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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hafidh
cipher variations:
ibgjei jchkfj kdilgk lejmhl mfknim
nglojn ohmpko pinqlp qjormq rkpsnr
slqtos tmrupt unsvqu votwrv wpuxsw
xqvytx yrwzuy zsxavz atybwa buzcxb
cvadyc dwbezd excfae fydgbf gzehcg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hafidh
Cipher: szurws

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hafidh
Cipher: AABBB AAAAA AABAB ABAAA AAABB AABBB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hafidh
cipher variations:
ibgjeiwbqzkwkbapqkybkfwymbuvcmabeliacbyrucqbihaq
ebsxgesbcnmsgbmdsgubwtyujchkfjxcralxlcbqrlzclgxz
ncvwdnbcfmjbdczsvdrcjibrfctyhftcdonthcnethvcxuzv
kdilgkydsbmymdcrsmadmhyaodwxeocdgnkcedatwesdkjcs
gduzigudepouidofuiwdyvawlejmhlzetcnznedstnbenizb
pexyfpdeholdfebuxftelkdthevajhvefqpvjepgvjxezwbx
mfknimafudoaofetuocfojacqfyzgqefipmegfcvygufmleu
ifwbkiwfgrqwkfqhwkyfaxcynglojnbgvepbpgfuvpdgpkbd
rgzahrfgjqnfhgdwzhvgnmfvjgxcljxghsrxlgrixlzgbydz
ohmpkochwfqcqhgvwqehqlceshabisghkrogihexaiwhongw
khydmkyhitsymhsjymahczeapinqlpdixgrdrihwxrfirmdf
tibcjthilsphjifybjxipohxlizenlzijutznitkznbidafb
qjormqejyhsesjixysgjsnegujcdkuijmtqikjgzckyjqpiy
mjafomajkvuaojulaocjebgcrkpsnrfkzitftkjyzthktofh
vkdelvjknurjlkhadlzkrqjznkbgpnbklwvbpkvmbpdkfchd
slqtosglajugulkzauilupgiwlefmwklovskmlibemalsrka
olchqoclmxwcqlwncqelgdietmrupthmbkvhvmlabvjmvqhj
xmfgnxlmpwtlnmjcfnbmtslbpmdirpdmnyxdrmxodrfmhejf
unsvquinclwiwnmbcwknwrikynghoymnqxumonkdgocnutmc
qnejsqenozyesnypesgnifkgvotwrvjodmxjxoncdxloxsjl
zohipznoryvnpolehpdovundrofktrfopazftozqfthojglh
wpuxswkpenykypodeympytkmapijqaopszwoqpmfiqepwvoe
spglusgpqbaguparguipkhmixqvytxlqfozlzqpefznqzuln
bqjkrbpqtaxprqngjrfqxwpftqhmvthqrcbhvqbshvjqlinj
yrwzuymrgpamarqfgaoravmocrklscqrubyqsrohksgryxqg
urinwuirsdciwrctiwkrmjokzsxavznshqbnbsrghbpsbwnp
dslmtdrsvczrtspilthszyrhvsjoxvjstedjxsdujxlsnkpl
atybwaotircoctshicqtcxoqetmnuestwdasutqjmuitazsi
wtkpywktufekytevkymtolqmbuzcxbpujsdpdutijdrudypr
funovftuxebtvurknvjubatjxulqzxluvgflzufwlznupmrn
cvadycqvkteqevujkesvezqsgvopwguvyfcuwvslowkvcbuk
yvmraymvwhgmavgxmaovqnsodwbezdrwlufrfwvklftwfart
hwpqxhvwzgdvxwtmpxlwdcvlzwnsbznwxihnbwhynbpwrotp
excfaesxmvgsgxwlmguxgbsuixqryiwxahewyxunqymxedwm
axotcaoxyjiocxizocqxspuqfydgbftynwhthyxmnhvyhctv
jyrszjxybifxzyvorznyfexnbypudbpyzkjpdyjapdrytqvr
gzehcguzoxiuizynoiwziduwkzstakyzcjgyazwpsaozgfyo
czqvecqzalkqezkbqeszurwshafidhvapyjvjazopjxajevx
latublzadkhzbaxqtbpahgzpdarwfdrabmlrfalcrftavsxt

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hafidh
Cipher: unsvqu

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hafidh
Cipher: 321112424132

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hafidh
method variations:
nfloinslqtosxqvytxcvadyc

