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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: fangot
cipher variations:
gbohpu hcpiqv idqjrw jerksx kfslty
lgtmuz mhunva nivowb ojwpxc pkxqyd
qlyrze rmzsaf snatbg tobuch upcvdi
vqdwej wrexfk xsfygl ytgzhm zuhain
avibjo bwjckp cxkdlq dylemr ezmfns

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: fangot
Cipher: uzmtlg

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: fangot
Cipher: AABAB AAAAA ABBAA AABBA ABBAB BAABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: fangot
cipher variations:
gbohpuqbotrgaboftskborveubodxqebopzcybondaibozfm
sbolhycboxjkmbojlwwbovnihcpiqvrcpushbcpgutlcpswf
vcpeyrfcpqadzcpoebjcpagntcpmizdcpyklncpkmxxcpwoj
idqjrwsdqvticdqhvumdqtxgwdqfzsgdqrbeadqpfckdqbho
udqnjaedqzlmodqlnyydqxpkjerksxterwujderiwvneruyh
xergatherscfberqgdlercipverokbferamnpermozzeryql
kfsltyufsxvkefsjxwofsvziyfshbuifstdgcfsrhemfsdjq
wfsplcgfsbnoqfsnpaafszrmlgtmuzvgtywlfgtkyxpgtwaj
zgticvjgtuehdgtsifngtekrxgtqmdhgtcoprgtoqbbgtasn
mhunvawhuzxmghulzyqhuxbkahujdwkhuvfiehutjgohufls
yhurneihudpqshuprcchubtonivowbxivaynhivmazrivycl
bivkexlivwgjfivukhpivgmtzivsofjiveqrtivqsddivcup
ojwpxcyjwbzoijwnbasjwzdmcjwlfymjwxhkgjwvliqjwhnu
ajwtpgkjwfrsujwrteejwdvqpkxqydzkxcapjkxocbtkxaen
dkxmgznkxyilhkxwmjrkxiovbkxuqhlkxgstvkxsuffkxewr
qlyrzealydbqklypdculybfoelynhaolyzjmilyxnkslyjpw
clyvrimlyhtuwlytvgglyfxsrmzsafbmzecrlmzqedvmzcgp
fmzoibpmzaknjmzyoltmzkqxdmzwsjnmziuvxmzuwhhmzgyt
snatbgcnafdsmnarfewnadhqgnapjcqnabloknazpmunalry
enaxtkonajvwynavxiinahzutobuchdobgetnobsgfxobeir
hobqkdrobcmplobaqnvobmszfobyulpobkwxzobwyjjobiav
upcvdiepchfuopcthgypcfjsipcrlespcdnqmpcbrowpcnta
gpczvmqpclxyapcxzkkpcjbwvqdwejfqdigvpqduihzqdgkt
jqdsmftqdeornqdcspxqdoubhqdawnrqdmyzbqdyallqdkcx
wrexfkgrejhwqrevjiarehlukretngurefpsoredtqyrepvc
irebxosrenzacrezbmmreldyxsfyglhsfkixrsfwkjbsfimv
lsfuohvsfgqtpsfeurzsfqwdjsfcyptsfoabdsfacnnsfmez
ytgzhmitgljystgxlkctgjnwmtgvpiwtghruqtgfvsatgrxe
ktgdzqutgpbcetgbdootgnfazuhainjuhmkztuhymlduhkox
nuhwqjxuhisvruhgwtbuhsyfluhearvuhqcdfuhceppuhogb
avibjokvinlauviznmevilpyovixrkyvijtwsvihxucvitzg
mvifbswvirdegvidfqqviphcbwjckplwjombvwjaonfwjmqz
pwjyslzwjkuxtwjiyvdwjuahnwjgctxwjsefhwjegrrwjqid
cxkdlqmxkpncwxkbpogxknraqxkztmaxklvyuxkjzwexkvbi
oxkhduyxktfgixkfhssxkrjedylemrnylqodxylcqphylosb
rylaunbylmwzvylkaxfylwcjpylievzylughjylgittylskf
ezmfnsozmrpeyzmdrqizmptcszmbvoczmnxawzmlbygzmxdk
qzmjfwazmvhikzmhjuuzmtlgfangotpansqfzanesrjanqud
tancwpdanoybxanmczhanyelrankgxbanwijlanikvvanumh

