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sordine

orlowski

unifier

huberto

ovipositor

regnabant

uncertifiable

aethraque

apariencias

cladoniaceous

petraitis

alcaic

unfatigue

crisantemi

pomptonlakes

denarest

nonplacet

salsifies


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: glelen
cipher variations:
hmfmfo ingngp johohq kpipir lqjqjs
mrkrkt nslslu otmtmv pununw qvovox
rwpwpy sxqxqz tyryra uzszsb vatatc
wbubud xcvcve ydwdwf zexexg afyfyh
bgzgzi chahaj dibibk ejcjcl fkdkdm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: glelen
Cipher: tovovm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: glelen
Cipher: AABBA ABABA AABAA ABABA AABAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: glelen
cipher variations:
hmfmfotininofevevoradadodwlwlopststonkjkjozgrgro
lczczoxyhyhojupupovqxqxoingngpujojopgfwfwpsbebep
exmxmpqtutupolklkpahshspmdadapyzizipkvqvqpwryryp
johohqvkpkpqhgxgxqtcfcfqfynynqruvuvqpmlmlqbititq
nebebqzajajqlwrwrqxszszqkpipirwlqlqrihyhyrudgdgr
gzozorsvwvwrqnmnmrcjujurofcfcrabkbkrmxsxsrytatar
lqjqjsxmrmrsjizizsvehehshapapstwxwxsrononsdkvkvs
pgdgdsbclclsnytytszububsmrkrktynsnstkjajatwfifit
ibqbqtuxyxytspopotelwlwtqhehetcdmdmtozuzutavcvct
nslsluzototulkbkbuxgjgjujcrcruvyzyzutqpqpufmxmxu
rififudenenupavavubwdwduotmtmvapupuvmlclcvyhkhkv
kdsdsvwzazavurqrqvgnynyvsjgjgvefofovqbwbwvcxexev
pununwbqvqvwnmdmdwzililwletetwxababwvsrsrwhozozw
tkhkhwfgpgpwrcxcxwdyfyfwqvovoxcrwrwxonenexajmjmx
mfufuxybcbcxwtstsxipapaxulilixghqhqxsdydyxezgzgx
rwpwpydsxsxypofofybknknyngvgvyzcdcdyxututyjqbqby
vmjmjyhirirytezezyfahahysxqxqzetytyzqpgpgzcloloz
ohwhwzadedezyvuvuzkrcrczwnknkzijsjszufafazgbibiz
tyryrafuzuzarqhqhadmpmpapixixabefefazwvwvalsdsda
xololajktktavgbgbahcjcjauzszsbgvavabsriribenqnqb
qjyjybcfgfgbaxwxwbmtetebypmpmbklulubwhchcbidkdkb
vatatchwbwbctsjsjcfororcrkzkzcdghghcbyxyxcnufufc
zqnqnclmvmvcxididcjelelcwbubudixcxcdutktkdgpspsd
slaladehihidczyzydovgvgdarorodmnwnwdyjejedkfmfmd
xcvcvejydydevululehqtqtetmbmbefijijedazazepwhwhe
bspspenoxoxezkfkfelgngneydwdwfkzezefwvmvmfiruruf
uncncfgjkjkfebabafqxixifctqtqfopypyfalglgfmhohof
zexexglafafgxwnwngjsvsvgvododghklklgfcbcbgryjyjg
dururgpqzqzgbmhmhgnipipgafyfyhmbgbghyxoxohktwtwh
wpepehilmlmhgdcdchszkzkhevsvshqrarahcninihojqjqh
bgzgzinchchizypypiluxuxixqfqfijmnmnihededitalali
fwtwtirsbsbidojojipkrkrichahajodidijazqzqjmvyvyj
yrgrgjknonojifefejubmbmjgxuxujstctcjepkpkjqlslsj
dibibkpejejkbararknwzwzkzshshklopopkjgfgfkvcncnk
hyvyvktududkfqlqlkrmtmtkejcjclqfkfklcbsbsloxaxal
atitilmpqpqlkhghglwdodolizwzwluvevelgrmrmlsnunul
fkdkdmrglglmdctctmpybybmbujujmnqrqrmlihihmxepepm
jaxaxmvwfwfmhsnsnmtovovmglelenshmhmnedudunqzczcn
cvkvknorsrsnmjijinyfqfqnkbybynwxgxgnitotonupwpwn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: glelen
Cipher: tyryra

