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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: glides
cipher variations:
hmjeft inkfgu jolghv kpmhiw lqnijx
mrojky nspklz otqlma purmnb qvsnoc
rwtopd sxupqe tyvqrf uzwrsg vaxsth
wbytui xczuvj ydavwk zebwxl afcxym
bgdyzn chezao difabp ejgbcq fkhcdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: glides
Cipher: torwvh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: glides
Cipher: AABBA ABABA ABAAA AAABB AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: glides
cipher variations:
hmjefttizkndfepqvnrafwdxdwvclhpslitrnkrujlzgharv
lcxgzfxynmhpjudspzvqtyxjinkfguujaloegfqrwosbgxey
exwdmiqtmjusolsvkmahibswmdyhagyzoniqkvetqawruzyk
jolghvvkbmpfhgrsxptchyfzfyxenjrunkvtpmtwlnbijctx
nezibhzapojrlwfurbxsvazlkpmhiwwlcnqgihstyqudizga
gzyfoksvolwuqnuxmocjkduyofajciabqpksmxgvscytwbam
lqnijxxmdorhjituzrvejahbhazgpltwpmxvrovynpdklevz
pgbkdjbcrqltnyhwtdzuxcbnmrojkyynepsikjuvaswfkbic
ibahqmuxqnywspwzoqelmfwaqhclekcdsrmuozixueavydco
nspklzzofqtjlkvwbtxglcjdjcbirnvyrozxtqxaprfmngxb
ridmfldetsnvpajyvfbwzedpotqlmaapgrukmlwxcuyhmdke
kdcjsowzspayurybqsgnohycsjengmefutowqbkzwgcxafeq
purmnbbqhsvlnmxydvzinelfledktpxatqbzvszcrthopizd
tkfohnfgvupxrclaxhdybgfrqvsnoccritwmonyzewajofmg
mfeluqyburcawtadsuipqjaeulgpioghwvqysdmbyiezchgs
rwtopddsjuxnpozafxbkpgnhngfmvrzcvsdbxubetvjqrkbf
vmhqjphixwrztenczjfadihtsxupqeetkvyoqpabgyclqhoi
ohgnwsadwtecyvcfuwkrslcgwnirkqijyxsaufodakgbejiu
tyvqrffulwzprqbchzdmripjpihoxtbexufdzwdgvxlstmdh
xojslrjkzytbvgpeblhcfkjvuzwrsggvmxaqsrcdiaensjqk
qjipyucfyvgeaxehwymtuneiypktmsklazucwhqfcmidglkw
vaxsthhwnybrtsdejbfotkrlrkjqzvdgzwhfbyfixznuvofj
zqluntlmbavdxirgdnjehmlxwbytuiixozcsutefkcgpulsm
slkrawehaxigczgjyaovwpgkarmvoumncbweyjsheokfinmy
xczuvjjypadtvufgldhqvmtntmlsbxfibyjhdahkzbpwxqhl
bsnwpvnodcxfzktifplgjonzydavwkkzqbeuwvghmeirwnuo
unmtcygjczkiebilacqxyrimctoxqwopedygalujgqmhkpoa
zebwxllarcfvxwhinfjsxovpvonudzhkdaljfcjmbdryzsjn
dupyrxpqfezhbmvkhrnilqpbafcxymmbsdgwyxijogktypwq
wpoveailebmkgdknceszatkoevqzsyqrgfaicnwlisojmrqc
bgdyznnctehxzyjkphluzqxrxqpwfbjmfcnlhelodftabulp
fwratzrshgbjdoxmjtpknsrdchezaoodufiyazklqimvarys
yrqxgckngdomifmpegubcvmqgxsbuastihckepynkuqlotse
difabppevgjzbalmrjnwbsztzsryhdlohepnjgnqfhvcdwnr
hytcvbtujidlfqzolvrmputfejgbcqqfwhkacbmnskoxctau
atsziempifqokhorgiwdexosizudwcuvkjemgrapmwsnqvug
fkhcdrrgxilbdcnotlpydubvbutajfnqjgrplipshjxefypt
javexdvwlkfnhsbqnxtorwvhglidesshyjmcedopumqzevcw
cvubkgorkhsqmjqtikyfgzqukbwfyewxmlgoitcroyupsxwi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: glides
Cipher: tyvqrf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: glides
Cipher: 221342415134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: glides
method variations:
mqoikxrvtopcwaytuhbfdyzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g l i d e s 
