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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: grigny
cipher variations:
hsjhoz itkipa juljqb kvmkrc lwnlsd
mxomte nypnuf ozqovg parpwh qbsqxi
rctryj sduszk tevtal ufwubm vgxvcn
whywdo xizxep yjayfq zkbzgr alcahs
bmdbit cnecju dofdkv epgelw fqhfmx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: grigny
Cipher: tirtmb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: grigny
Cipher: AABBA BAAAA ABAAA AABBA ABBAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: grigny
cipher variations:
hsjhoztaztovfipforrqfrondyvdojpglpofnwrnoxzehzot
lmxlopxunxoljcdjohvktvoditkipaubaupwgjqgpssrgspo
ezwepkqhmqpgoxsopyafiapumnympqyvoypmkdekpiwluwpe
juljqbvcbvqxhkrhqttshtqpfaxfqlrinrqhpytpqzbgjbqv
noznqrzwpzqnleflqjxmvxqfkvmkrcwdcwryilsiruutiurq
gbygrmsjosriqzuqrachkcrwopaorsaxqaromfgmrkynwyrg
lwnlsdxedxszjmtjsvvujvsrhczhsntkptsjravrsbdildsx
pqbpstbyrbspnghnslzoxzshmxomteyfeytaknuktwwvkwts
idaitoulqutksbwstcejmetyqrcqtuczsctqohiotmapyati
nypnufzgfzublovluxxwlxutjebjupvmrvultcxtudfknfuz
rsdruvdatdurpijpunbqzbujozqovgahgavcmpwmvyyxmyvu
kfckvqwnswvmudyuveglogvastesvwebuevsqjkqvocracvk
parpwhbihbwdnqxnwzzynzwvlgdlwrxotxwnvezvwfhmphwb
tuftwxfcvfwtrklrwpdsbdwlqbsqxicjicxeoryoxaazoaxw
mhemxsypuyxowfawxginqixcuvguxygdwgxuslmsxqetcexm
rctryjdkjdyfpszpybbapbyxnifnytzqvzypxgbxyhjorjyd
vwhvyzhexhyvtmntyrfudfynsduszkelkezgqtaqzccbqczy
ojgozuarwazqyhcyzikpskzewxiwzaifyizwunouzsgvegzo
tevtalfmlfahrubraddcrdazpkhpavbsxbarzidzajlqtlaf
xyjxabjgzjaxvopvathwfhapufwubmgnmgbisvcsbeedseba
qliqbwctycbsajeabkmrumbgyzkybckhakbywpqwbuixgibq
vgxvcnhonhcjtwdtcffetfcbrmjrcxduzdctbkfbclnsvnch
zalzcdliblczxqrxcvjyhjcrwhywdoipoidkuxeudggfugdc
snksdyevaeduclgcdmotwodiabmademjcmdayrsydwkzikds
xizxepjqpjelvyfvehhgvhedtoltezfwbfevdmhdenpuxpej
bcnbefnkdnebzstzexlajletyjayfqkrqkfmwzgwfiihwife
upmufagxcgfweniefoqvyqfkcdocfgoleofcatuafymbkmfu
zkbzgrlsrlgnxahxgjjixjgfvqnvgbhydhgxfojfgprwzrgl
depdghpmfpgdbuvbgznclngvalcahsmtsmhoybiyhkkjykhg
wrowhcizeihygpkghqsxashmefqehiqngqhecvwchaodmohw
bmdbitnutnipzcjzillkzlihxspxidjafjizhqlhirtybtin
fgrfijrohrifdwxdibpenpixcnecjuovuojqadkajmmlamji
ytqyjekbgkjairmijsuzcujoghsgjkspisjgexyejcqfoqjy
dofdkvpwvpkrbelbknnmbnkjzurzkflchlkbjsnjktvadvkp
hithkltqjtkhfyzfkdrgprkzepgelwqxwqlscfmclooncolk
avsalgmdimlcktokluwbewlqijuilmurkuligzagleshqsla
fqhfmxryxrmtdgndmppodpmlbwtbmhnejnmdluplmvxcfxmr
jkvjmnvslvmjhabhmftirtmbgrignyszysnuehoenqqpeqnm
cxucniofkonemvqmnwydgynsklwknowtmwnkibcingujsunc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: grigny
Cipher: tevtal

