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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: garrya
cipher variations:
hbsszb icttac jduubd kevvce lfwwdf
mgxxeg nhyyfh oizzgi pjaahj qkbbik
rlccjl smddkm tneeln uoffmo vpggnp
wqhhoq xriipr ysjjqs ztkkrt aullsu
bvmmtv cwnnuw dxoovx eyppwy fzqqxz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: garrya
Cipher: tziibz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: garrya
Cipher: AABBA AAAAA BAAAA BAAAA BABBA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: garrya
cipher variations:
hbsszbtbaavbfbiirbrbqqnbdbyyjbpbggfbnbwwxbzbeetb
lbmmpbxbuulbjbcchbvbkkdbicttacucbbwcgcjjscscrroc
eczzkcqchhgcocxxycacffucmcnnqcycvvmckcddicwcllec
jduubdvdccxdhdkktdtdsspdfdaaldrdiihdpdyyzdbdggvd
ndoordzdwwndldeejdxdmmfdkevvceweddyeiellueuettqe
gebbmesejjieqezzaecehhweoeppseaexxoemeffkeyennge
lfwwdfxfeezfjfmmvfvfuurfhfccnftfkkjfrfaabfdfiixf
pfqqtfbfyypfnfgglfzfoohfmgxxegygffagkgnnwgwgvvsg
igddogugllkgsgbbcgegjjygqgrrugcgzzqgoghhmgagppig
nhyyfhzhggbhlhooxhxhwwthjheephvhmmlhthccdhfhkkzh
rhssvhdhaarhphiinhbhqqjhoizzgiaihhcimippyiyixxui
kiffqiwinnmiuiddeigillaisittwieibbsiqijjoicirrki
pjaahjbjiidjnjqqzjzjyyvjljggrjxjoonjvjeefjhjmmbj
tjuuxjfjcctjrjkkpjdjssljqkbbikckjjekokrrakakzzwk
mkhhskykppokwkffgkiknnckukvvykgkddukskllqkekttmk
rlccjldlkkflplssblblaaxlnliitlzlqqplxlgghljloodl
vlwwzlhleevltlmmrlfluunlsmddkmemllgmqmttcmcmbbym
omjjumamrrqmymhhimkmppemwmxxamimffwmumnnsmgmvvom
tneelnfnmmhnrnuudndnccznpnkkvnbnssrnzniijnlnqqfn
xnyybnjnggxnvnootnhnwwpnuoffmogonniosovveoeoddao
qollwocottsoaojjkomorrgoyozzcokohhyowoppuoioxxqo
vpggnphpoojptpwwfpfpeebprpmmxpdpuutpbpkklpnpsshp
zpaadplpiizpxpqqvpjpyyrpwqhhoqiqppkquqxxgqgqffcq
sqnnyqeqvvuqcqllmqoqttiqaqbbeqmqjjaqyqrrwqkqzzsq
xriiprjrqqlrvryyhrhrggdrtroozrfrwwvrdrmmnrpruujr
brccfrnrkkbrzrssxrlraatrysjjqsksrrmswszzisishhes
usppasgsxxwsesnnosqsvvkscsddgsosllcsasttysmsbbus
ztkkrtltssntxtaajtjtiiftvtqqbthtyyxtftooptrtwwlt
dteehtptmmdtbtuuztntccvtaullsumuttouyubbkukujjgu
wurrcuiuzzyuguppqusuxxmueuffiuqunneucuvvauouddwu
bvmmtvnvuupvzvcclvlvkkhvxvssdvjvaazvhvqqrvtvyynv
fvggjvrvoofvdvwwbvpveexvcwnnuwowvvqwawddmwmwlliw
ywttewkwbbawiwrrswuwzzowgwhhkwswppgwewxxcwqwffyw
dxoovxpxwwrxbxeenxnxmmjxzxuufxlxccbxjxsstxvxaapx
hxiilxtxqqhxfxyydxrxggzxeyppwyqyxxsycyffoyoynnky
ayvvgymyddcykyttuywybbqyiyjjmyuyrriygyzzeysyhhay
fzqqxzrzyytzdzggpzpzoolzbzwwhznzeedzlzuuvzxzccrz
jzkknzvzssjzhzaafztziibzgarryasazzuaeahhqaqappma
caxxiaoaffeamavvwayaddsakalloawattkaiabbgauajjca

