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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: fogged
cipher variations:
gphhfe hqiigf irjjhg jskkih ktllji
lummkj mvnnlk nwooml oxppnm pyqqon
qzrrpo rassqp sbttrq tcuusr udvvts
vewwut wfxxvu xgyywv yhzzxw ziaayx
ajbbzy bkccaz clddba dmeecb enffdc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: fogged
Cipher: ulttvw

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: fogged
Cipher: AABAB ABBAB AABBA AABBA AABAA AAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: fogged
cipher variations:
gphhfeqrttnkatffvqkvrrdwuxddlcezpptiydnnjuifzzra
shllzgcjxxhmmljjpswnvvxyhqiigfrsuuolbuggwrlwssex
vyeemdfaqqujzeookvjgaasbtimmahdkyyinnmkkqtxowwyz
irjjhgstvvpmcvhhxsmxttfywzffnegbrrvkafpplwkhbbtc
ujnnbielzzjoonllruypxxzajskkihtuwwqndwiiytnyuugz
xaggofhcsswlbgqqmxliccudvkoocjfmaakppommsvzqyyab
ktlljiuvxxroexjjzuozvvhaybhhpgidttxmchrrnymjddve
wlppdkgnbblqqpnntwarzzbclummkjvwyyspfykkavpawwib
zciiqhjeuuyndissoznkeewfxmqqelhoccmrrqoouxbsaacd
mvnnlkwxzztqgzllbwqbxxjcadjjrikfvvzoejttpaolffxg
ynrrfmipddnssrppvyctbbdenwoomlxyaaurhammcxrcyykd
bekksjlgwwapfkuuqbpmggyhzossgnjqeeottsqqwzduccef
oxppnmyzbbvsibnndysdzzlecflltkmhxxbqglvvrcqnhhzi
aptthokrffpuutrrxaevddfgpyqqonzaccwtjcooezteaamf
dgmmulniyycrhmwwsdroiiajbquuiplsggqvvussybfweegh
qzrrpoabddxukdppfaufbbngehnnvmojzzdsinxxtespjjbk
crvvjqmthhrwwvttzcgxffhirassqpbceeyvleqqgbvgccoh
fioownpkaaetjoyyuftqkkcldswwkrnuiisxxwuuadhyggij
sbttrqcdffzwmfrrhcwhddpigjppxoqlbbfukpzzvgurlldm
etxxlsovjjtyyxvvbeizhhjktcuusrdeggaxngssidxieeqj
hkqqyprmccgvlqaawhvsmmenfuyymtpwkkuzzywwcfjaiikl
udvvtsefhhbyohttjeyjffrkilrrzqsnddhwmrbbxiwtnnfo
gvzznuqxllvaazxxdgkbjjlmvewwutfgiiczpiuukfzkggsl
jmssartoeeixnsccyjxuoogphwaaovrymmwbbayyehlckkmn
wfxxvughjjdaqjvvlgalhhtmknttbsupffjyotddzkyvpphq
ixbbpwsznnxccbzzfimdllnoxgyywvhikkebrkwwmhbmiiun
louuctvqggkzpueealzwqqirjyccqxtaooyddcaagjnemmop
yhzzxwijllfcslxxnicnjjvompvvduwrhhlaqvffbmaxrrjs
kzddryubppzeedbbhkofnnpqziaayxjkmmgdtmyyojdokkwp
nqwwevxsiimbrwggcnbyssktlaeeszvcqqaffeccilpgooqr
ajbbzyklnnheunzzpkepllxqorxxfwytjjncsxhhdoczttlu
mbfftawdrrbggfddjmqhpprsbkccazlmooifvoaaqlfqmmyr
psyygxzukkodtyiiepdauumvncggubxesschhgeeknriqqst
clddbamnppjgwpbbrmgrnnzsqtzzhyavllpeuzjjfqebvvnw
odhhvcyfttdiihfflosjrrtudmeecbnoqqkhxqccsnhsooat
ruaaizbwmmqfvakkgrfcwwoxpeiiwdzguuejjiggmptkssuv
enffdcoprrliyrddtoitppbusvbbjacxnnrgwbllhsgdxxpy
qfjjxeahvvfkkjhhnqulttvwfoggedpqssmjzseeupjuqqcv
twcckbdyooshxcmmitheyyqzrgkkyfbiwwgllkiiorvmuuwx