2 1 4 4 5 3 
2 3 2 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
214453232114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: glides
Cipher: btpmbq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: glides
method variations:
bsrvli srvlib rvlibs
vlibsr libsrv ibsrvl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: glides

all 720 cipher variations:
glides glidse glieds gliesd glised glisde gldies gldise gldeis gldesi gldsei
gldsie gledis gledsi gleids gleisd glesid glesdi glsdei glsdie glsedi glseid
glsied glside gildes gildse gileds gilesd gilsed gilsde gidles gidlse gidels
gidesl gidsel gidsle giedls giedsl gields gielsd giesld giesdl gisdel gisdle
gisedl giseld gisled gislde gdiles gdilse gdiels gdiesl gdisel gdisle gdlies
gdlise gdleis gdlesi gdlsei gdlsie gdelis gdelsi gdeils gdeisl gdesil gdesli
gdslei gdslie gdseli gdseil gdsiel gdsile geidls geidsl geilds geilsd geisld
geisdl gedils gedisl gedlis gedlsi gedsli gedsil geldis geldsi gelids gelisd
gelsid gelsdi gesdli gesdil gesldi geslid gesild gesidl gsidel gsidle gsiedl
gsield gsiled gsilde gsdiel gsdile gsdeil gsdeli gsdlei gsdlie gsedil gsedli
gseidl gseild gselid gseldi gsldei gsldie gsledi gsleid gslied gslide lgides
lgidse lgieds lgiesd lgised lgisde lgdies lgdise lgdeis lgdesi lgdsei lgdsie
lgedis lgedsi lgeids lgeisd lgesid lgesdi lgsdei lgsdie lgsedi lgseid lgsied
lgside ligdes ligdse ligeds ligesd ligsed ligsde lidges lidgse lidegs lidesg
lidseg lidsge liedgs liedsg liegds liegsd liesgd liesdg lisdeg lisdge lisedg
lisegd lisged lisgde ldiges ldigse ldiegs ldiesg ldiseg ldisge ldgies ldgise
ldgeis ldgesi ldgsei ldgsie ldegis ldegsi ldeigs ldeisg ldesig ldesgi ldsgei
ldsgie ldsegi ldseig ldsieg ldsige leidgs leidsg leigds leigsd leisgd leisdg
ledigs ledisg ledgis ledgsi ledsgi ledsig legdis legdsi legids legisd legsid
legsdi lesdgi lesdig lesgdi lesgid lesigd lesidg lsideg lsidge lsiedg lsiegd
lsiged lsigde lsdieg lsdige lsdeig lsdegi lsdgei lsdgie lsedig lsedgi lseidg
lseigd lsegid lsegdi lsgdei lsgdie lsgedi lsgeid lsgied lsgide ilgdes ilgdse
ilgeds ilgesd ilgsed ilgsde ildges ildgse ildegs ildesg ildseg ildsge iledgs
iledsg ilegds ilegsd ilesgd ilesdg ilsdeg ilsdge ilsedg ilsegd ilsged ilsgde
igldes igldse igleds iglesd iglsed iglsde igdles igdlse igdels igdesl igdsel
igdsle igedls igedsl igelds igelsd igesld igesdl igsdel igsdle igsedl igseld
igsled igslde idgles idglse idgels idgesl idgsel idgsle idlges idlgse idlegs
idlesg idlseg idlsge idelgs idelsg idegls idegsl idesgl ideslg idsleg idslge
idselg idsegl idsgel idsgle iegdls iegdsl ieglds ieglsd iegsld iegsdl iedgls
iedgsl iedlgs iedlsg iedslg iedsgl ieldgs ieldsg ielgds ielgsd ielsgd ielsdg
iesdlg iesdgl iesldg ieslgd iesgld iesgdl isgdel isgdle isgedl isgeld isgled
