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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: gables
cipher variations:
hbcmft icdngu jdeohv kefpiw lfgqjx
mghrky nhislz oijtma pjkunb qklvoc
rlmwpd smnxqe tnoyrf uopzsg vpqath
wqrbui xrscvj ystdwk ztuexl auvfym
bvwgzn cwxhao dxyibp eyzjcq fzakdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: gables
Cipher: tzyovh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: gables

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: gables
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: gables
Cipher: tnoyrf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: gables
Cipher: 221121135134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: gables
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
g a b l e s 
2 1 2 1 5 3 
2 1 1 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: gables
Cipher: bbpblq

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Method #3

Plaintext: gables
method variations:
bfaxli faxlib axlibf
xlibfa libfax ibfaxl

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: gables

all 720 cipher variations:
gables gablse gabels gabesl gabsel gabsle galbes galbse galebs galesb galseb
galsbe gaelbs gaelsb gaebls gaebsl gaesbl gaeslb gasleb gaslbe gaselb gasebl
gasbel gasble gbales gbalse gbaels gbaesl gbasel gbasle gblaes gblase gbleas
gblesa gblsea gblsae gbelas gbelsa gbeals gbeasl gbesal gbesla gbslea gbslae
gbsela gbseal gbsael gbsale glbaes glbase glbeas glbesa glbsea glbsae glabes
glabse glaebs glaesb glaseb glasbe gleabs gleasb glebas glebsa glesba glesab
glsaeb glsabe glseab glseba glsbea glsbae geblas geblsa gebals gebasl gebsal
gebsla gelbas gelbsa gelabs gelasb gelsab gelsba gealbs gealsb geabls geabsl
geasbl geaslb geslab geslba gesalb gesabl gesbal gesbla gsblea gsblae gsbela
gsbeal gsbael gsbale gslbea gslbae gsleba gsleab gslaeb gslabe gselba gselab
gsebla gsebal gseabl gsealb gsaleb gsalbe gsaelb gsaebl gsabel gsable agbles
agblse agbels agbesl agbsel agbsle aglbes aglbse aglebs aglesb aglseb aglsbe
agelbs agelsb agebls agebsl agesbl ageslb agsleb agslbe agselb agsebl agsbel
agsble abgles abglse abgels abgesl abgsel abgsle ablges ablgse ablegs ablesg
ablseg ablsge abelgs abelsg abegls abegsl abesgl abeslg absleg abslge abselg
absegl absgel absgle albges albgse albegs albesg albseg albsge algbes algbse
algebs algesb algseb algsbe alegbs alegsb alebgs alebsg alesbg alesgb alsgeb
alsgbe alsegb alsebg alsbeg alsbge aeblgs aeblsg aebgls aebgsl aebsgl aebslg
aelbgs aelbsg aelgbs aelgsb aelsgb aelsbg aeglbs aeglsb aegbls aegbsl aegsbl
aegslb aeslgb aeslbg aesglb aesgbl aesbgl aesblg asbleg asblge asbelg asbegl
asbgel asbgle aslbeg aslbge aslebg aslegb aslgeb aslgbe aselbg aselgb aseblg
asebgl asegbl aseglb asgleb asglbe asgelb asgebl asgbel asgble bagles baglse
bagels bagesl bagsel bagsle balges balgse balegs balesg balseg balsge baelgs
baelsg baegls baegsl baesgl baeslg basleg baslge baselg basegl basgel basgle
bgales bgalse bgaels bgaesl bgasel bgasle bglaes bglase bgleas bglesa bglsea
bglsae bgelas bgelsa bgeals bgeasl bgesal bgesla bgslea bgslae bgsela bgseal