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: grigny
Cipher: 222442223345

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: grigny
method variations:
mwomsdrbtrxiwgywcobmdbht

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g r i g n y 
2 2 4 2 3 4 
2 4 2 2 3 5 
They are then read out in rows:
224234242235
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: grigny
Cipher: gisrgx

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: grigny
method variations:
gtgmsk tgmskg gmskgt
mskgtg skgtgm kgtgms

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: grigny

all 720 cipher variations:
grigny grigyn gringy grinyg griyng griygn grginy grgiyn grgniy grgnyi grgyni
grgyin grngiy grngyi grnigy grniyg grnyig grnygi grygni grygin gryngi grynig
grying gryign girgny girgyn girngy girnyg giryng girygn gigrny gigryn gignry
gignyr gigynr gigyrn gingry gingyr ginrgy ginryg ginyrg ginygr giygnr giygrn
giyngr giynrg giyrng giyrgn ggirny ggiryn gginry gginyr ggiynr ggiyrn ggriny
ggriyn ggrniy ggrnyi ggryni ggryin ggnriy ggnryi ggniry ggniyr ggnyir ggnyri
ggyrni ggyrin ggynri ggynir ggyinr ggyirn gnigry gnigyr gnirgy gniryg gniyrg
gniygr gngiry gngiyr gngriy gngryi gngyri gngyir gnrgiy gnrgyi gnrigy gnriyg
gnryig gnrygi gnygri gnygir gnyrgi gnyrig gnyirg gnyigr gyignr gyigrn gyingr
gyinrg gyirng gyirgn gyginr gygirn gygnir gygnri gygrni gygrin gyngir gyngri
gynigr gynirg gynrig gynrgi gyrgni gyrgin gyrngi gyrnig gyring gyrign rgigny
rgigyn rgingy rginyg rgiyng rgiygn rgginy rggiyn rggniy rggnyi rggyni rggyin
rgngiy rgngyi rgnigy rgniyg rgnyig rgnygi rgygni rgygin rgyngi rgynig rgying
rgyign riggny riggyn rigngy rignyg rigyng rigygn riggny riggyn rigngy rignyg
rigyng rigygn ringgy ringyg ringgy ringyg rinygg rinygg riygng riyggn riyngg
riyngg riygng riyggn rgigny rgigyn rgingy rginyg rgiyng rgiygn rgginy rggiyn
rggniy rggnyi rggyni rggyin rgngiy rgngyi rgnigy rgniyg rgnyig rgnygi rgygni
rgygin rgyngi rgynig rgying rgyign rniggy rnigyg rniggy rnigyg rniygg rniygg
rngigy rngiyg rnggiy rnggyi rngygi rngyig rnggiy rnggyi rngigy rngiyg rngyig
rngygi rnyggi rnygig rnyggi rnygig rnyigg rnyigg ryigng ryiggn ryingg ryingg
ryigng ryiggn ryging rygign rygnig rygngi ryggni ryggin ryngig rynggi rynigg
rynigg ryngig rynggi ryggni ryggin rygngi rygnig ryging rygign irggny irggyn
irgngy irgnyg irgyng irgygn irggny irggyn irgngy irgnyg irgyng irgygn irnggy
irngyg irnggy irngyg irnygg irnygg irygng iryggn iryngg iryngg irygng iryggn
igrgny igrgyn igrngy igrnyg igryng igrygn iggrny iggryn iggnry iggnyr iggynr
iggyrn igngry igngyr ignrgy ignryg ignyrg ignygr igygnr igygrn igyngr igynrg
igyrng igyrgn iggrny iggryn iggnry iggnyr iggynr iggyrn igrgny igrgyn igrngy
igrnyg igryng igrygn ignrgy ignryg igngry igngyr ignygr ignyrg igyrng igyrgn
igynrg igyngr igygnr igygrn inggry inggyr ingrgy ingryg ingyrg ingygr inggry
inggyr ingrgy ingryg ingyrg ingygr inrggy inrgyg inrggy inrgyg inrygg inrygg
