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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: geraty
cipher variations:
hfsbuz igtcva jhudwb kivexc ljwfyd
mkxgze nlyhaf omzibg pnajch qobkdi
rpclej sqdmfk trengl usfohm vtgpin
wuhqjo xvirkp ywjslq zxktmr ayluns
bzmvot canwpu dboxqv ecpyrw fdqzsx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: geraty
Cipher: tvizgb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: geraty

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: geraty
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: geraty
Cipher: trengl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: geraty
Cipher: 225124114445

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: geraty
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g e r a t y 
2 5 2 1 4 4 
2 1 4 1 4 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: geraty
Cipher: wbtbdy

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Method #3

Plaintext: geraty
method variations:
wfdqtk fdqtkw dqtkwf
qtkwfd tkwfdq kwfdqt

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: geraty

all 720 cipher variations:
geraty gerayt gertay gertya geryta geryat gearty gearyt geatry geatyr geaytr
geayrt getary getayr getray getrya getyra getyar geyatr geyart geytar geytra
geyrta geyrat greaty greayt gretay gretya greyta greyat graety graeyt gratey
gratye grayte grayet grtaey grtaye grteay grteya grtyea grtyae gryate gryaet
grytae grytea gryeta gryeat garety gareyt gartey gartye garyte garyet gaerty
gaeryt gaetry gaetyr gaeytr gaeyrt gatery gateyr gatrey gatrye gatyre gatyer
gayetr gayert gayter gaytre gayrte gayret gtraey gtraye gtreay gtreya gtryea
gtryae gtarey gtarye gtaery gtaeyr gtayer gtayre gteary gteayr gteray gterya
gteyra gteyar gtyaer gtyare gtyear gtyera gtyrea gtyrae gyrate gyraet gyrtae
gyrtea gyreta gyreat gyarte gyaret gyatre gyater gyaetr gyaert gytare gytaer
gytrae gytrea gytera gytear gyeatr gyeart gyetar gyetra gyerta gyerat egraty
egrayt egrtay egrtya egryta egryat egarty egaryt egatry egatyr egaytr egayrt
egtary egtayr egtray egtrya egtyra egtyar egyatr egyart egytar egytra egyrta
egyrat ergaty ergayt ergtay ergtya ergyta ergyat eragty eragyt eratgy eratyg
eraytg eraygt ertagy ertayg ertgay ertgya ertyga ertyag eryatg eryagt erytag
erytga erygta erygat eargty eargyt eartgy eartyg earytg earygt eagrty eagryt
eagtry eagtyr eagytr eagyrt eatgry eatgyr eatrgy eatryg eatyrg eatygr eaygtr
eaygrt eaytgr eaytrg eayrtg eayrgt etragy etrayg etrgay etrgya etryga etryag
etargy etaryg etagry etagyr etaygr etayrg etgary etgayr etgray etgrya etgyra
etgyar etyagr etyarg etygar etygra etyrga etyrag eyratg eyragt eyrtag eyrtga
eyrgta eyrgat eyartg eyargt eyatrg eyatgr eyagtr eyagrt eytarg eytagr eytrag
eytrga eytgra eytgar eygatr eygart eygtar eygtra eygrta eygrat regaty regayt
regtay regtya regyta regyat reagty reagyt reatgy reatyg reaytg reaygt retagy
retayg retgay retgya retyga retyag reyatg reyagt reytag reytga reygta reygat
rgeaty rgeayt rgetay rgetya rgeyta rgeyat rgaety rgaeyt rgatey rgatye rgayte
rgayet rgtaey rgtaye rgteay rgteya rgtyea rgtyae rgyate rgyaet rgytae rgytea