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: glelen
Cipher: 221351135133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: glelen
method variations:
mqkqksrvpvpxwauaucbfzfzh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g l e l e n 
2 1 5 1 5 3 
2 3 1 3 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
215153231313
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: glelen
Cipher: bepmll

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: glelen
method variations:
bxaxlh xaxlhb axlhbx
xlhbxa lhbxax hbxaxl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: glelen

all 720 cipher variations:
glelen glelne gleeln gleenl glenel glenle glleen gllene glleen gllene gllnee
gllnee glelen glelne gleeln gleenl glenel glenle glnlee glnlee glnele glneel
glneel glnele gellen gellne geleln gelenl gelnel gelnle gellen gellne geleln
gelenl gelnel gelnle geelln geelnl geelln geelnl geenll geenll genlel genlle
genell genell genlel genlle glelen glelne gleeln gleenl glenel glenle glleen
gllene glleen gllene gllnee gllnee glelen glelne gleeln gleenl glenel glenle
glnlee glnlee glnele glneel glneel glnele geelln geelnl geelln geelnl geenll
geenll geleln gelenl gellen gellne gelnle gelnel gellen gellne geleln gelenl
gelnel gelnle genlle genlel genlle genlel genell genell gnelel gnelle gneell
gneell gnelel gnelle gnleel gnlele gnleel gnlele gnllee gnllee gnelel gnelle
gneell gneell gnelel gnelle gnllee gnllee gnlele gnleel gnleel gnlele lgelen
lgelne lgeeln lgeenl lgenel lgenle lgleen lglene lgleen lglene lglnee lglnee
lgelen lgelne lgeeln lgeenl lgenel lgenle lgnlee lgnlee lgnele lgneel lgneel
lgnele leglen leglne legeln legenl legnel legnle lelgen lelgne lelegn leleng
lelneg lelnge leelgn leelng leegln leegnl leengl leenlg lenleg lenlge lenelg
lenegl lengel lengle llegen llegne lleegn lleeng lleneg llenge llgeen llgene
llgeen llgene llgnee llgnee llegen llegne lleegn lleeng lleneg llenge llngee
llngee llnege llneeg llneeg llnege leelgn leelng leegln leegnl leengl leenlg
lelegn leleng lelgen lelgne lelnge lelneg leglen leglne legeln legenl legnel
legnle lenlge lenleg lengle lengel lenegl lenelg lneleg lnelge lneelg lneegl
lnegel lnegle lnleeg lnlege lnleeg lnlege lnlgee lnlgee lneleg lnelge lneelg
lneegl lnegel lnegle lnglee lnglee lngele lngeel lngeel lngele elglen elglne
elgeln elgenl elgnel elgnle ellgen ellgne ellegn elleng ellneg ellnge elelgn
elelng elegln elegnl elengl elenlg elnleg elnlge elnelg elnegl elngel elngle
egllen egllne egleln eglenl eglnel eglnle egllen egllne egleln eglenl eglnel
eglnle egelln egelnl egelln egelnl egenll egenll egnlel egnlle egnell egnell
egnlel egnlle elglen elglne elgeln elgenl elgnel elgnle ellgen ellgne ellegn
elleng ellneg ellnge elelgn elelng elegln elegnl elengl elenlg elnleg elnlge
elnelg elnegl elngel elngle eeglln eeglnl eeglln eeglnl eegnll eegnll eelgln