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h a f i d h 
3 1 1 4 4 3 
2 1 2 2 1 2 
They are then read out in rows:
311443212212
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hafidh
Cipher: cqobgf

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hafidh
method variations:
barrlm arrlmb rrlmba
rlmbar lmbarr mbarrl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hafidh

all 720 cipher variations:
hafidh hafihd hafdih hafdhi hafhdi hafhid haifdh haifhd haidfh haidhf haihdf
haihfd hadifh hadihf hadfih hadfhi hadhfi hadhif hahidf hahifd hahdif hahdfi
hahfdi hahfid hfaidh hfaihd hfadih hfadhi hfahdi hfahid hfiadh hfiahd hfidah
hfidha hfihda hfihad hfdiah hfdiha hfdaih hfdahi hfdhai hfdhia hfhida hfhiad
hfhdia hfhdai hfhadi hfhaid hifadh hifahd hifdah hifdha hifhda hifhad hiafdh
hiafhd hiadfh hiadhf hiahdf hiahfd hidafh hidahf hidfah hidfha hidhfa hidhaf
hihadf hihafd hihdaf hihdfa hihfda hihfad hdfiah hdfiha hdfaih hdfahi hdfhai
hdfhia hdifah hdifha hdiafh hdiahf hdihaf hdihfa hdaifh hdaihf hdafih hdafhi
hdahfi hdahif hdhiaf hdhifa hdhaif hdhafi hdhfai hdhfia hhfida hhfiad hhfdia
hhfdai hhfadi hhfaid hhifda hhifad hhidfa hhidaf hhiadf hhiafd hhdifa hhdiaf
hhdfia hhdfai hhdafi hhdaif hhaidf hhaifd hhadif hhadfi hhafdi hhafid ahfidh
ahfihd ahfdih ahfdhi ahfhdi ahfhid ahifdh ahifhd ahidfh ahidhf ahihdf ahihfd
ahdifh ahdihf ahdfih ahdfhi ahdhfi ahdhif ahhidf ahhifd ahhdif ahhdfi ahhfdi
ahhfid afhidh afhihd afhdih afhdhi afhhdi afhhid afihdh afihhd afidhh afidhh
afihdh afihhd afdihh afdihh afdhih afdhhi afdhhi afdhih afhidh afhihd afhdih
afhdhi afhhdi afhhid aifhdh aifhhd aifdhh aifdhh aifhdh aifhhd aihfdh aihfhd
aihdfh aihdhf aihhdf aihhfd aidhfh aidhhf aidfhh aidfhh aidhfh aidhhf aihhdf
aihhfd aihdhf aihdfh aihfdh aihfhd adfihh adfihh adfhih adfhhi adfhhi adfhih
adifhh adifhh adihfh adihhf adihhf adihfh adhifh adhihf adhfih adhfhi adhhfi
adhhif adhihf adhifh adhhif adhhfi adhfhi adhfih ahfidh ahfihd ahfdih ahfdhi
ahfhdi ahfhid ahifdh ahifhd ahidfh ahidhf ahihdf ahihfd ahdifh ahdihf ahdfih
ahdfhi ahdhfi ahdhif ahhidf ahhifd ahhdif ahhdfi ahhfdi ahhfid fahidh fahihd
fahdih fahdhi fahhdi fahhid faihdh faihhd faidhh faidhh faihdh faihhd fadihh
fadihh fadhih fadhhi fadhhi fadhih fahidh fahihd fahdih fahdhi fahhdi fahhid
fhaidh fhaihd fhadih fhadhi fhahdi fhahid fhiadh fhiahd fhidah fhidha fhihda
fhihad fhdiah fhdiha fhdaih fhdahi fhdhai fhdhia fhhida fhhiad fhhdia fhhdai
fhhadi fhhaid fihadh fihahd fihdah fihdha fihhda fihhad fiahdh fiahhd fiadhh
fiadhh fiahdh fiahhd fidahh fidahh fidhah fidhha fidhha fidhah fihadh fihahd
fihdah fihdha fihhda fihhad fdhiah fdhiha fdhaih fdhahi fdhhai fdhhia fdihah
fdihha fdiahh fdiahh fdihah fdihha fdaihh fdaihh fdahih fdahhi fdahhi fdahih
fdhiah fdhiha fdhaih fdhahi fdhhai fdhhia fhhida fhhiad fhhdia fhhdai fhhadi