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: fangot
Cipher: snatbg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: fangot
Cipher: 121133224344

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: fangot
method variations:
lfsmtyqlxrydvqcwdiavhbio

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
f a n g o t 
1 1 3 2 4 4 
2 1 3 2 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
113244213234
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: fangot
Cipher: ahtbhs

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: fangot
method variations:
blhrsd lhrsdb hrsdbl
rsdblh sdblhr dblhrs

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: fangot

all 720 cipher variations:
fangot fangto fanogt fanotg fantog fantgo fagnot fagnto fagont fagotn fagton
fagtno faognt faogtn faongt faontg faotng faotgn fatgon fatgno fatogn fatong
fatnog fatngo fnagot fnagto fnaogt fnaotg fnatog fnatgo fngaot fngato fngoat
fngota fngtoa fngtao fnogat fnogta fnoagt fnoatg fnotag fnotga fntgoa fntgao
fntoga fntoag fntaog fntago fgnaot fgnato fgnoat fgnota fgntoa fgntao fganot
fganto fgaont fgaotn fgaton fgatno fgoant fgoatn fgonat fgonta fgotna fgotan
fgtaon fgtano fgtoan fgtona fgtnoa fgtnao fongat fongta fonagt fonatg fontag
fontga fognat fognta fogant fogatn fogtan fogtna foagnt foagtn foangt foantg
foatng foatgn fotgan fotgna fotagn fotang fotnag fotnga ftngoa ftngao ftnoga
ftnoag ftnaog ftnago ftgnoa ftgnao ftgona ftgoan ftgaon ftgano ftogna ftogan
ftonga ftonag ftoang ftoagn ftagon ftagno ftaogn ftaong ftanog ftango afngot
afngto afnogt afnotg afntog afntgo afgnot afgnto afgont afgotn afgton afgtno
afognt afogtn afongt afontg afotng afotgn aftgon aftgno aftogn aftong aftnog
aftngo anfgot anfgto anfogt anfotg anftog anftgo angfot angfto angoft angotf
angtof angtfo anogft anogtf anofgt anoftg anotfg anotgf antgof antgfo antogf
antofg antfog antfgo agnfot agnfto agnoft agnotf agntof agntfo agfnot agfnto
agfont agfotn agfton agftno agofnt agoftn agonft agontf agotnf agotfn agtfon
agtfno agtofn agtonf agtnof agtnfo aongft aongtf aonfgt aonftg aontfg aontgf
aognft aogntf aogfnt aogftn aogtfn aogtnf aofgnt aofgtn aofngt aofntg aoftng
aoftgn aotgfn aotgnf aotfgn aotfng aotnfg aotngf atngof atngfo atnogf atnofg
atnfog atnfgo atgnof atgnfo atgonf atgofn atgfon atgfno atognf atogfn atongf
atonfg atofng atofgn atfgon atfgno atfogn atfong atfnog atfngo nafgot nafgto
nafogt nafotg naftog naftgo nagfot nagfto nagoft nagotf nagtof nagtfo naogft
naogtf naofgt naoftg naotfg naotgf natgof natgfo natogf natofg natfog natfgo
nfagot nfagto nfaogt nfaotg nfatog nfatgo nfgaot nfgato nfgoat nfgota nfgtoa
nfgtao nfogat nfogta nfoagt nfoatg nfotag nfotga nftgoa nftgao nftoga nftoag
nftaog nftago ngfaot ngfato ngfoat ngfota ngftoa ngftao ngafot ngafto ngaoft
ngaotf ngatof ngatfo ngoaft ngoatf ngofat ngofta ngotfa ngotaf ngtaof ngtafo