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: fogged
Cipher: sbttrq

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: fogged
Cipher: 124322225141

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: fogged
method variations:
ltmmkiqyrrpovdwwutaibbzy

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
f o g g e d 
1 4 2 2 5 4 
2 3 2 2 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
142254232211
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: fogged
Cipher: qgumga

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: fogged
method variations:
rhgwqa hgwqar gwqarh
wqarhg qarhgw arhgwq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: fogged

all 720 cipher variations:
fogged foggde fogegd fogedg fogdeg fogdge fogged foggde fogegd fogedg fogdeg
fogdge foeggd foegdg foeggd foegdg foedgg foedgg fodgeg fodgge fodegg fodegg
fodgeg fodgge fgoged fgogde fgoegd fgoedg fgodeg fgodge fggoed fggode fggeod
fggedo fggdeo fggdoe fgegod fgegdo fgeogd fgeodg fgedog fgedgo fgdgeo fgdgoe
fgdego fgdeog fgdoeg fgdoge fggoed fggode fggeod fggedo fggdeo fggdoe fgoged
fgogde fgoegd fgoedg fgodeg fgodge fgeogd fgeodg fgegod fgegdo fgedgo fgedog
fgdoeg fgdoge fgdeog fgdego fgdgeo fgdgoe feggod feggdo fegogd fegodg fegdog
fegdgo feggod feggdo fegogd fegodg fegdog fegdgo feoggd feogdg feoggd feogdg
feodgg feodgg fedgog fedggo fedogg fedogg fedgog fedggo fdggeo fdggoe fdgego
fdgeog fdgoeg fdgoge fdggeo fdggoe fdgego fdgeog fdgoeg fdgoge fdeggo fdegog
fdeggo fdegog fdeogg fdeogg fdogeg fdogge fdoegg fdoegg fdogeg fdogge ofgged
ofggde ofgegd ofgedg ofgdeg ofgdge ofgged ofggde ofgegd ofgedg ofgdeg ofgdge
ofeggd ofegdg ofeggd ofegdg ofedgg ofedgg ofdgeg ofdgge ofdegg ofdegg ofdgeg
ofdgge ogfged ogfgde ogfegd ogfedg ogfdeg ogfdge oggfed oggfde oggefd oggedf
oggdef oggdfe ogegfd ogegdf ogefgd ogefdg ogedfg ogedgf ogdgef ogdgfe ogdegf
ogdefg ogdfeg ogdfge oggfed oggfde oggefd oggedf oggdef oggdfe ogfged ogfgde
ogfegd ogfedg ogfdeg ogfdge ogefgd ogefdg ogegfd ogegdf ogedgf ogedfg ogdfeg
ogdfge ogdefg ogdegf ogdgef ogdgfe oeggfd oeggdf oegfgd oegfdg oegdfg oegdgf
oeggfd oeggdf oegfgd oegfdg oegdfg oegdgf oefggd oefgdg oefggd oefgdg oefdgg
oefdgg oedgfg oedggf oedfgg oedfgg oedgfg oedggf odggef odggfe odgegf odgefg
odgfeg odgfge odggef odggfe odgegf odgefg odgfeg odgfge odeggf odegfg odeggf
odegfg odefgg odefgg odfgeg odfgge odfegg odfegg odfgeg odfgge gofged gofgde
gofegd gofedg gofdeg gofdge gogfed gogfde gogefd gogedf gogdef gogdfe goegfd
goegdf goefgd goefdg goedfg goedgf godgef godgfe godegf godefg godfeg godfge
gfoged gfogde gfoegd gfoedg gfodeg gfodge gfgoed gfgode gfgeod gfgedo gfgdeo
gfgdoe gfegod gfegdo gfeogd gfeodg gfedog gfedgo gfdgeo gfdgoe gfdego gfdeog
gfdoeg gfdoge ggfoed ggfode ggfeod ggfedo ggfdeo ggfdoe ggofed ggofde ggoefd
ggoedf ggodef ggodfe ggeofd ggeodf ggefod ggefdo ggedfo ggedof ggdoef ggdofe
ggdeof ggdefo ggdfeo ggdfoe gefgod gefgdo gefogd gefodg gefdog gefdgo gegfod
