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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hazels
cipher variations:
ibafmt jcbgnu kdchov ledipw mfejqx
ngfkry ohglsz pihmta qjinub rkjovc
slkpwd tmlqxe unmryf vonszg wpotah
xqpubi yrqvcj zsrwdk atsxel butyfm
cvuzgn dwvaho exwbip fyxcjq gzydkr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hazels
Cipher: szavoh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hazels

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hazels
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hazels
Cipher: unmryf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hazels
Cipher: 321155511334

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hazels
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h a z e l s 
3 1 5 5 1 3 
2 1 5 1 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hazels
Cipher: czlbes

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Method #3

Plaintext: hazels
method variations:
bvzano vzanob zanobv
anobvz nobvza obvzan

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hazels

all 720 cipher variations:
hazels hazesl hazles hazlse hazsle hazsel haezls haezsl haelzs haelsz haeslz
haeszl halezs halesz halzes halzse halsze halsez haselz hasezl haslez haslze
haszle haszel hzaels hzaesl hzales hzalse hzasle hzasel hzeals hzeasl hzelas
hzelsa hzesla hzesal hzleas hzlesa hzlaes hzlase hzlsae hzlsea hzsela hzseal
hzslea hzslae hzsale hzsael hezals hezasl hezlas hezlsa hezsla hezsal heazls
heazsl healzs healsz heaslz heaszl helazs helasz helzas helzsa helsza helsaz
hesalz hesazl heslaz heslza heszla heszal hlzeas hlzesa hlzaes hlzase hlzsae
hlzsea hlezas hlezsa hleazs hleasz hlesaz hlesza hlaezs hlaesz hlazes hlazse
hlasze hlasez hlseaz hlseza hlsaez hlsaze hlszae hlszea hszela hszeal hszlea
hszlae hszale hszael hsezla hsezal hselza hselaz hsealz hseazl hsleza hsleaz
hslzea hslzae hslaze hslaez hsaelz hsaezl hsalez hsalze hsazle hsazel ahzels
ahzesl ahzles ahzlse ahzsle ahzsel ahezls ahezsl ahelzs ahelsz aheslz aheszl
ahlezs ahlesz ahlzes ahlzse ahlsze ahlsez ahselz ahsezl ahslez ahslze ahszle
ahszel azhels azhesl azhles azhlse azhsle azhsel azehls azehsl azelhs azelsh
azeslh azeshl azlehs azlesh azlhes azlhse azlshe azlseh azselh azsehl azsleh
azslhe azshle azshel aezhls aezhsl aezlhs aezlsh aezslh aezshl aehzls aehzsl
aehlzs aehlsz aehslz aehszl aelhzs aelhsz aelzhs aelzsh aelszh aelshz aeshlz
aeshzl aeslhz aeslzh aeszlh aeszhl alzehs alzesh alzhes alzhse alzshe alzseh
alezhs alezsh alehzs alehsz aleshz aleszh alhezs alhesz alhzes alhzse alhsze
alhsez alsehz alsezh alshez alshze alszhe alszeh aszelh aszehl aszleh aszlhe
aszhle aszhel asezlh asezhl aselzh aselhz asehlz asehzl aslezh aslehz aslzeh
aslzhe aslhze aslhez ashelz ashezl ashlez ashlze ashzle ashzel zahels zahesl
zahles zahlse zahsle zahsel zaehls zaehsl zaelhs zaelsh zaeslh zaeshl zalehs
zalesh zalhes zalhse zalshe zalseh zaselh zasehl zasleh zaslhe zashle zashel
zhaels zhaesl zhales zhalse zhasle zhasel zheals zheasl zhelas zhelsa zhesla
zhesal zhleas zhlesa zhlaes zhlase zhlsae zhlsea zhsela zhseal zhslea zhslae
