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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: galang
cipher variations:
hbmboh icncpi jdodqj keperk lfqfsl
mgrgtm nhshun oitivo pjujwp qkvkxq
rlwlyr smxmzs tnynat uozobu vpapcv
wqbqdw xrcrex ysdsfy ztetgz aufuha
bvgvib cwhwjc dxixkd eyjyle fzkzmf

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: galang
Cipher: tzozmt

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: galang
Cipher: AABBA AAAAA ABABA AAAAA ABBAA AABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: galang
cipher variations:
hbmbohtbibotfbebofrbabordbwbodpbsbopnbkbonzbgboz
lbcbolxbyboxjbubojvbqbovicncpiucjcpugcfcpgscbcps
ecxcpeqctcpqoclcpoachcpamcdcpmyczcpykcvcpkwcrcpw
jdodqjvdkdqvhdgdqhtdcdqtfdydqfrdudqrpdmdqpbdidqb
ndedqnzdadqzldwdqlxdsdqxkeperkwelerwieheriuederu
gezergseversqenerqcejercoeferoaeberamexermyetery
lfqfslxfmfsxjfifsjvfefsvhfafshtfwfstrfofsrdfkfsd
pfgfspbfcfsbnfyfsnzfufszmgrgtmygngtykgjgtkwgfgtw
igbgtiugxgtusgpgtseglgteqghgtqcgdgtcogzgtoagvgta
nhshunzhohuzlhkhulxhghuxjhchujvhyhuvthqhutfhmhuf
rhihurdhehudphahupbhwhuboitivoaipivamilivmyihivy
kidivkwizivwuirivuginivgsijivseifiveqibivqcixivc
pjujwpbjqjwbnjmjwnzjijwzljejwlxjajwxvjsjwvhjojwh
tjkjwtfjgjwfrjcjwrdjyjwdqkvkxqckrkxcoknkxoakjkxa
mkfkxmykbkxywktkxwikpkxiuklkxugkhkxgskdkxsekzkxe
rlwlyrdlslydplolypblklybnlglynzlclyzxlulyxjlqlyj
vlmlyvhlilyhtlelytflalyfsmxmzsemtmzeqmpmzqcmlmzc
omhmzoamdmzaymvmzykmrmzkwmnmzwimjmziumfmzugmbmzg
tnynatfnunafrnqnardnmnadpninapbnenabznwnazlnsnal
xnonaxjnknajvngnavhncnahuozobugovobgsorobseonobe
qojobqcofobcaoxobamotobmyopobykolobkwohobwiodobi
vpapcvhpwpchtpspctfpopcfrpkpcrdpgpcdbpypcbnpupcn
zpqpczlpmpclxpipcxjpepcjwqbqdwiqxqdiuqtqdugqpqdg
sqlqdseqhqdecqzqdcoqvqdoaqrqdamqnqdmyqjqdykqfqdk
xrcrexjryrejvrurevhrqrehtrmretfrirefdraredprwrep
brsrebnrorenzrkrezlrgrelysdsfykszsfkwsvsfwisrsfi
usnsfugsjsfgesbsfeqsxsfqcstsfcospsfoaslsfamshsfm
ztetgzltatglxtwtgxjtstgjvtotgvhtktghftctgfrtytgr
dtutgdptqtgpbtmtgbntitgnaufuhamubuhmyuxuhykutuhk
wupuhwiuluhiguduhgsuzuhseuvuhequruhqcunuhcoujuho
bvgvibnvcvinzvyvizlvuvilxvqvixjvmvijhvevihtvavit
fvwvifrvsvirdvovidpvkvipcwhwjcowdwjoawzwjamwvwjm
ywrwjykwnwjkiwfwjiuwbwjugwxwjgswtwjsewpwjeqwlwjq
dxixkdpxexkpbxaxkbnxwxknzxsxkzlxoxkljxgxkjvxcxkv
hxyxkhtxuxktfxqxkfrxmxkreyjyleqyfylqcybylcoyxylo
aytylamypylmkyhylkwydylwiyzyliuyvylugyrylgsynyls
fzkzmfrzgzmrdzczmdpzyzmpbzuzmbnzqzmnlzizmlxzezmx
jzazmjvzwzmvhzszmhtzozmtgalangsahanseadaneqazanq
cavancoaranomajanmyafanykabankwaxanwiataniuapanu