isglde isdgel isdgle isdegl isdelg isdleg isdlge isedgl isedlg isegdl isegld
iselgd iseldg isldeg isldge isledg islegd islged islgde dliges dligse dliegs
dliesg dliseg dlisge dlgies dlgise dlgeis dlgesi dlgsei dlgsie dlegis dlegsi
dleigs dleisg dlesig dlesgi dlsgei dlsgie dlsegi dlseig dlsieg dlsige dilges
dilgse dilegs dilesg dilseg dilsge digles diglse digels digesl digsel digsle
diegls diegsl dielgs dielsg dieslg diesgl disgel disgle disegl diselg disleg
dislge dgiles dgilse dgiels dgiesl dgisel dgisle dglies dglise dgleis dglesi
dglsei dglsie dgelis dgelsi dgeils dgeisl dgesil dgesli dgslei dgslie dgseli
dgseil dgsiel dgsile deigls deigsl deilgs deilsg deislg deisgl degils degisl
deglis deglsi degsli degsil delgis delgsi deligs delisg delsig delsgi desgli
desgil deslgi deslig desilg desigl dsigel dsigle dsiegl dsielg dsileg dsilge
dsgiel dsgile dsgeil dsgeli dsglei dsglie dsegil dsegli dseigl dseilg dselig
dselgi dslgei dslgie dslegi dsleig dslieg dslige elidgs elidsg eligds eligsd
elisgd elisdg eldigs eldisg eldgis eldgsi eldsgi eldsig elgdis elgdsi elgids
elgisd elgsid elgsdi elsdgi elsdig elsgdi elsgid elsigd elsidg eildgs eildsg
eilgds eilgsd eilsgd eilsdg eidlgs eidlsg eidgls eidgsl eidsgl eidslg eigdls
eigdsl eiglds eiglsd eigsld eigsdl eisdgl eisdlg eisgdl eisgld eislgd eisldg
edilgs edilsg edigls edigsl edisgl edislg edligs edlisg edlgis edlgsi edlsgi
edlsig edglis edglsi edgils edgisl edgsil edgsli edslgi edslig edsgli edsgil
edsigl edsilg egidls egidsl egilds egilsd egisld egisdl egdils egdisl egdlis
egdlsi egdsli egdsil egldis egldsi eglids eglisd eglsid eglsdi egsdli egsdil
egsldi egslid egsild egsidl esidgl esidlg esigdl esigld esilgd esildg esdigl
esdilg esdgil esdgli esdlgi esdlig esgdil esgdli esgidl esgild esglid esgldi
esldgi esldig eslgdi eslgid esligd eslidg slideg slidge sliedg sliegd sliged
sligde sldieg sldige sldeig sldegi sldgei sldgie sledig sledgi sleidg sleigd
slegid slegdi slgdei slgdie slgedi slgeid slgied slgide sildeg sildge siledg
silegd silged silgde sidleg sidlge sidelg sidegl sidgel sidgle siedlg siedgl
sieldg sielgd siegld siegdl sigdel sigdle sigedl sigeld sigled siglde sdileg
sdilge sdielg sdiegl sdigel sdigle sdlieg sdlige sdleig sdlegi sdlgei sdlgie
sdelig sdelgi sdeilg sdeigl sdegil sdegli sdglei sdglie sdgeli sdgeil sdgiel
sdgile seidlg seidgl seildg seilgd seigld seigdl sedilg sedigl sedlig sedlgi
sedgli sedgil seldig seldgi selidg seligd selgid selgdi segdli segdil segldi
seglid segild segidl sgidel sgidle sgiedl sgield sgiled sgilde sgdiel sgdile
sgdeil sgdeli sgdlei sgdlie sgedil sgedli sgeidl sgeild sgelid sgeldi sgldei
sgldie sgledi sgleid sglied sglide

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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