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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: gaebel
cipher variations:
hbfcfm icgdgn jdheho keifip lfjgjq
mgkhkr nhlils oimjmt pjnknu qkolov
rlpmpw smqnqx tnrory uospsz vptqta
wqurub xrvsvc yswtwd ztxuxe auyvyf
bvzwzg cwaxah dxbybi eyczcj fzdadk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: gaebel
Cipher: tzvyvo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: gaebel
Cipher: AABBA AAAAA AABAA AAAAB AABAA ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: gaebel
cipher variations:
hbfcfmtbnenifbvgverbdidadblklwpbtmtsnbjqjkzbrsrg
lbzuzcxbhwhyjbpypuvbxaxqicgdgnucofojgcwhwfscejeb
ecmlmxqcunutockrklacstshmcavadycixizkcqzqvwcybyr
jdhehovdpgpkhdxixgtdfkfcfdnmnyrdvovupdlslmbdtuti
ndbwbezdjyjaldrarwxdzczskeifipweqhqlieyjyhueglgd
geonozsewpwvqemtmnceuvujoecxcfaekzkbmesbsxyeadat
lfjgjqxfrirmjfzkzivfhmhehfpopatfxqxwrfnunodfvwvk
pfdydgbflalcnftctyzfbebumgkhkrygsjsnkgalajwginif
igqpqbugyryxsgovopegwxwlqgezehcgmbmdoguduzagcfcv
nhlilszhtktolhbmbkxhjojgjhrqrcvhzszythpwpqfhxyxm
rhfafidhncnephvevabhdgdwoimjmtaiulupmicnclyikpkh
kisrsdwiatazuiqxqrgiyzynsigbgjeiodofqiwfwbciehex
pjnknubjvmvqnjdodmzjlqliljtstexjbubavjryrshjzazo
tjhchkfjpepgrjxgxcdjfifyqkolovckwnwrokepenakmrmj
mkutufykcvcbwkszstikabapukidilgkqfqhskyhydekgjgz
rlpmpwdlxoxsplfqfoblnsnknlvuvgzldwdcxltatujlbcbq
vljejmhlrgritlzizeflhkhasmqnqxemypytqmgrgpcmotol
omwvwhamexedymubuvkmcdcrwmkfknimshsjumajafgmilib
tnroryfnzqzurnhshqdnpupmpnxwxibnfyfeznvcvwlndeds
xnlglojntitkvnbkbghnjmjcuospszgoaravsoitireoqvqn
qoyxyjcogzgfaowdwxmoefetyomhmpkoujulwoclchioknkd
vptqtahpbsbwtpjujsfprwrorpzyzkdphahgbpxexynpfgfu
zpninqlpvkvmxpdmdijplolewqurubiqctcxuqkvktgqsxsp
sqazaleqibihcqyfyzoqghgvaqojormqwlwnyqenejkqmpmf
xrvsvcjrdudyvrlwluhrtytqtrbabmfrjcjidrzgzaprhihw
brpkpsnrxmxozrfofklrnqngyswtwdksevezwsmxmvisuzur
uscbcngskdkjesahabqsijixcsqlqtosynypasgpglmsoroh
ztxuxeltfwfaxtnynwjtvavsvtdcdohtlelkftbibcrtjkjy
dtrmruptzozqbthqhmntpspiauyvyfmugxgbyuozoxkuwbwt
wuedepiumfmlgucjcdsuklkzeusnsvquaparcuirinouqtqj
bvzwzgnvhyhczvpapylvxcxuxvfefqjvngnmhvdkdetvlmla
fvtotwrvbqbsdvjsjopvrurkcwaxahowizidawqbqzmwydyv
ywgfgrkwohoniwelefuwmnmbgwupuxswcrctewktkpqwsvsl
dxbybipxjajebxrcranxzezwzxhghslxpipojxfmfgvxnonc
hxvqvytxdsdufxlulqrxtwtmeyczcjqykbkfcysdsboyafax
ayihitmyqjqpkygnghwyopodiywrwzuyetevgymvmrsyuxun
fzdadkrzlclgdztetcpzbgbybzjijunzrkrqlzhohixzpqpe
jzxsxavzfufwhznwnstzvyvogaebelsamdmheaufudqachcz
cakjkvoaslsrmaipijyaqrqfkaytybwagvgxiaoxotuawzwp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: gaebel
Cipher: tnrory

