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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: gartin
cipher variations:
hbsujo ictvkp jduwlq kevxmr lfwyns
mgxzot nhyapu oizbqv pjacrw qkbdsx
rlcety smdfuz tnegva uofhwb vpgixc
wqhjyd xrikze ysjlaf ztkmbg aulnch
bvmodi cwnpej dxoqfk eyprgl fzqshm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: gartin
Cipher: tzigrm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: gartin

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: gartin
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: gartin
Cipher: tnegva

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: gartin
Cipher: 221124444233

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: gartin
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g a r t i n 
2 1 2 4 4 3 
2 1 4 4 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: gartin
Cipher: brobtm

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Method #3

Plaintext: gartin
method variations:
bfttmh fttmhb ttmhbf
tmhbft mhbftt hbfttm

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: gartin

all 720 cipher variations:
gartin gartni garitn garint garnit garnti gatrin gatrni gatirn gatinr gatnir
gatnri gaitrn gaitnr gairtn gairnt gainrt gaintr gantir gantri ganitr ganirt
ganrit ganrti gratin gratni graitn graint granit granti grtain grtani grtian
grtina grtnia grtnai gritan gritna griatn griant grinat grinta grntia grntai
grnita grniat grnait grnati gtrain gtrani gtrian gtrina gtrnia gtrnai gtarin
gtarni gtairn gtainr gtanir gtanri gtiarn gtianr gtiran gtirna gtinra gtinar
gtnair gtnari gtniar gtnira gtnria gtnrai girtan girtna giratn girant girnat
girnta gitran gitrna gitarn gitanr gitnar gitnra giatrn giatnr giartn giarnt
gianrt giantr gintar gintra ginatr ginart ginrat ginrta gnrtia gnrtai gnrita
gnriat gnrait gnrati gntria gntrai gntira gntiar gntair gntari gnitra gnitar
gnirta gnirat gniart gniatr gnatir gnatri gnaitr gnairt gnarit gnarti agrtin
agrtni agritn agrint agrnit agrnti agtrin agtrni agtirn agtinr agtnir agtnri
agitrn agitnr agirtn agirnt aginrt agintr agntir agntri agnitr agnirt agnrit
agnrti argtin argtni argitn argint argnit argnti artgin artgni artign arting
artnig artngi aritgn aritng arigtn arignt aringt arintg arntig arntgi arnitg
arnigt arngit arngti atrgin atrgni atrign atring atrnig atrngi atgrin atgrni
atgirn atginr atgnir atgnri atigrn atignr atirgn atirng atinrg atingr atngir
atngri atnigr atnirg atnrig atnrgi airtgn airtng airgtn airgnt airngt airntg
aitrgn aitrng aitgrn aitgnr aitngr aitnrg aigtrn aigtnr aigrtn aigrnt aignrt
aigntr aintgr aintrg aingtr aingrt ainrgt ainrtg anrtig anrtgi anritg anrigt
anrgit anrgti antrig antrgi antirg antigr antgir antgri anitrg anitgr anirtg
anirgt anigrt anigtr angtir angtri angitr angirt angrit angrti ragtin ragtni
ragitn ragint ragnit ragnti ratgin ratgni ratign rating ratnig ratngi raitgn
raitng raigtn raignt raingt raintg rantig rantgi ranitg ranigt rangit rangti
rgatin rgatni rgaitn rgaint rganit rganti rgtain rgtani rgtian rgtina rgtnia
rgtnai rgitan rgitna rgiatn rgiant rginat rginta rgntia rgntai rgnita rgniat