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: galang
Cipher: tnynat

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: galang
Cipher: 221113113322

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: galang
method variations:
mfqfsmrlvlxrwqaqcwbvfvhb

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g a l a n g 
2 1 1 1 3 2 
2 1 3 1 3 2 
They are then read out in rows:
211132213132
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: galang
Cipher: bahbch

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: galang
method variations:
baclhg aclhgb clhgba
lhgbac hgbacl gbaclh

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: galang

all 720 cipher variations:
galang galagn galnag galnga galgna galgan gaalng gaalgn gaanlg gaangl gaagnl
gaagln ganalg ganagl ganlag ganlga gangla gangal gaganl gagaln gagnal gagnla
gaglna gaglan glaang glaagn glanag glanga glagna glagan glaang glaagn glanag
glanga glagna glagan glnaag glnaga glnaag glnaga glngaa glngaa glgana glgaan
glgnaa glgnaa glgana glgaan galang galagn galnag galnga galgna galgan gaalng
gaalgn gaanlg gaangl gaagnl gaagln ganalg ganagl ganlag ganlga gangla gangal
gaganl gagaln gagnal gagnla gaglna gaglan gnlaag gnlaga gnlaag gnlaga gnlgaa
gnlgaa gnalag gnalga gnaalg gnaagl gnagal gnagla gnaalg gnaagl gnalag gnalga
gnagla gnagal gngaal gngala gngaal gngala gnglaa gnglaa gglana gglaan gglnaa
gglnaa gglana gglaan ggalna ggalan gganla gganal ggaanl ggaaln ggnala ggnaal
ggnlaa ggnlaa ggnala ggnaal ggaanl ggaaln gganal gganla ggalna ggalan aglang
aglagn aglnag aglnga aglgna aglgan agalng agalgn aganlg agangl agagnl agagln
agnalg agnagl agnlag agnlga agngla agngal agganl aggaln aggnal aggnla agglna
agglan algang algagn algnag algnga alggna alggan alagng alaggn alangg alangg
alagng alaggn alnagg alnagg alngag alngga alngga alngag algang algagn algnag
algnga alggna alggan aalgng aalggn aalngg aalngg aalgng aalggn aaglng aaglgn
aagnlg aagngl aaggnl aaggln aanglg aanggl aanlgg aanlgg aanglg aanggl aaggnl
aaggln aagngl aagnlg aaglng aaglgn anlagg anlagg anlgag anlgga anlgga anlgag
analgg analgg anaglg anaggl anaggl anaglg angalg angagl anglag anglga anggla
anggal angagl angalg anggal anggla anglga anglag aglang aglagn aglnag aglnga
aglgna aglgan agalng agalgn aganlg agangl agagnl agagln agnalg agnagl agnlag
agnlga agngla agngal agganl aggaln aggnal aggnla agglna agglan lagang lagagn
lagnag lagnga laggna laggan laagng laaggn laangg laangg laagng laaggn lanagg
lanagg langag langga langga langag lagang lagagn lagnag lagnga laggna laggan
lgaang lgaagn lganag lganga lgagna lgagan lgaang lgaagn lganag lganga lgagna
lgagan lgnaag lgnaga lgnaag lgnaga lgngaa lgngaa lggana lggaan lggnaa lggnaa
lggana lggaan lagang lagagn lagnag lagnga laggna laggan laagng laaggn laangg
laangg laagng laaggn lanagg lanagg langag langga langga langag lagang lagagn
lagnag lagnga laggna laggan lngaag lngaga lngaag lngaga lnggaa lnggaa lnagag