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: garrya
Cipher: tneeln

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: garrya
Cipher: 221124244511

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: garrya
method variations:
mfwwdfrlbbilwqggoqbvmmtv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g a r r y a 
2 1 2 2 4 1 
2 1 4 4 5 1 
They are then read out in rows:
212241214451
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: garrya
Cipher: bgdbte

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: garrya
method variations:
bfitef fitefb itefbf
tefbfi efbfit fbfite

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: garrya

all 720 cipher variations:
garrya garray garyra garyar garayr garary garrya garray garyra garyar garayr
garary gayrra gayrar gayrra gayrar gayarr gayarr gaaryr gaarry gaayrr gaayrr
gaaryr gaarry grarya graray grayra grayar graayr graary grraya grraay grryaa
grryaa grraya grraay gryraa gryraa gryara gryaar gryaar gryara grarya graray
grayra grayar graayr graary grraya grraay grryaa grryaa grraya grraay grarya
graray grayra grayar graayr graary gryara gryaar gryraa gryraa gryara gryaar
graayr graary grayar grayra grarya graray gyrraa gyrraa gyrara gyraar gyraar
gyrara gyrraa gyrraa gyrara gyraar gyraar gyrara gyarra gyarar gyarra gyarar
gyaarr gyaarr gyarar gyarra gyaarr gyaarr gyarar gyarra garrya garray garyra
garyar garayr garary garrya garray garyra garyar garayr garary gayrra gayrar
gayrra gayrar gayarr gayarr gaaryr gaarry gaayrr gaayrr gaaryr gaarry agrrya
agrray agryra agryar agrayr agrary agrrya agrray agryra agryar agrayr agrary
agyrra agyrar agyrra agyrar agyarr agyarr agaryr agarry agayrr agayrr agaryr
agarry argrya argray argyra argyar argayr argary arrgya arrgay arryga arryag
arrayg arragy aryrga aryrag arygra arygar aryagr aryarg araryg arargy arayrg
araygr aragyr aragry arrgya arrgay arryga arryag arrayg arragy argrya argray
argyra argyar argayr argary arygra arygar aryrga aryrag aryarg aryagr aragyr
aragry araygr arayrg araryg arargy ayrrga ayrrag ayrgra ayrgar ayragr ayrarg
ayrrga ayrrag ayrgra ayrgar ayragr ayrarg aygrra aygrar aygrra aygrar aygarr
aygarr ayargr ayarrg ayagrr ayagrr ayargr ayarrg aarryg aarrgy aaryrg aarygr
aargyr aargry aarryg aarrgy aaryrg aarygr aargyr aargry aayrrg aayrgr aayrrg
aayrgr aaygrr aaygrr aagryr aagrry aagyrr aagyrr aagryr aagrry ragrya ragray
ragyra ragyar ragayr ragary rargya rargay raryga raryag rarayg raragy rayrga
rayrag raygra raygar rayagr rayarg raaryg raargy raayrg raaygr raagyr raagry
rgarya rgaray rgayra rgayar rgaayr rgaary rgraya rgraay rgryaa rgryaa rgraya
rgraay rgyraa rgyraa rgyara rgyaar rgyaar rgyara rgarya rgaray rgayra rgayar
rgaayr rgaary rrgaya rrgaay rrgyaa rrgyaa rrgaya rrgaay rragya rragay rrayga
rrayag rraayg rraagy rryaga rryaag rrygaa rrygaa rryaga rryaag rraayg rraagy
rrayag rrayga rragya rragay rygraa rygraa rygara rygaar rygaar rygara ryrgaa
