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chitters

whitleyism

iudicoque

frenavissem

nitroglycerines

pasquin

rumpisque

palaeotypically

eripi

jaboticaba

pollutedly

aerospace

doorkeeper

holdridge

concussion

nines

glimes

foregift


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: forfex
cipher variations:
gpsgfy hqthgz iruiha jsvjib ktwkjc
luxlkd mvymle nwznmf oxaong pybpoh
qzcqpi radrqj sbesrk tcftsl udgutm
vehvun wfiwvo xgjxwp yhkyxq zilzyr
ajmazs bknbat clocbu dmpdcv enqedw

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: forfex
Cipher: uliuvc

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: forfex
Cipher: AABAB ABBAB BAAAA AABAB AABAA BABAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: forfex
cipher variations:
gpsgfyqraqnsatiavmkvqkdguxyulaezgetuydwyjiifeirc
shmszwcjuchqmlcmpkwnkwxehqthgzrsbrotbujbwnlwrleh
vyzvmbfahfuvzexzkjjgfjsdtintaxdkvdirnmdnqlxolxyf
iruihastcspucvkcxomxsmfiwzawncgbigvwafyalkkhgkte
ujoubyelwejsoneormypmyzgjsvjibtudtqvdwldypnytngj
xabxodhcjhwxbgzbmllihlufvkpvczfmxfktpofpsnzqnzah
ktwkjcuveurwexmezqozuohkybcypeidkixychacnmmjimvg
wlqwdagnygluqpgqtoaroabiluxlkdvwfvsxfynfarpavpil
zcdzqfjeljyzdibdonnkjnwhxmrxebhozhmvrqhrupbspbcj
mvymlewxgwtygzogbsqbwqjmadeargkfmkzaejcepoolkoxi
ynsyfcipainwsrisvqctqcdknwznmfxyhxuzhaphctrcxrkn
befbshlgnlabfkdfqppmlpyjzotzgdjqbjoxtsjtwrdurdel
oxaongyziyvaibqidusdyslocfgctimhombcglegrqqnmqzk
apuahekrckpyutkuxsevsefmpybpohzajzwbjcrjevteztmp
dghdujnipncdhmfhsrronralbqvbiflsdlqzvulvytfwtfgn
qzcqpiabkaxckdskfwufaunqehievkojqodeingitssposbm
crwcjgmtemrawvmwzugxughoradrqjbclbydletlgxvgbvor
fijfwlpkrpefjohjuttqptcndsxdkhnufnsbxwnxavhyvhip
sbesrkcdmczemfumhywhcwpsgjkgxmqlsqfgkpikvuurqudo
etyeliovgotcyxoybwizwijqtcftsldendafngvnizxidxqt
hklhynrmtrghlqjlwvvsrvepfuzfmjpwhpudzypzcxjaxjkr
udgutmefoebgohwojayjeyruilmizosnushimrkmxwwtswfq
gvagnkqxiqveazqadykbyklsvehvunfgpfchpixpkbzkfzsv
jmnjaptovtijnslnyxxutxgrhwbholryjrwfbarbezlczlmt
wfiwvoghqgdiqjyqlcalgatwknokbqupwujkotmozyyvuyhs
ixcipmszksxgcbscfamdamnuxgjxwphirhejrkzrmdbmhbux
loplcrvqxvklpunpazzwvzitjydjqntaltyhdctdgbnebnov
yhkyxqijsifkslasnecnicvympqmdswrywlmqvoqbaaxwaju
kzekroubmuzieduehcofcopwzilzyrjktjgltmbtofdojdwz
nqrnetxszxmnrwprcbbyxbkvlaflspvcnvajfevfidpgdpqx
ajmazsklukhmuncupgepkexaorsofuytaynosxqsdcczyclw
mbgmtqwdowbkgfwgjeqheqrybknbatlmvlinvodvqhfqlfyb
pstpgvzubzoptyrteddazdmxnchnurxepxclhgxhkfrifrsz
clocbumnwmjowpewrigrmgzcqtuqhwavcapquzsufeebaeny
odiovsyfqydmihyilgsjgstadmpdcvnoxnkpxqfxsjhsnhad
ruvrixbwdbqrvatvgffcbfozpejpwtzgrzenjizjmhtkhtub
enqedwopyolqyrgytkitoibesvwsjycxecrswbuwhggdcgpa
qfkqxuahsafokjakniuliuvcforfexpqzpmrzshzuljupjcf
twxtkzdyfdstxcvxihhedhqbrglryvbitbgplkblojvmjvwd