eelgnl eellgn eellng eelnlg eelngl eellgn eellng eelgln eelgnl eelngl eelnlg
eenllg eenlgl eenllg eenlgl eengll eengll englel englle engell engell englel
englle enlgel enlgle enlegl enlelg enlleg enllge enelgl enellg enegll enegll
enelgl enellg enlleg enllge enlelg enlegl enlgel enlgle llegen llegne lleegn
lleeng lleneg llenge llgeen llgene llgeen llgene llgnee llgnee llegen llegne
lleegn lleeng lleneg llenge llngee llngee llnege llneeg llneeg llnege lelgen
lelgne lelegn leleng lelneg lelnge leglen leglne legeln legenl legnel legnle
leegln leegnl leelgn leelng leenlg leengl lengel lengle lenegl lenelg lenleg
lenlge lgelen lgelne lgeeln lgeenl lgenel lgenle lgleen lglene lgleen lglene
lglnee lglnee lgelen lgelne lgeeln lgeenl lgenel lgenle lgnlee lgnlee lgnele
lgneel lgneel lgnele leegln leegnl leelgn leelng leenlg leengl legeln legenl
leglen leglne legnle legnel lelgen lelgne lelegn leleng lelneg lelnge lengle
lengel lenlge lenleg lenelg lenegl lnegel lnegle lneegl lneelg lneleg lnelge
lngeel lngele lngeel lngele lnglee lnglee lnegel lnegle lneegl lneelg lneleg
lnelge lnlgee lnlgee lnlege lnleeg lnleeg lnlege elelgn elelng elegln elegnl
elengl elenlg ellegn elleng ellgen ellgne ellnge ellneg elglen elglne elgeln
elgenl elgnel elgnle elnlge elnleg elngle elngel elnegl elnelg eellgn eellng
eelgln eelgnl eelngl eelnlg eellgn eellng eelgln eelgnl eelngl eelnlg eeglln
eeglnl eeglln eeglnl eegnll eegnll eenlgl eenllg eengll eengll eenlgl eenllg
elelgn elelng elegln elegnl elengl elenlg ellegn elleng ellgen ellgne ellnge
ellneg elglen elglne elgeln elgenl elgnel elgnle elnlge elnleg elngle elngel
elnegl elnelg egelln egelnl egelln egelnl egenll egenll egleln eglenl egllen
egllne eglnle eglnel egllen egllne egleln eglenl eglnel eglnle egnlle egnlel
egnlle egnlel egnell egnell enelgl enellg enegll enegll enelgl enellg enlegl
enlelg enlgel enlgle enllge enlleg englel englle engell engell englel englle
enllge enlleg enlgle enlgel enlegl enlelg nleleg nlelge nleelg nleegl nlegel
nlegle nlleeg nllege nlleeg nllege nllgee nllgee nleleg nlelge nleelg nleegl
nlegel nlegle nlglee nlglee nlgele nlgeel nlgeel nlgele nelleg nellge nelelg
nelegl nelgel nelgle nelleg nellge nelelg nelegl nelgel nelgle neellg neelgl
neellg neelgl neegll neegll neglel neglle negell negell neglel neglle nleleg
nlelge nleelg nleegl nlegel nlegle nlleeg nllege nlleeg nllege nllgee nllgee
nleleg nlelge nleelg nleegl nlegel nlegle nlglee nlglee nlgele nlgeel nlgeel
nlgele neellg neelgl neellg neelgl neegll neegll nelelg nelegl nelleg nellge
nelgle nelgel nelleg nellge nelelg nelegl nelgel nelgle neglle neglel neglle
neglel negell negell ngelel ngelle ngeell ngeell ngelel ngelle ngleel nglele
ngleel nglele ngllee ngllee ngelel ngelle ngeell ngeell ngelel ngelle ngllee
ngllee nglele ngleel ngleel nglele

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History of cryptography
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