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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hafler
cipher variations:
ibgmfs jchngt kdiohu lejpiv mfkqjw
nglrkx ohmsly pintmz qjouna rkpvob
slqwpc tmrxqd unsyre votzsf wpuatg
xqvbuh yrwcvi zsxdwj atyexk buzfyl
cvagzm dwbhan excibo fydjcp gzekdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hafler
Cipher: szuovi

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hafler
Cipher: AABBB AAAAA AABAB ABABA AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hafler
cipher variations:
ibgmfswbqinakbaeviybkadqmbuwlyabestgcbykjwqbigre
ebsczmsbcyhugbmupcubwqxkjchngtxcrjoblcbfwjzclber
ncvxmzbcftuhdczlkxrcjhsffctdantcdzivhcnvqdvcxryl
kdiohuydskpcmdcgxkadmcfsodwynacdguviedamlysdkitg
gdueboudeajwidowrewdyszmlejpivzetlqdnedhylbendgt
pexzobdehvwjfebnmzteljuhhevfcpvefbkxjepxsfxeztan
mfkqjwafumreofeizmcfoehuqfyapcefiwxkgfconaufmkvi
ifwgdqwfgclykfqytgyfaubonglrkxbgvnsfpgfjandgpfiv
rgzbqdfgjxylhgdpobvgnlwjjgxherxghdmzlgrzuhzgbvcp
ohmslychwotgqhgkboehqgjwshacreghkyzmiheqpcwhomxk
khyifsyhienamhsaviahcwdqpintmzdixpuhrihlcpfirhkx
tibdsfhilzanjifrqdxipnyllizjgtzijfobnitbwjbidxer
qjounaejyqvisjimdqgjsilyujcetgijmabokjgsreyjqozm
mjakhuajkgpcojucxkcjeyfsrkpvobfkzrwjtkjnerhktjmz
vkdfuhjknbcplkhtsfzkrpannkblivbklhqdpkvdyldkfzgt
slqwpcglasxkulkofsiluknawlegviklocdqmliutgalsqbo
olcmjwclmireqlwezmelgahutmrxqdhmbtylvmlpgtjmvlob
xmfhwjlmpdernmjvuhbmtrcppmdnkxdmnjsfrmxfanfmhbiv
unsyreincuzmwnmqhuknwmpcyngixkmnqefsonkwvicnusdq
qneolyenoktgsnygbognicjwvotzsfjodvanxonrivloxnqd
zohjylnorfgtpolxwjdovterrofpmzfopluhtozhcphojdkx
wpuatgkpewboyposjwmpyoreapikzmopsghuqpmyxkepwufs
spgqnagpqmviupaidqipkelyxqvbuhlqfxcpzqptkxnqzpsf
bqjlanpqthivrqnzylfqxvgttqhrobhqrnwjvqbjerjqlfmz
yrwcvimrgydqarqulyoraqtgcrkmboqruijwsroazmgrywhu
urispcirsoxkwrckfskrmgnazsxdwjnshzerbsrvmzpsbruh
dslncprsvjkxtspbanhszxivvsjtqdjstpylxsdlgtlsnhob
atyexkotiafsctswnaqtcsvietmodqstwklyutqcboitayjw
wtkurektuqzmytemhumtoipcbuzfylpujbgtdutxobrudtwj
funpertuxlmzvurdcpjubzkxxulvsfluvranzufnivnupjqd
cvagzmqvkchuevuypcsveuxkgvoqfsuvymnawvsedqkvcaly
yvmwtgmvwsboavgojwovqkredwbhanrwldivfwvzqdtwfvyl
hwprgtvwznobxwtferlwdbmzzwnxuhnwxtcpbwhpkxpwrlsf
excibosxmejwgxwareuxgwzmixqshuwxaopcyxugfsmxecna
axoyvioxyudqcxiqlyqxsmtgfydjcptynfkxhyxbsfvyhxan
jyrtivxybpqdzyvhgtnyfdobbypzwjpyzverdyjrmzrytnuh
gzekdquzoglyizyctgwziybokzsujwyzcqreazwihuozgepc
czqaxkqzawfsezksnaszuovihaflervaphmzjazduhxajzcp
latvkxzadrsfbaxjivpahfqddarbylrabxgtfaltobtavpwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hafler
Cipher: unsyre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hafler
Cipher: 321112135124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hafler
method variations:
nflqkwslqvpbxqvaugcvafzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h a f l e r 