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: forfex
Cipher: sbesrk

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: forfex
Cipher: 124324125135

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: forfex
method variations:
ltwlkcqybqphvdgvunaimazs

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
f o r f e x 
1 4 2 1 5 3 
2 3 4 2 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
142153234215
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: forfex
Cipher: qbpmiv

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: forfex
method variations:
rhdwle hdwler dwlerh
wlerhd lerhdw erhdwl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: forfex

all 720 cipher variations:
forfex forfxe forefx forexf forxef forxfe fofrex fofrxe foferx fofexr fofxer
fofxre foefrx foefxr foerfx foerxf foexrf foexfr foxfer foxfre foxefr foxerf
foxref foxrfe frofex frofxe froefx froexf froxef froxfe frfoex frfoxe frfeox
frfexo frfxeo frfxoe frefox frefxo freofx freoxf frexof frexfo frxfeo frxfoe
frxefo frxeof frxoef frxofe ffroex ffroxe ffreox ffrexo ffrxeo ffrxoe fforex
fforxe ffoerx ffoexr ffoxer ffoxre ffeorx ffeoxr fferox fferxo ffexro ffexor
ffxoer ffxore ffxeor ffxero ffxreo ffxroe ferfox ferfxo ferofx feroxf ferxof
ferxfo fefrox fefrxo feforx fefoxr fefxor fefxro feofrx feofxr feorfx feorxf
feoxrf feoxfr fexfor fexfro fexofr fexorf fexrof fexrfo fxrfeo fxrfoe fxrefo
fxreof fxroef fxrofe fxfreo fxfroe fxfero fxfeor fxfoer fxfore fxefro fxefor
fxerfo fxerof fxeorf fxeofr fxofer fxofre fxoefr fxoerf fxoref fxorfe ofrfex
ofrfxe ofrefx ofrexf ofrxef ofrxfe offrex offrxe offerx offexr offxer offxre
ofefrx ofefxr oferfx oferxf ofexrf ofexfr ofxfer ofxfre ofxefr ofxerf ofxref
ofxrfe orffex orffxe orfefx orfexf orfxef orfxfe orffex orffxe orfefx orfexf
orfxef orfxfe oreffx orefxf oreffx orefxf orexff orexff orxfef orxffe orxeff
orxeff orxfef orxffe ofrfex ofrfxe ofrefx ofrexf ofrxef ofrxfe offrex offrxe
offerx offexr offxer offxre ofefrx ofefxr oferfx oferxf ofexrf ofexfr ofxfer
ofxfre ofxefr ofxerf ofxref ofxrfe oerffx oerfxf oerffx oerfxf oerxff oerxff
oefrfx oefrxf oeffrx oeffxr oefxfr oefxrf oeffrx oeffxr oefrfx oefrxf oefxrf
oefxfr oexffr oexfrf oexffr oexfrf oexrff oexrff oxrfef oxrffe oxreff oxreff
oxrfef oxrffe oxfref oxfrfe oxferf oxfefr oxffer oxffre oxefrf oxeffr oxerff
oxerff oxefrf oxeffr oxffer oxffre oxfefr oxferf oxfref oxfrfe roffex roffxe
rofefx rofexf rofxef rofxfe roffex roffxe rofefx rofexf rofxef rofxfe roeffx
roefxf roeffx roefxf roexff roexff roxfef roxffe roxeff roxeff roxfef roxffe
rfofex rfofxe rfoefx rfoexf rfoxef rfoxfe rffoex rffoxe rffeox rffexo rffxeo
rffxoe rfefox rfefxo rfeofx rfeoxf rfexof rfexfo rfxfeo rfxfoe rfxefo rfxeof
rfxoef rfxofe rffoex rffoxe rffeox rffexo rffxeo rffxoe rfofex rfofxe rfoefx
rfoexf rfoxef rfoxfe rfeofx rfeoxf rfefox rfefxo rfexfo rfexof rfxoef rfxofe
rfxeof rfxefo rfxfeo rfxfoe reffox reffxo refofx refoxf refxof refxfo reffox