bgsael bgsale blgaes blgase blgeas blgesa blgsea blgsae blages blagse blaegs
blaesg blaseg blasge bleags bleasg blegas blegsa blesga blesag blsaeg blsage
blseag blsega blsgea blsgae beglas beglsa begals begasl begsal begsla belgas
belgsa belags belasg belsag belsga bealgs bealsg beagls beagsl beasgl beaslg
beslag beslga besalg besagl besgal besgla bsglea bsglae bsgela bsgeal bsgael
bsgale bslgea bslgae bslega bsleag bslaeg bslage bselga bselag bsegla bsegal
bseagl bsealg bsaleg bsalge bsaelg bsaegl bsagel bsagle labges labgse labegs
labesg labseg labsge lagbes lagbse lagebs lagesb lagseb lagsbe laegbs laegsb
laebgs laebsg laesbg laesgb lasgeb lasgbe lasegb lasebg lasbeg lasbge lbages
lbagse lbaegs lbaesg lbaseg lbasge lbgaes lbgase lbgeas lbgesa lbgsea lbgsae
lbegas lbegsa lbeags lbeasg lbesag lbesga lbsgea lbsgae lbsega lbseag lbsaeg
lbsage lgbaes lgbase lgbeas lgbesa lgbsea lgbsae lgabes lgabse lgaebs lgaesb
lgaseb lgasbe lgeabs lgeasb lgebas lgebsa lgesba lgesab lgsaeb lgsabe lgseab
lgseba lgsbea lgsbae lebgas lebgsa lebags lebasg lebsag lebsga legbas legbsa
legabs legasb legsab legsba leagbs leagsb leabgs leabsg leasbg leasgb lesgab
lesgba lesagb lesabg lesbag lesbga lsbgea lsbgae lsbega lsbeag lsbaeg lsbage
lsgbea lsgbae lsgeba lsgeab lsgaeb lsgabe lsegba lsegab lsebga lsebag lseabg
lseagb lsageb lsagbe lsaegb lsaebg lsabeg lsabge eablgs eablsg eabgls eabgsl
eabsgl eabslg ealbgs ealbsg ealgbs ealgsb ealsgb ealsbg eaglbs eaglsb eagbls
eagbsl eagsbl eagslb easlgb easlbg easglb easgbl easbgl easblg ebalgs ebalsg
ebagls ebagsl ebasgl ebaslg eblags eblasg eblgas eblgsa eblsga eblsag ebglas
ebglsa ebgals ebgasl ebgsal ebgsla ebslga ebslag ebsgla ebsgal ebsagl ebsalg
elbags elbasg elbgas elbgsa elbsga elbsag elabgs elabsg elagbs elagsb elasgb
elasbg elgabs elgasb elgbas elgbsa elgsba elgsab elsagb elsabg elsgab elsgba
elsbga elsbag egblas egblsa egbals egbasl egbsal egbsla eglbas eglbsa eglabs
eglasb eglsab eglsba egalbs egalsb egabls egabsl egasbl egaslb egslab egslba
egsalb egsabl egsbal egsbla esblga esblag esbgla esbgal esbagl esbalg eslbga
eslbag eslgba eslgab eslagb eslabg esglba esglab esgbla esgbal esgabl esgalb
esalgb esalbg esaglb esagbl esabgl esablg sableg sablge sabelg sabegl sabgel
sabgle salbeg salbge salebg salegb salgeb salgbe saelbg saelgb saeblg saebgl
saegbl saeglb sagleb saglbe sagelb sagebl sagbel sagble sbaleg sbalge sbaelg
sbaegl sbagel sbagle sblaeg sblage sbleag sblega sblgea sblgae sbelag sbelga
sbealg sbeagl sbegal sbegla sbglea sbglae sbgela sbgeal sbgael sbgale slbaeg
slbage slbeag slbega slbgea slbgae slabeg slabge slaebg slaegb slageb slagbe
sleabg sleagb slebag slebga slegba slegab slgaeb slgabe slgeab slgeba slgbea
slgbae seblag seblga sebalg sebagl sebgal sebgla selbag selbga selabg selagb
selgab selgba sealbg sealgb seablg seabgl seagbl seaglb seglab seglba segalb
segabl segbal segbla sgblea sgblae sgbela sgbeal sgbael sgbale sglbea sglbae
sgleba sgleab sglaeb sglabe sgelba sgelab sgebla sgebal sgeabl sgealb sgaleb
sgalbe sgaelb sgaebl sgabel sgable

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History of cryptography
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