3 1 1 1 5 2 
2 1 2 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
311152212314
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hafler
Cipher: cakbmq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hafler
method variations:
babxfo abxfob bxfoba
xfobab fobabx obabxf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hafler

all 720 cipher variations:
hafler haflre hafelr haferl hafrel hafrle halfer halfre halefr halerf halref
halrfe haelfr haelrf haeflr haefrl haerfl haerlf harlef harlfe harelf harefl
harfel harfle hfaler hfalre hfaelr hfaerl hfarel hfarle hflaer hflare hflear
hflera hflrea hflrae hfelar hfelra hfealr hfearl hferal hferla hfrlea hfrlae
hfrela hfreal hfrael hfrale hlfaer hlfare hlfear hlfera hlfrea hlfrae hlafer
hlafre hlaefr hlaerf hlaref hlarfe hleafr hlearf hlefar hlefra hlerfa hleraf
hlraef hlrafe hlreaf hlrefa hlrfea hlrfae heflar heflra hefalr hefarl hefral
hefrla helfar helfra helafr helarf helraf helrfa healfr healrf heaflr heafrl
hearfl hearlf herlaf herlfa heralf herafl herfal herfla hrflea hrflae hrfela
hrfeal hrfael hrfale hrlfea hrlfae hrlefa hrleaf hrlaef hrlafe hrelfa hrelaf
hrefla hrefal hreafl hrealf hralef hralfe hraelf hraefl hrafel hrafle ahfler
ahflre ahfelr ahferl ahfrel ahfrle ahlfer ahlfre ahlefr ahlerf ahlref ahlrfe
ahelfr ahelrf aheflr ahefrl aherfl aherlf ahrlef ahrlfe ahrelf ahrefl ahrfel
ahrfle afhler afhlre afhelr afherl afhrel afhrle aflher aflhre aflehr aflerh
aflreh aflrhe afelhr afelrh afehlr afehrl aferhl aferlh afrleh afrlhe afrelh
afrehl afrhel afrhle alfher alfhre alfehr alferh alfreh alfrhe alhfer alhfre
alhefr alherf alhref alhrfe alehfr alehrf alefhr alefrh alerfh alerhf alrhef
alrhfe alrehf alrefh alrfeh alrfhe aeflhr aeflrh aefhlr aefhrl aefrhl aefrlh
aelfhr aelfrh aelhfr aelhrf aelrhf aelrfh aehlfr aehlrf aehflr aehfrl aehrfl
aehrlf aerlhf aerlfh aerhlf aerhfl aerfhl aerflh arfleh arflhe arfelh arfehl
arfhel arfhle arlfeh arlfhe arlefh arlehf arlhef arlhfe arelfh arelhf areflh
arefhl arehfl arehlf arhlef arhlfe arhelf arhefl arhfel arhfle fahler fahlre
fahelr faherl fahrel fahrle falher falhre falehr falerh falreh falrhe faelhr
faelrh faehlr faehrl faerhl faerlh farleh farlhe farelh farehl farhel farhle
fhaler fhalre fhaelr fhaerl fharel fharle fhlaer fhlare fhlear fhlera fhlrea
fhlrae fhelar fhelra fhealr fhearl fheral fherla fhrlea fhrlae fhrela fhreal
fhrael fhrale flhaer flhare flhear flhera flhrea flhrae flaher flahre flaehr
flaerh flareh flarhe fleahr flearh flehar flehra flerha flerah flraeh flrahe
flreah flreha flrhea flrhae fehlar fehlra fehalr feharl fehral fehrla felhar
felhra felahr felarh felrah felrha fealhr fealrh feahlr feahrl fearhl fearlh
ferlah ferlha feralh ferahl ferhal ferhla frhlea frhlae frhela frheal frhael
