishe eliesh eliehs
elihes elihse elsieh elsihe elseih elsehi elshei elshie elesih eleshi eleish
eleihs elehis elehsi elhsei elhsie elhesi elheis elhies elhise iehsel iehsle
iehesl iehels iehles iehlse ieshel ieshle iesehl ieselh iesleh ieslhe ieeshl
ieeslh ieehsl ieehls ieelhs ieelsh ielseh ielshe ielesh ielehs ielhes ielhse
ihesel ihesle iheesl iheels iheles ihelse ihseel ihsele ihseel ihsele ihslee
ihslee ihesel ihesle iheesl iheels iheles ihelse ihlsee ihlsee ihlese ihlees
ihlees ihlese isheel ishele isheel ishele ishlee ishlee isehel isehle iseehl
iseelh iseleh iselhe iseehl iseelh isehel isehle iselhe iseleh isleeh islehe
isleeh islehe islhee islhee iehsel iehsle iehesl iehels iehles iehlse ieshel
ieshle iesehl ieselh iesleh ieslhe ieeshl ieeslh ieehsl ieehls ieelhs ieelsh
ielseh ielshe ielesh ielehs ielhes ielhse ilhsee ilhsee ilhese ilhees ilhees
ilhese ilshee ilshee ilsehe ilseeh ilseeh ilsehe ileshe ileseh ilehse ilehes
ileehs ileesh ileseh ileshe ileesh ileehs ilehes ilehse seihel seihle seiehl
seielh seileh seilhe sehiel sehile seheil seheli sehlei sehlie seehil seehli
seeihl seeilh seelih seelhi selhei selhie selehi seleih selieh selihe siehel
siehle sieehl sieelh sieleh sielhe siheel sihele siheel sihele sihlee sihlee
siehel siehle sieehl sieelh sieleh sielhe silhee silhee silehe sileeh sileeh
silehe shieel shiele shieel shiele shilee shilee sheiel sheile sheeil sheeli
shelei shelie sheeil sheeli sheiel sheile shelie shelei shleei shleie shleei
shleie shliee shliee seihel seihle seiehl seielh seileh seilhe sehiel sehile
seheil seheli sehlei sehlie seehil seehli seeihl seeilh seelih seelhi selhei
selhie selehi seleih selieh selihe slihee slihee sliehe slieeh slieeh sliehe
slhiee slhiee slheie slheei slheei slheie slehie slehei sleihe sleieh sleeih
sleehi slehei slehie sleehi sleeih sleieh sleihe eeishl eeislh eeihsl eeihls
eeilhs eeilsh eesihl eesilh eeshil eeshli eeslhi eeslih eehsil eehsli eehisl
eehils eehlis eehlsi eelshi eelsih eelhsi eelhis eelihs eelish eieshl eieslh
eiehsl eiehls eielhs eielsh eisehl eiselh eishel eishle eislhe eisleh eihsel
eihsle eihesl eihels eihles eihlse eilshe eilseh eilhse eilhes eilehs eilesh
esiehl esielh esihel esihle esilhe esileh eseihl eseilh esehil esehli eselhi
eselih esheil esheli eshiel eshile eshlie eshlei eslehi esleih eslhei eslhie
eslihe eslieh ehisel ehisle ehiesl ehiels ehiles ehilse ehsiel ehsile ehseil
ehseli ehslei ehslie ehesil ehesli eheisl eheils ehelis ehelsi ehlsei ehlsie
ehlesi ehleis ehlies ehlise elishe eliseh elihse elihes eliehs eliesh elsihe
elsieh elshie elshei elsehi elseih elhsie elhsei elhise elhies elheis elhesi
eleshi elesih elehsi elehis eleihs eleish leiseh leishe leiesh leiehs leihes
leihse lesieh lesihe leseih lesehi leshei leshie leesih leeshi leeish leeihs
leehis leehsi lehsei lehsie lehesi leheis lehies lehise lieseh lieshe lieesh
lieehs liehes liehse liseeh lisehe liseeh lisehe lishee lishee lieseh lieshe
lieesh lieehs liehes liehse lihsee lihsee lihese lihees lihees lihese lsieeh
lsiehe lsieeh lsiehe lsihee lsihee lseieh lseihe lseeih lseehi lsehei lsehie
lseeih lseehi lseieh lseihe lsehie lsehei lsheei lsheie lsheei lsheie lshiee
lshiee leiseh leishe leiesh leiehs leihes leihse lesieh lesihe leseih lesehi
leshei leshie leesih leeshi leeish leeihs leehis leehsi lehsei lehsie lehesi
leheis lehies lehise lhisee lhisee lhiese lhiees lhiees lhiese lhsiee lhsiee
lhseie lhseei lhseei lhseie lhesie lhesei lheise lheies lheeis lheesi lhesei
lhesie lheesi lheeis lheies lheise

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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