rgyeta rgyeat ragety rageyt ragtey ragtye ragyte ragyet raegty raegyt raetgy
raetyg raeytg raeygt rategy rateyg ratgey ratgye ratyge ratyeg rayetg rayegt
rayteg raytge raygte rayget rtgaey rtgaye rtgeay rtgeya rtgyea rtgyae rtagey
rtagye rtaegy rtaeyg rtayeg rtayge rteagy rteayg rtegay rtegya rteyga rteyag
rtyaeg rtyage rtyeag rtyega rtygea rtygae rygate rygaet rygtae rygtea rygeta
rygeat ryagte ryaget ryatge ryateg ryaetg ryaegt rytage rytaeg rytgae rytgea
rytega ryteag ryeatg ryeagt ryetag ryetga ryegta ryegat aergty aergyt aertgy
aertyg aerytg aerygt aegrty aegryt aegtry aegtyr aegytr aegyrt aetgry aetgyr
aetrgy aetryg aetyrg aetygr aeygtr aeygrt aeytgr aeytrg aeyrtg aeyrgt aregty
aregyt aretgy aretyg areytg areygt argety argeyt argtey argtye argyte argyet
artgey artgye artegy arteyg artyeg artyge arygte aryget arytge aryteg aryetg
aryegt agrety agreyt agrtey agrtye agryte agryet agerty ageryt agetry agetyr
ageytr ageyrt agtery agteyr agtrey agtrye agtyre agtyer agyetr agyert agyter
agytre agyrte agyret atrgey atrgye atregy atreyg atryeg atryge atgrey atgrye
atgery atgeyr atgyer atgyre ategry ategyr atergy ateryg ateyrg ateygr atyger
atygre atyegr atyerg atyreg atyrge ayrgte ayrget ayrtge ayrteg ayretg ayregt
aygrte aygret aygtre aygter aygetr aygert aytgre aytger aytrge aytreg ayterg
aytegr ayegtr ayegrt ayetgr ayetrg ayertg ayergt teragy terayg tergay tergya
teryga teryag teargy tearyg teagry teagyr teaygr teayrg tegary tegayr tegray
tegrya tegyra tegyar teyagr teyarg teygar teygra teyrga teyrag treagy treayg
tregay tregya treyga treyag traegy traeyg tragey tragye trayge trayeg trgaey
trgaye trgeay trgeya trgyea trgyae tryage tryaeg trygae trygea tryega tryeag
taregy tareyg targey targye taryge taryeg taergy taeryg taegry taegyr taeygr
taeyrg tagery tageyr tagrey tagrye tagyre tagyer tayegr tayerg tayger taygre
tayrge tayreg tgraey tgraye tgreay tgreya tgryea tgryae tgarey tgarye tgaery
tgaeyr tgayer tgayre tgeary tgeayr tgeray tgerya tgeyra tgeyar tgyaer tgyare
tgyear tgyera tgyrea tgyrae tyrage tyraeg tyrgae tyrgea tyrega tyreag tyarge
tyareg tyagre tyager tyaegr tyaerg tygare tygaer tygrae tygrea tygera tygear
tyeagr tyearg tyegar tyegra tyerga tyerag yeratg yeragt yertag yertga yergta
yergat yeartg yeargt yeatrg yeatgr yeagtr yeagrt yetarg yetagr yetrag yetrga
yetgra yetgar yegatr yegart yegtar yegtra yegrta yegrat yreatg yreagt yretag
yretga yregta yregat yraetg yraegt yrateg yratge yragte yraget yrtaeg yrtage
yrteag yrtega yrtgea yrtgae yrgate yrgaet yrgtae yrgtea yrgeta yrgeat yaretg
yaregt yarteg yartge yargte yarget yaertg yaergt yaetrg yaetgr yaegtr yaegrt
yaterg yategr yatreg yatrge yatgre yatger yagetr yagert yagter yagtre yagrte
yagret ytraeg ytrage ytreag ytrega ytrgea ytrgae ytareg ytarge ytaerg ytaegr
ytager ytagre ytearg yteagr yterag yterga ytegra ytegar ytgaer ytgare ytgear
ytgera ytgrea ytgrae ygrate ygraet ygrtae ygrtea ygreta ygreat ygarte ygaret
ygatre ygater ygaetr ygaert ygtare ygtaer ygtrae ygtrea ygtera ygtear ygeatr
ygeart ygetar ygetra ygerta ygerat

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History of cryptography
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