gegfdo gegofd gegodf gegdof gegdfo geogfd geogdf geofgd geofdg geodfg geodgf
gedgof gedgfo gedogf gedofg gedfog gedfgo gdfgeo gdfgoe gdfego gdfeog gdfoeg
gdfoge gdgfeo gdgfoe gdgefo gdgeof gdgoef gdgofe gdegfo gdegof gdefgo gdefog
gdeofg gdeogf gdogef gdogfe gdoegf gdoefg gdofeg gdofge gogfed gogfde gogefd
gogedf gogdef gogdfe gofged gofgde gofegd gofedg gofdeg gofdge goefgd goefdg
goegfd goegdf goedgf goedfg godfeg godfge godefg godegf godgef godgfe ggofed
ggofde ggoefd ggoedf ggodef ggodfe ggfoed ggfode ggfeod ggfedo ggfdeo ggfdoe
ggefod ggefdo ggeofd ggeodf ggedof ggedfo ggdfeo ggdfoe ggdefo ggdeof ggdoef
ggdofe gfgoed gfgode gfgeod gfgedo gfgdeo gfgdoe gfoged gfogde gfoegd gfoedg
gfodeg gfodge gfeogd gfeodg gfegod gfegdo gfedgo gfedog gfdoeg gfdoge gfdeog
gfdego gfdgeo gfdgoe gegfod gegfdo gegofd gegodf gegdof gegdfo gefgod gefgdo
gefogd gefodg gefdog gefdgo geofgd geofdg geogfd geogdf geodgf geodfg gedfog
gedfgo gedofg gedogf gedgof gedgfo gdgfeo gdgfoe gdgefo gdgeof gdgoef gdgofe
gdfgeo gdfgoe gdfego gdfeog gdfoeg gdfoge gdefgo gdefog gdegfo gdegof gdeogf
gdeofg gdofeg gdofge gdoefg gdoegf gdogef gdogfe eoggfd eoggdf eogfgd eogfdg
eogdfg eogdgf eoggfd eoggdf eogfgd eogfdg eogdfg eogdgf eofggd eofgdg eofggd
eofgdg eofdgg eofdgg eodgfg eodggf eodfgg eodfgg eodgfg eodggf egogfd egogdf
egofgd egofdg egodfg egodgf eggofd eggodf eggfod eggfdo eggdfo eggdof egfgod
egfgdo egfogd egfodg egfdog egfdgo egdgfo egdgof egdfgo egdfog egdofg egdogf
eggofd eggodf eggfod eggfdo eggdfo eggdof egogfd egogdf egofgd egofdg egodfg
egodgf egfogd egfodg egfgod egfgdo egfdgo egfdog egdofg egdogf egdfog egdfgo
egdgfo egdgof efggod efggdo efgogd efgodg efgdog efgdgo efggod efggdo efgogd
efgodg efgdog efgdgo efoggd efogdg efoggd efogdg efodgg efodgg efdgog efdggo
efdogg efdogg efdgog efdggo edggfo edggof edgfgo edgfog edgofg edgogf edggfo
edggof edgfgo edgfog edgofg edgogf edfggo edfgog edfggo edfgog edfogg edfogg
edogfg edoggf edofgg edofgg edogfg edoggf doggef doggfe dogegf dogefg dogfeg
dogfge doggef doggfe dogegf dogefg dogfeg dogfge doeggf doegfg doeggf doegfg
doefgg doefgg dofgeg dofgge dofegg dofegg dofgeg dofgge dgogef dgogfe dgoegf
dgoefg dgofeg dgofge dggoef dggofe dggeof dggefo dggfeo dggfoe dgegof dgegfo
dgeogf dgeofg dgefog dgefgo dgfgeo dgfgoe dgfego dgfeog dgfoeg dgfoge dggoef
dggofe dggeof dggefo dggfeo dggfoe dgogef dgogfe dgoegf dgoefg dgofeg dgofge
dgeogf dgeofg dgegof dgegfo dgefgo dgefog dgfoeg dgfoge dgfeog dgfego dgfgeo
dgfgoe deggof deggfo degogf degofg degfog degfgo deggof deggfo degogf degofg
degfog degfgo deoggf deogfg deoggf deogfg deofgg deofgg defgog defggo defogg
defogg defgog defggo dfggeo dfggoe dfgego dfgeog dfgoeg dfgoge dfggeo dfggoe
dfgego dfgeog dfgoeg dfgoge dfeggo dfegog dfeggo dfegog dfeogg dfeogg dfogeg
dfogge dfoegg dfoegg dfogeg dfogge

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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