rgnait rgnati rtgain rtgani rtgian rtgina rtgnia rtgnai rtagin rtagni rtaign
rtaing rtanig rtangi rtiagn rtiang rtigan rtigna rtinga rtinag rtnaig rtnagi
rtniag rtniga rtngia rtngai rigtan rigtna rigatn rigant rignat rignta ritgan
ritgna ritagn ritang ritnag ritnga riatgn riatng riagtn riagnt riangt riantg
rintag rintga rinatg rinagt ringat ringta rngtia rngtai rngita rngiat rngait
rngati rntgia rntgai rntiga rntiag rntaig rntagi rnitga rnitag rnigta rnigat
rniagt rniatg rnatig rnatgi rnaitg rnaigt rnagit rnagti targin targni tarign
taring tarnig tarngi tagrin tagrni tagirn taginr tagnir tagnri taigrn taignr
tairgn tairng tainrg taingr tangir tangri tanigr tanirg tanrig tanrgi tragin
tragni traign traing tranig trangi trgain trgani trgian trgina trgnia trgnai
trigan trigna triagn triang trinag tringa trngia trngai trniga trniag trnaig
trnagi tgrain tgrani tgrian tgrina tgrnia tgrnai tgarin tgarni tgairn tgainr
tganir tganri tgiarn tgianr tgiran tgirna tginra tginar tgnair tgnari tgniar
tgnira tgnria tgnrai tirgan tirgna tiragn tirang tirnag tirnga tigran tigrna
tigarn tiganr tignar tignra tiagrn tiagnr tiargn tiarng tianrg tiangr tingar
tingra tinagr tinarg tinrag tinrga tnrgia tnrgai tnriga tnriag tnraig tnragi
tngria tngrai tngira tngiar tngair tngari tnigra tnigar tnirga tnirag tniarg
tniagr tnagir tnagri tnaigr tnairg tnarig tnargi iartgn iartng iargtn iargnt
iarngt iarntg iatrgn iatrng iatgrn iatgnr iatngr iatnrg iagtrn iagtnr iagrtn
iagrnt iagnrt iagntr iantgr iantrg iangtr iangrt ianrgt ianrtg iratgn iratng
iragtn iragnt irangt irantg irtagn irtang irtgan irtgna irtnga irtnag irgtan
irgtna irgatn irgant irgnat irgnta irntga irntag irngta irngat irnagt irnatg
itragn itrang itrgan itrgna itrnga itrnag itargn itarng itagrn itagnr itangr
itanrg itgarn itganr itgran itgrna itgnra itgnar itnagr itnarg itngar itngra
itnrga itnrag igrtan igrtna igratn igrant igrnat igrnta igtran igtrna igtarn
igtanr igtnar igtnra igatrn igatnr igartn igarnt iganrt igantr igntar igntra
ignatr ignart ignrat ignrta inrtga inrtag inrgta inrgat inragt inratg intrga
intrag intgra intgar intagr intarg ingtra ingtar ingrta ingrat ingart ingatr
inatgr inatrg inagtr inagrt inargt inartg nartig nartgi naritg narigt nargit
nargti natrig natrgi natirg natigr natgir natgri naitrg naitgr nairtg nairgt
naigrt naigtr nagtir nagtri nagitr nagirt nagrit nagrti nratig nratgi nraitg
nraigt nragit nragti nrtaig nrtagi nrtiag nrtiga nrtgia nrtgai nritag nritga
nriatg nriagt nrigat nrigta nrgtia nrgtai nrgita nrgiat nrgait nrgati ntraig
ntragi ntriag ntriga ntrgia ntrgai ntarig ntargi ntairg ntaigr ntagir ntagri
ntiarg ntiagr ntirag ntirga ntigra ntigar ntgair ntgari ntgiar ntgira ntgria
ntgrai nirtag nirtga niratg niragt nirgat nirgta nitrag nitrga nitarg nitagr
nitgar nitgra niatrg niatgr niartg niargt niagrt niagtr nigtar nigtra nigatr
nigart nigrat nigrta ngrtia ngrtai ngrita ngriat ngrait ngrati ngtria ngtrai
ngtira ngtiar ngtair ngtari ngitra ngitar ngirta ngirat ngiart ngiatr ngatir
ngatri ngaitr ngairt ngarit ngarti

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History of cryptography
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