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: gaebel
Cipher: 221151215113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: gaebel
method variations:
mfkgkqrlpmpvwquruabvzwzf

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g a e b e l 
2 1 5 2 5 1 
2 1 1 1 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
215251211113
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: gaebel
Cipher: bkebal

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: gaebel
method variations:
bvfvah vfvahb fvahbv
vahbvf ahbvfv hbvfva

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: gaebel

all 720 cipher variations:
gaebel gaeble gaeebl gaeelb gaeleb gaelbe gabeel gabele gabeel gabele gablee
gablee gaebel gaeble gaeebl gaeelb gaeleb gaelbe galbee galbee galebe galeeb
galeeb galebe geabel geable geaebl geaelb gealeb gealbe gebael gebale gebeal
gebela geblea geblae geebal geebla geeabl geealb geelab geelba gelbea gelbae
geleba geleab gelaeb gelabe gbeael gbeale gbeeal gbeela gbelea gbelae gbaeel
gbaele gbaeel gbaele gbalee gbalee gbeael gbeale gbeeal gbeela gbelea gbelae
gblaee gblaee gbleae gbleea gbleea gbleae geebal geebla geeabl geealb geelab
geelba gebeal gebela gebael gebale geblae geblea geabel geable geaebl geaelb
gealeb gealbe gelbae gelbea gelabe gelaeb geleab geleba glebea glebae gleeba
gleeab gleaeb gleabe glbeea glbeae glbeea glbeae glbaee glbaee glebea glebae
gleeba gleeab gleaeb gleabe glabee glabee glaebe glaeeb glaeeb glaebe agebel
ageble ageebl ageelb ageleb agelbe agbeel agbele agbeel agbele agblee agblee
agebel ageble ageebl ageelb ageleb agelbe aglbee aglbee aglebe agleeb agleeb
aglebe aegbel aegble aegebl aegelb aegleb aeglbe aebgel aebgle aebegl aebelg
aebleg aeblge aeebgl aeeblg aeegbl aeeglb aeelgb aeelbg aelbeg aelbge aelebg
aelegb aelgeb aelgbe abegel abegle abeegl abeelg abeleg abelge abgeel abgele
abgeel abgele abglee abglee abegel abegle abeegl abeelg abeleg abelge ablgee
ablgee ablege ableeg ableeg ablege aeebgl aeeblg aeegbl aeeglb aeelgb aeelbg
aebegl aebelg aebgel aebgle aeblge aebleg aegbel aegble aegebl aegelb aegleb
aeglbe aelbge aelbeg aelgbe aelgeb aelegb aelebg alebeg alebge aleebg aleegb
alegeb alegbe albeeg albege albeeg albege albgee albgee alebeg alebge aleebg
aleegb alegeb alegbe algbee algbee algebe algeeb algeeb algebe eagbel eagble
eagebl eagelb eagleb eaglbe eabgel eabgle eabegl eabelg eableg eablge eaebgl
eaeblg eaegbl eaeglb eaelgb eaelbg ealbeg ealbge ealebg ealegb ealgeb ealgbe
egabel egable egaebl egaelb egaleb egalbe egbael egbale egbeal egbela egblea
egblae egebal egebla egeabl egealb egelab egelba eglbea eglbae egleba egleab
eglaeb eglabe ebgael ebgale ebgeal ebgela ebglea ebglae ebagel ebagle ebaegl
ebaelg ebaleg ebalge ebeagl ebealg ebegal ebegla ebelga ebelag eblaeg eblage
ebleag eblega eblgea eblgae eegbal eegbla eegabl eegalb eeglab eeglba eebgal