lnagga lnaagg lnaagg lnagag lnagga lnaagg lnaagg lnagag lnagga lnagga lnagag
lngaag lngaga lngaag lngaga lnggaa lnggaa lggana lggaan lggnaa lggnaa lggana
lggaan lgagna lgagan lganga lganag lgaang lgaagn lgnaga lgnaag lgngaa lgngaa
lgnaga lgnaag lgaang lgaagn lganag lganga lgagna lgagan aalgng aalggn aalngg
aalngg aalgng aalggn aaglng aaglgn aagnlg aagngl aaggnl aaggln aanglg aanggl
aanlgg aanlgg aanglg aanggl aaggnl aaggln aagngl aagnlg aaglng aaglgn alagng
alaggn alangg alangg alagng alaggn algang algagn algnag algnga alggna alggan
alngag alngga alnagg alnagg alngag alngga alggna alggan algnga algnag algang
algagn aglang aglagn aglnag aglnga aglgna aglgan agalng agalgn aganlg agangl
agagnl agagln agnalg agnagl agnlag agnlga agngla agngal agganl aggaln aggnal
aggnla agglna agglan anlgag anlgga anlagg anlagg anlgag anlgga anglag anglga
angalg angagl anggal anggla anaglg anaggl analgg analgg anaglg anaggl anggal
anggla angagl angalg anglag anglga aglgna aglgan aglnga aglnag aglang aglagn
agglna agglan aggnla aggnal agganl aggaln agngla agngal agnlga agnlag agnalg
agnagl agagnl agagln agangl aganlg agalng agalgn nalagg nalagg nalgag nalgga
nalgga nalgag naalgg naalgg naaglg naaggl naaggl naaglg nagalg nagagl naglag
naglga naggla naggal nagagl nagalg naggal naggla naglga naglag nlaagg nlaagg
nlagag nlagga nlagga nlagag nlaagg nlaagg nlagag nlagga nlagga nlagag nlgaag
nlgaga nlgaag nlgaga nlggaa nlggaa nlgaga nlgaag nlggaa nlggaa nlgaga nlgaag
nalagg nalagg nalgag nalgga nalgga nalgag naalgg naalgg naaglg naaggl naaggl
naaglg nagalg nagagl naglag naglga naggla naggal nagagl nagalg naggal naggla
naglga naglag nglaag nglaga nglaag nglaga nglgaa nglgaa ngalag ngalga ngaalg
ngaagl ngagal ngagla ngaalg ngaagl ngalag ngalga ngagla ngagal nggaal nggala
nggaal nggala ngglaa ngglaa nglaga nglaag nglgaa nglgaa nglaga nglaag ngalga
ngalag ngagla ngagal ngaagl ngaalg nggala nggaal ngglaa ngglaa nggala nggaal
ngaagl ngaalg ngagal ngagla ngalga ngalag galang galagn galnag galnga galgna
galgan gaalng gaalgn gaanlg gaangl gaagnl gaagln ganalg ganagl ganlag ganlga
gangla gangal gaganl gagaln gagnal gagnla gaglna gaglan glaang glaagn glanag
glanga glagna glagan glaang glaagn glanag glanga glagna glagan glnaag glnaga
glnaag glnaga glngaa glngaa glgana glgaan glgnaa glgnaa glgana glgaan galang
galagn galnag galnga galgna galgan gaalng gaalgn gaanlg gaangl gaagnl gaagln
ganalg ganagl ganlag ganlga gangla gangal gaganl gagaln gagnal gagnla gaglna
gaglan gnlaag gnlaga gnlaag gnlaga gnlgaa gnlgaa gnalag gnalga gnaalg gnaagl
gnagal gnagla gnaalg gnaagl gnalag gnalga gnagla gnagal gngaal gngala gngaal
gngala gnglaa gnglaa gglana gglaan gglnaa gglnaa gglana gglaan ggalna ggalan
gganla gganal ggaanl ggaaln ggnala ggnaal ggnlaa ggnlaa ggnala ggnaal ggaanl
ggaaln gganal gganla ggalna ggalan

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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