fhhaid fhihda fhihad fhidha fhidah fhiadh fhiahd fhdiha fhdiah fhdhia fhdhai
fhdahi fhdaih fhaidh fhaihd fhadih fhadhi fhahdi fhahid iafhdh iafhhd iafdhh
iafdhh iafhdh iafhhd iahfdh iahfhd iahdfh iahdhf iahhdf iahhfd iadhfh iadhhf
iadfhh iadfhh iadhfh iadhhf iahhdf iahhfd iahdhf iahdfh iahfdh iahfhd ifahdh
ifahhd ifadhh ifadhh ifahdh ifahhd ifhadh ifhahd ifhdah ifhdha ifhhda ifhhad
ifdhah ifdhha ifdahh ifdahh ifdhah ifdhha ifhhda ifhhad ifhdha ifhdah ifhadh
ifhahd ihfadh ihfahd ihfdah ihfdha ihfhda ihfhad ihafdh ihafhd ihadfh ihadhf
ihahdf ihahfd ihdafh ihdahf ihdfah ihdfha ihdhfa ihdhaf ihhadf ihhafd ihhdaf
ihhdfa ihhfda ihhfad idfhah idfhha idfahh idfahh idfhah idfhha idhfah idhfha
idhafh idhahf idhhaf idhhfa idahfh idahhf idafhh idafhh idahfh idahhf idhhaf
idhhfa idhahf idhafh idhfah idhfha ihfhda ihfhad ihfdha ihfdah ihfadh ihfahd
ihhfda ihhfad ihhdfa ihhdaf ihhadf ihhafd ihdhfa ihdhaf ihdfha ihdfah ihdafh
ihdahf ihahdf ihahfd ihadhf ihadfh ihafdh ihafhd dafihh dafihh dafhih dafhhi
dafhhi dafhih daifhh daifhh daihfh daihhf daihhf daihfh dahifh dahihf dahfih
dahfhi dahhfi dahhif dahihf dahifh dahhif dahhfi dahfhi dahfih dfaihh dfaihh
dfahih dfahhi dfahhi dfahih dfiahh dfiahh dfihah dfihha dfihha dfihah dfhiah
dfhiha dfhaih dfhahi dfhhai dfhhia dfhiha dfhiah dfhhia dfhhai dfhahi dfhaih
difahh difahh difhah difhha difhha difhah diafhh diafhh diahfh diahhf diahhf
diahfh dihafh dihahf dihfah dihfha dihhfa dihhaf dihahf dihafh dihhaf dihhfa
dihfha dihfah dhfiah dhfiha dhfaih dhfahi dhfhai dhfhia dhifah dhifha dhiafh
dhiahf dhihaf dhihfa dhaifh dhaihf dhafih dhafhi dhahfi dhahif dhhiaf dhhifa
dhhaif dhhafi dhhfai dhhfia dhfiha dhfiah dhfhia dhfhai dhfahi dhfaih dhifha
dhifah dhihfa dhihaf dhiahf dhiafh dhhifa dhhiaf dhhfia dhhfai dhhafi dhhaif
dhaihf dhaifh dhahif dhahfi dhafhi dhafih hafidh hafihd hafdih hafdhi hafhdi
hafhid haifdh haifhd haidfh haidhf haihdf haihfd hadifh hadihf hadfih hadfhi
hadhfi hadhif hahidf hahifd hahdif hahdfi hahfdi hahfid hfaidh hfaihd hfadih
hfadhi hfahdi hfahid hfiadh hfiahd hfidah hfidha hfihda hfihad hfdiah hfdiha
hfdaih hfdahi hfdhai hfdhia hfhida hfhiad hfhdia hfhdai hfhadi hfhaid hifadh
hifahd hifdah hifdha hifhda hifhad hiafdh hiafhd hiadfh hiadhf hiahdf hiahfd
hidafh hidahf hidfah hidfha hidhfa hidhaf hihadf hihafd hihdaf hihdfa hihfda
hihfad hdfiah hdfiha hdfaih hdfahi hdfhai hdfhia hdifah hdifha hdiafh hdiahf
hdihaf hdihfa hdaifh hdaihf hdafih hdafhi hdahfi hdahif hdhiaf hdhifa hdhaif
hdhafi hdhfai hdhfia hhfida hhfiad hhfdia hhfdai hhfadi hhfaid hhifda hhifad
hhidfa hhidaf hhiadf hhiafd hhdifa hhdiaf hhdfia hhdfai hhdafi hhdaif hhaidf
hhaifd hhadif hhadfi hhafdi hhafid

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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