inygrg inyggr inyrgg inyrgg inygrg inyggr iyggnr iyggrn iygngr iygnrg iygrng
iygrgn iyggnr iyggrn iygngr iygnrg iygrng iygrgn iynggr iyngrg iynggr iyngrg
iynrgg iynrgg iyrgng iyrggn iyrngg iyrngg iyrgng iyrggn grigny grigyn gringy
grinyg griyng griygn grginy grgiyn grgniy grgnyi grgyni grgyin grngiy grngyi
grnigy grniyg grnyig grnygi grygni grygin gryngi grynig grying gryign girgny
girgyn girngy girnyg giryng girygn gigrny gigryn gignry gignyr gigynr gigyrn
gingry gingyr ginrgy ginryg ginyrg ginygr giygnr giygrn giyngr giynrg giyrng
giyrgn ggirny ggiryn gginry gginyr ggiynr ggiyrn ggriny ggriyn ggrniy ggrnyi
ggryni ggryin ggnriy ggnryi ggniry ggniyr ggnyir ggnyri ggyrni ggyrin ggynri
ggynir ggyinr ggyirn gnigry gnigyr gnirgy gniryg gniyrg gniygr gngiry gngiyr
gngriy gngryi gngyri gngyir gnrgiy gnrgyi gnrigy gnriyg gnryig gnrygi gnygri
gnygir gnyrgi gnyrig gnyirg gnyigr gyignr gyigrn gyingr gyinrg gyirng gyirgn
gyginr gygirn gygnir gygnri gygrni gygrin gyngir gyngri gynigr gynirg gynrig
gynrgi gyrgni gyrgin gyrngi gyrnig gyring gyrign nriggy nrigyg nriggy nrigyg
nriygg nriygg nrgigy nrgiyg nrggiy nrggyi nrgygi nrgyig nrggiy nrggyi nrgigy
nrgiyg nrgyig nrgygi nryggi nrygig nryggi nrygig nryigg nryigg nirggy nirgyg
nirggy nirgyg nirygg nirygg nigrgy nigryg niggry niggyr nigygr nigyrg niggry
niggyr nigrgy nigryg nigyrg nigygr niyggr niygrg niyggr niygrg niyrgg niyrgg
ngirgy ngiryg ngigry ngigyr ngiygr ngiyrg ngrigy ngriyg ngrgiy ngrgyi ngrygi
ngryig nggriy nggryi nggiry nggiyr nggyir nggyri ngyrgi ngyrig ngygri ngygir
ngyigr ngyirg ngigry ngigyr ngirgy ngiryg ngiyrg ngiygr nggiry nggiyr nggriy
nggryi nggyri nggyir ngrgiy ngrgyi ngrigy ngriyg ngryig ngrygi ngygri ngygir
ngyrgi ngyrig ngyirg ngyigr nyiggr nyigrg nyiggr nyigrg nyirgg nyirgg nygigr
nygirg nyggir nyggri nygrgi nygrig nyggir nyggri nygigr nygirg nygrig nygrgi
nyrggi nyrgig nyrggi nyrgig nyrigg nyrigg yrigng yriggn yringg yringg yrigng
yriggn yrging yrgign yrgnig yrgngi yrggni yrggin yrngig yrnggi yrnigg yrnigg
yrngig yrnggi yrggni yrggin yrgngi yrgnig yrging yrgign yirgng yirggn yirngg
yirngg yirgng yirggn yigrng yigrgn yignrg yigngr yiggnr yiggrn yingrg yinggr
yinrgg yinrgg yingrg yinggr yiggnr yiggrn yigngr yignrg yigrng yigrgn ygirng
ygirgn yginrg ygingr ygignr ygigrn ygring ygrign ygrnig ygrngi ygrgni ygrgin
ygnrig ygnrgi ygnirg ygnigr ygngir ygngri yggrni yggrin yggnri yggnir ygginr
yggirn ynigrg yniggr ynirgg ynirgg ynigrg yniggr yngirg yngigr yngrig yngrgi
ynggri ynggir ynrgig ynrggi ynrigg ynrigg ynrgig ynrggi ynggri ynggir yngrgi
yngrig yngirg yngigr ygignr ygigrn ygingr yginrg ygirng ygirgn ygginr yggirn
yggnir yggnri yggrni yggrin ygngir ygngri ygnigr ygnirg ygnrig ygnrgi ygrgni
ygrgin ygrngi ygrnig ygring ygrign

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History of cryptography
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