ryrgaa ryraga ryraag ryraag ryraga ryarga ryarag ryagra ryagar ryaagr ryaarg
ryarag ryarga ryaarg ryaagr ryagar ryagra ragrya ragray ragyra ragyar ragayr
ragary rargya rargay raryga raryag rarayg raragy rayrga rayrag raygra raygar
rayagr rayarg raaryg raargy raayrg raaygr raagyr raagry rargya rargay raryga
raryag rarayg raragy ragrya ragray ragyra ragyar ragayr ragary raygra raygar
rayrga rayrag rayarg rayagr raagyr raagry raaygr raayrg raaryg raargy rragya
rragay rrayga rrayag rraayg rraagy rrgaya rrgaay rrgyaa rrgyaa rrgaya rrgaay
rrygaa rrygaa rryaga rryaag rryaag rryaga rragya rragay rrayga rrayag rraayg
rraagy rgraya rgraay rgryaa rgryaa rgraya rgraay rgarya rgaray rgayra rgayar
rgaayr rgaary rgyara rgyaar rgyraa rgyraa rgyara rgyaar rgaayr rgaary rgayar
rgayra rgarya rgaray ryrgaa ryrgaa ryraga ryraag ryraag ryraga rygraa rygraa
rygara rygaar rygaar rygara ryagra ryagar ryarga ryarag ryaarg ryaagr ryagar
ryagra ryaagr ryaarg ryarag ryarga rargya rargay raryga raryag rarayg raragy
ragrya ragray ragyra ragyar ragayr ragary raygra raygar rayrga rayrag rayarg
rayagr raagyr raagry raaygr raayrg raaryg raargy yarrga yarrag yargra yargar
yaragr yararg yarrga yarrag yargra yargar yaragr yararg yagrra yagrar yagrra
yagrar yagarr yagarr yaargr yaarrg yaagrr yaagrr yaargr yaarrg yrarga yrarag
yragra yragar yraagr yraarg yrraga yrraag yrrgaa yrrgaa yrraga yrraag yrgraa
yrgraa yrgara yrgaar yrgaar yrgara yrarga yrarag yragra yragar yraagr yraarg
yrraga yrraag yrrgaa yrrgaa yrraga yrraag yrarga yrarag yragra yragar yraagr
yraarg yrgara yrgaar yrgraa yrgraa yrgara yrgaar yraagr yraarg yragar yragra
yrarga yrarag ygrraa ygrraa ygrara ygraar ygraar ygrara ygrraa ygrraa ygrara
ygraar ygraar ygrara ygarra ygarar ygarra ygarar ygaarr ygaarr ygarar ygarra
ygaarr ygaarr ygarar ygarra yarrga yarrag yargra yargar yaragr yararg yarrga
yarrag yargra yargar yaragr yararg yagrra yagrar yagrra yagrar yagarr yagarr
yaargr yaarrg yaagrr yaagrr yaargr yaarrg aarryg aarrgy aaryrg aarygr aargyr
aargry aarryg aarrgy aaryrg aarygr aargyr aargry aayrrg aayrgr aayrrg aayrgr
aaygrr aaygrr aagryr aagrry aagyrr aagyrr aagryr aagrry araryg arargy arayrg
araygr aragyr aragry arrayg arragy arryag arryga arrgya arrgay aryrag aryrga
aryarg aryagr arygar arygra argrya argray argyra argyar argayr argary arrayg
arragy arryag arryga arrgya arrgay araryg arargy arayrg araygr aragyr aragry
aryarg aryagr aryrag aryrga arygra arygar argayr argary argyar argyra argrya
argray ayrrag ayrrga ayrarg ayragr ayrgar ayrgra ayrrag ayrrga ayrarg ayragr
ayrgar ayrgra ayarrg ayargr ayarrg ayargr ayagrr ayagrr aygrar aygrra aygarr
aygarr aygrar aygrra agrrya agrray agryra agryar agrayr agrary agrrya agrray
agryra agryar agrayr agrary agyrra agyrar agyrra agyrar agyarr agyarr agaryr
agarry agayrr agayrr agaryr agarry

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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