reffxo refofx refoxf refxof refxfo reoffx reofxf reoffx reofxf reoxff reoxff
rexfof rexffo rexoff rexoff rexfof rexffo rxffeo rxffoe rxfefo rxfeof rxfoef
rxfofe rxffeo rxffoe rxfefo rxfeof rxfoef rxfofe rxeffo rxefof rxeffo rxefof
rxeoff rxeoff rxofef rxoffe rxoeff rxoeff rxofef rxoffe forfex forfxe forefx
forexf forxef forxfe fofrex fofrxe foferx fofexr fofxer fofxre foefrx foefxr
foerfx foerxf foexrf foexfr foxfer foxfre foxefr foxerf foxref foxrfe frofex
frofxe froefx froexf froxef froxfe frfoex frfoxe frfeox frfexo frfxeo frfxoe
frefox frefxo freofx freoxf frexof frexfo frxfeo frxfoe frxefo frxeof frxoef
frxofe ffroex ffroxe ffreox ffrexo ffrxeo ffrxoe fforex fforxe ffoerx ffoexr
ffoxer ffoxre ffeorx ffeoxr fferox fferxo ffexro ffexor ffxoer ffxore ffxeor
ffxero ffxreo ffxroe ferfox ferfxo ferofx feroxf ferxof ferxfo fefrox fefrxo
feforx fefoxr fefxor fefxro feofrx feofxr feorfx feorxf feoxrf feoxfr fexfor
fexfro fexofr fexorf fexrof fexrfo fxrfeo fxrfoe fxrefo fxreof fxroef fxrofe
fxfreo fxfroe fxfero fxfeor fxfoer fxfore fxefro fxefor fxerfo fxerof fxeorf
fxeofr fxofer fxofre fxoefr fxoerf fxoref fxorfe eorffx eorfxf eorffx eorfxf
eorxff eorxff eofrfx eofrxf eoffrx eoffxr eofxfr eofxrf eoffrx eoffxr eofrfx
eofrxf eofxrf eofxfr eoxffr eoxfrf eoxffr eoxfrf eoxrff eoxrff eroffx erofxf
eroffx erofxf eroxff eroxff erfofx erfoxf erffox erffxo erfxfo erfxof erffox
erffxo erfofx erfoxf erfxof erfxfo erxffo erxfof erxffo erxfof erxoff erxoff
efrofx efroxf efrfox efrfxo efrxfo efrxof eforfx eforxf efofrx efofxr efoxfr
efoxrf efforx effoxr effrox effrxo effxro effxor efxofr efxorf efxfor efxfro
efxrfo efxrof efrfox efrfxo efrofx efroxf efrxof efrxfo effrox effrxo efforx
effoxr effxor effxro efofrx efofxr eforfx eforxf efoxrf efoxfr efxfor efxfro
efxofr efxorf efxrof efxrfo exrffo exrfof exrffo exrfof exroff exroff exfrfo
exfrof exffro exffor exfofr exforf exffro exffor exfrfo exfrof exforf exfofr
exoffr exofrf exoffr exofrf exorff exorff xorfef xorffe xoreff xoreff xorfef
xorffe xofref xofrfe xoferf xofefr xoffer xoffre xoefrf xoeffr xoerff xoerff
xoefrf xoeffr xoffer xoffre xofefr xoferf xofref xofrfe xrofef xroffe xroeff
xroeff xrofef xroffe xrfoef xrfofe xrfeof xrfefo xrffeo xrffoe xrefof xreffo
xreoff xreoff xrefof xreffo xrffeo xrffoe xrfefo xrfeof xrfoef xrfofe xfroef
xfrofe xfreof xfrefo xfrfeo xfrfoe xforef xforfe xfoerf xfoefr xfofer xfofre
xfeorf xfeofr xferof xferfo xfefro xfefor xffoer xffore xffeor xffero xffreo
xffroe xerfof xerffo xeroff xeroff xerfof xerffo xefrof xefrfo xeforf xefofr
xeffor xeffro xeofrf xeoffr xeorff xeorff xeofrf xeoffr xeffor xeffro xefofr
xeforf xefrof xefrfo xfrfeo xfrfoe xfrefo xfreof xfroef xfrofe xffreo xffroe
xffero xffeor xffoer xffore xfefro xfefor xferfo xferof xfeorf xfeofr xfofer
xfofre xfoefr xfoerf xforef xforfe

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History of cryptography
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