frhale frlhea frlhae frleha frleah frlaeh frlahe frelha frelah frehla frehal
freahl frealh fraleh fralhe fraelh fraehl frahel frahle lafher lafhre lafehr
laferh lafreh lafrhe lahfer lahfre lahefr laherf lahref lahrfe laehfr laehrf
laefhr laefrh laerfh laerhf larhef larhfe larehf larefh larfeh larfhe lfaher
lfahre lfaehr lfaerh lfareh lfarhe lfhaer lfhare lfhear lfhera lfhrea lfhrae
lfehar lfehra lfeahr lfearh lferah lferha lfrhea lfrhae lfreha lfreah lfraeh
lfrahe lhfaer lhfare lhfear lhfera lhfrea lhfrae lhafer lhafre lhaefr lhaerf
lharef lharfe lheafr lhearf lhefar lhefra lherfa lheraf lhraef lhrafe lhreaf
lhrefa lhrfea lhrfae lefhar lefhra lefahr lefarh lefrah lefrha lehfar lehfra
lehafr leharf lehraf lehrfa leahfr leahrf leafhr leafrh learfh learhf lerhaf
lerhfa lerahf lerafh lerfah lerfha lrfhea lrfhae lrfeha lrfeah lrfaeh lrfahe
lrhfea lrhfae lrhefa lrheaf lrhaef lrhafe lrehfa lrehaf lrefha lrefah lreafh
lreahf lrahef lrahfe lraehf lraefh lrafeh lrafhe eaflhr eaflrh eafhlr eafhrl
eafrhl eafrlh ealfhr ealfrh ealhfr ealhrf ealrhf ealrfh eahlfr eahlrf eahflr
eahfrl eahrfl eahrlf earlhf earlfh earhlf earhfl earfhl earflh efalhr efalrh
efahlr efahrl efarhl efarlh eflahr eflarh eflhar eflhra eflrha eflrah efhlar
efhlra efhalr efharl efhral efhrla efrlha efrlah efrhla efrhal efrahl efralh
elfahr elfarh elfhar elfhra elfrha elfrah elafhr elafrh elahfr elahrf elarhf
elarfh elhafr elharf elhfar elhfra elhrfa elhraf elrahf elrafh elrhaf elrhfa
elrfha elrfah ehflar ehflra ehfalr ehfarl ehfral ehfrla ehlfar ehlfra ehlafr
ehlarf ehlraf ehlrfa ehalfr ehalrf ehaflr ehafrl eharfl eharlf ehrlaf ehrlfa
ehralf ehrafl ehrfal ehrfla erflha erflah erfhla erfhal erfahl erfalh erlfha
erlfah erlhfa erlhaf erlahf erlafh erhlfa erhlaf erhfla erhfal erhafl erhalf
eralhf eralfh erahlf erahfl erafhl eraflh rafleh raflhe rafelh rafehl rafhel
rafhle ralfeh ralfhe ralefh ralehf ralhef ralhfe raelfh raelhf raeflh raefhl
raehfl raehlf rahlef rahlfe rahelf rahefl rahfel rahfle rfaleh rfalhe rfaelh
rfaehl rfahel rfahle rflaeh rflahe rfleah rfleha rflhea rflhae rfelah rfelha
rfealh rfeahl rfehal rfehla rfhlea rfhlae rfhela rfheal rfhael rfhale rlfaeh
rlfahe rlfeah rlfeha rlfhea rlfhae rlafeh rlafhe rlaefh rlaehf rlahef rlahfe
rleafh rleahf rlefah rlefha rlehfa rlehaf rlhaef rlhafe rlheaf rlhefa rlhfea
rlhfae reflah reflha refalh refahl refhal refhla relfah relfha relafh relahf
relhaf relhfa realfh realhf reaflh reafhl reahfl reahlf rehlaf rehlfa rehalf
rehafl rehfal rehfla rhflea rhflae rhfela rhfeal rhfael rhfale rhlfea rhlfae
rhlefa rhleaf rhlaef rhlafe rhelfa rhelaf rhefla rhefal rheafl rhealf rhalef
rhalfe rhaelf rhaefl rhafel rhafle

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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