zhsale zhsael zehals zehasl zehlas zehlsa zehsla zehsal zeahls zeahsl zealhs
zealsh zeaslh zeashl zelahs zelash zelhas zelhsa zelsha zelsah zesalh zesahl
zeslah zeslha zeshla zeshal zlheas zlhesa zlhaes zlhase zlhsae zlhsea zlehas
zlehsa zleahs zleash zlesah zlesha zlaehs zlaesh zlahes zlahse zlashe zlaseh
zlseah zlseha zlsaeh zlsahe zlshae zlshea zshela zsheal zshlea zshlae zshale
zshael zsehla zsehal zselha zselah zsealh zseahl zsleha zsleah zslhea zslhae
zslahe zslaeh zsaelh zsaehl zsaleh zsalhe zsahle zsahel eazhls eazhsl eazlhs
eazlsh eazslh eazshl eahzls eahzsl eahlzs eahlsz eahslz eahszl ealhzs ealhsz
ealzhs ealzsh ealszh ealshz eashlz eashzl easlhz easlzh easzlh easzhl ezahls
ezahsl ezalhs ezalsh ezaslh ezashl ezhals ezhasl ezhlas ezhlsa ezhsla ezhsal
ezlhas ezlhsa ezlahs ezlash ezlsah ezlsha ezshla ezshal ezslha ezslah ezsalh
ezsahl ehzals ehzasl ehzlas ehzlsa ehzsla ehzsal ehazls ehazsl ehalzs ehalsz
ehaslz ehaszl ehlazs ehlasz ehlzas ehlzsa ehlsza ehlsaz ehsalz ehsazl ehslaz
ehslza ehszla ehszal elzhas elzhsa elzahs elzash elzsah elzsha elhzas elhzsa
elhazs elhasz elhsaz elhsza elahzs elahsz elazhs elazsh elaszh elashz elshaz
elshza elsahz elsazh elszah elszha eszhla eszhal eszlha eszlah eszalh eszahl
eshzla eshzal eshlza eshlaz eshalz eshazl eslhza eslhaz eslzha eslzah eslazh
eslahz esahlz esahzl esalhz esalzh esazlh esazhl lazehs lazesh lazhes lazhse
lazshe lazseh laezhs laezsh laehzs laehsz laeshz laeszh lahezs lahesz lahzes
lahzse lahsze lahsez lasehz lasezh lashez lashze laszhe laszeh lzaehs lzaesh
lzahes lzahse lzashe lzaseh lzeahs lzeash lzehas lzehsa lzesha lzesah lzheas
lzhesa lzhaes lzhase lzhsae lzhsea lzseha lzseah lzshea lzshae lzsahe lzsaeh
lezahs lezash lezhas lezhsa lezsha lezsah leazhs leazsh leahzs leahsz leashz
leaszh lehazs lehasz lehzas lehzsa lehsza lehsaz lesahz lesazh leshaz leshza
leszha leszah lhzeas lhzesa lhzaes lhzase lhzsae lhzsea lhezas lhezsa lheazs
lheasz lhesaz lhesza lhaezs lhaesz lhazes lhazse lhasze lhasez lhseaz lhseza
lhsaez lhsaze lhszae lhszea lszeha lszeah lszhea lszhae lszahe lszaeh lsezha
lsezah lsehza lsehaz lseahz lseazh lsheza lsheaz lshzea lshzae lshaze lshaez
lsaehz lsaezh lsahez lsahze lsazhe lsazeh sazelh sazehl sazleh sazlhe sazhle
sazhel saezlh saezhl saelzh saelhz saehlz saehzl salezh salehz salzeh salzhe
salhze salhez sahelz sahezl sahlez sahlze sahzle sahzel szaelh szaehl szaleh
szalhe szahle szahel szealh szeahl szelah szelha szehla szehal szleah szleha
szlaeh szlahe szlhae szlhea szhela szheal szhlea szhlae szhale szhael sezalh
sezahl sezlah sezlha sezhla sezhal seazlh seazhl sealzh sealhz seahlz seahzl
selazh selahz selzah selzha selhza selhaz sehalz sehazl sehlaz sehlza sehzla
sehzal slzeah slzeha slzaeh slzahe slzhae slzhea slezah slezha sleazh sleahz
slehaz slehza slaezh slaehz slazeh slazhe slahze slahez slheaz slheza slhaez
slhaze slhzae slhzea shzela shzeal shzlea shzlae shzale shzael shezla shezal
shelza shelaz shealz sheazl shleza shleaz shlzea shlzae shlaze shlaez shaelz
shaezl shalez shalze shazle shazel

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History of cryptography
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