eebgla eebagl eebalg eeblag eeblga eeabgl eeablg eeagbl eeaglb eealgb eealbg
eelbag eelbga eelabg eelagb eelgab eelgba elgbea elgbae elgeba elgeab elgaeb
elgabe elbgea elbgae elbega elbeag elbaeg elbage elebga elebag elegba elegab
eleagb eleabg elabeg elabge elaebg elaegb elageb elagbe baegel baegle baeegl
baeelg baeleg baelge bageel bagele bageel bagele baglee baglee baegel baegle
baeegl baeelg baeleg baelge balgee balgee balege baleeg baleeg balege beagel
beagle beaegl beaelg bealeg bealge begael begale begeal begela beglea beglae
beegal beegla beeagl beealg beelag beelga belgea belgae belega beleag belaeg
belage bgeael bgeale bgeeal bgeela bgelea bgelae bgaeel bgaele bgaeel bgaele
bgalee bgalee bgeael bgeale bgeeal bgeela bgelea bgelae bglaee bglaee bgleae
bgleea bgleea bgleae beegal beegla beeagl beealg beelag beelga begeal begela
begael begale beglae beglea beagel beagle beaegl beaelg bealeg bealge belgae
belgea belage belaeg beleag belega blegea blegae bleega bleeag bleaeg bleage
blgeea blgeae blgeea blgeae blgaee blgaee blegea blegae bleega bleeag bleaeg
bleage blagee blagee blaege blaeeg blaeeg blaege eaebgl eaeblg eaegbl eaeglb
eaelgb eaelbg eabegl eabelg eabgel eabgle eablge eableg eagbel eagble eagebl
eagelb eagleb eaglbe ealbge ealbeg ealgbe ealgeb ealegb ealebg eeabgl eeablg
eeagbl eeaglb eealgb eealbg eebagl eebalg eebgal eebgla eeblga eeblag eegbal
eegbla eegabl eegalb eeglab eeglba eelbga eelbag eelgba eelgab eelagb eelabg
ebeagl ebealg ebegal ebegla ebelga ebelag ebaegl ebaelg ebagel ebagle ebalge
ebaleg ebgael ebgale ebgeal ebgela ebglea ebglae eblage eblaeg eblgae eblgea
eblega ebleag egebal egebla egeabl egealb egelab egelba egbeal egbela egbael
egbale egblae egblea egabel egable egaebl egaelb egaleb egalbe eglbae eglbea
eglabe eglaeb egleab egleba elebga elebag elegba elegab eleagb eleabg elbega
elbeag elbgea elbgae elbage elbaeg elgbea elgbae elgeba elgeab elgaeb elgabe
elabge elabeg elagbe elageb elaegb elaebg laebeg laebge laeebg laeegb laegeb
laegbe labeeg labege labeeg labege labgee labgee laebeg laebge laeebg laeegb
laegeb laegbe lagbee lagbee lagebe lageeb lageeb lagebe leabeg leabge leaebg
leaegb leageb leagbe lebaeg lebage lebeag lebega lebgea lebgae leebag leebga
leeabg leeagb leegab leegba legbea legbae legeba legeab legaeb legabe lbeaeg
lbeage lbeeag lbeega lbegea lbegae lbaeeg lbaege lbaeeg lbaege lbagee lbagee
lbeaeg lbeage lbeeag lbeega lbegea lbegae lbgaee lbgaee lbgeae lbgeea lbgeea
lbgeae leebag leebga leeabg leeagb leegab leegba lebeag lebega lebaeg lebage
lebgae lebgea leabeg leabge leaebg leaegb leageb leagbe legbae legbea legabe
legaeb legeab legeba lgebea lgebae lgeeba lgeeab lgeaeb lgeabe lgbeea lgbeae
lgbeea lgbeae lgbaee lgbaee lgebea lgebae lgeeba lgeeab lgeaeb lgeabe lgabee
lgabee lgaebe lgaeeb lgaeeb lgaebe

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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