ngtoaf ngtofa ngtfoa ngtfao nofgat nofgta nofagt nofatg noftag noftga nogfat
nogfta nogaft nogatf nogtaf nogtfa noagft noagtf noafgt noaftg noatfg noatgf
notgaf notgfa notagf notafg notfag notfga ntfgoa ntfgao ntfoga ntfoag ntfaog
ntfago ntgfoa ntgfao ntgofa ntgoaf ntgaof ntgafo ntogfa ntogaf ntofga ntofag
ntoafg ntoagf ntagof ntagfo ntaogf ntaofg ntafog ntafgo ganfot ganfto ganoft
ganotf gantof gantfo gafnot gafnto gafont gafotn gafton gaftno gaofnt gaoftn
gaonft gaontf gaotnf gaotfn gatfon gatfno gatofn gatonf gatnof gatnfo gnafot
gnafto gnaoft gnaotf gnatof gnatfo gnfaot gnfato gnfoat gnfota gnftoa gnftao
gnofat gnofta gnoaft gnoatf gnotaf gnotfa gntfoa gntfao gntofa gntoaf gntaof
gntafo gfnaot gfnato gfnoat gfnota gfntoa gfntao gfanot gfanto gfaont gfaotn
gfaton gfatno gfoant gfoatn gfonat gfonta gfotna gfotan gftaon gftano gftoan
gftona gftnoa gftnao gonfat gonfta gonaft gonatf gontaf gontfa gofnat gofnta
gofant gofatn goftan goftna goafnt goaftn goanft goantf goatnf goatfn gotfan
gotfna gotafn gotanf gotnaf gotnfa gtnfoa gtnfao gtnofa gtnoaf gtnaof gtnafo
gtfnoa gtfnao gtfona gtfoan gtfaon gtfano gtofna gtofan gtonfa gtonaf gtoanf
gtoafn gtafon gtafno gtaofn gtaonf gtanof gtanfo oangft oangtf oanfgt oanftg
oantfg oantgf oagnft oagntf oagfnt oagftn oagtfn oagtnf oafgnt oafgtn oafngt
oafntg oaftng oaftgn oatgfn oatgnf oatfgn oatfng oatnfg oatngf onagft onagtf
onafgt onaftg onatfg onatgf ongaft ongatf ongfat ongfta ongtfa ongtaf onfgat
onfgta onfagt onfatg onftag onftga ontgfa ontgaf ontfga ontfag ontafg ontagf
ognaft ognatf ognfat ognfta ogntfa ogntaf oganft ogantf ogafnt ogaftn ogatfn
ogatnf ogfant ogfatn ogfnat ogfnta ogftna ogftan ogtafn ogtanf ogtfan ogtfna
ogtnfa ogtnaf ofngat ofngta ofnagt ofnatg ofntag ofntga ofgnat ofgnta ofgant
ofgatn ofgtan ofgtna ofagnt ofagtn ofangt ofantg ofatng ofatgn oftgan oftgna
oftagn oftang oftnag oftnga otngfa otngaf otnfga otnfag otnafg otnagf otgnfa
otgnaf otgfna otgfan otgafn otganf otfgna otfgan otfnga otfnag otfang otfagn
otagfn otagnf otafgn otafng otanfg otangf tangof tangfo tanogf tanofg tanfog
tanfgo tagnof tagnfo tagonf tagofn tagfon tagfno taognf taogfn taongf taonfg
taofng taofgn tafgon tafgno tafogn tafong tafnog tafngo tnagof tnagfo tnaogf
tnaofg tnafog tnafgo tngaof tngafo tngoaf tngofa tngfoa tngfao tnogaf tnogfa
tnoagf tnoafg tnofag tnofga tnfgoa tnfgao tnfoga tnfoag tnfaog tnfago tgnaof
tgnafo tgnoaf tgnofa tgnfoa tgnfao tganof tganfo tgaonf tgaofn tgafon tgafno
tgoanf tgoafn tgonaf tgonfa tgofna tgofan tgfaon tgfano tgfoan tgfona tgfnoa
tgfnao tongaf tongfa tonagf tonafg tonfag tonfga tognaf tognfa toganf togafn
togfan togfna toagnf toagfn toangf toanfg toafng toafgn tofgan tofgna tofagn
tofang tofnag tofnga tfngoa tfngao tfnoga tfnoag tfnaog tfnago tfgnoa tfgnao
tfgona tfgoan tfgaon tfgano tfogna tfogan tfonga tfonag tfoang tfoagn tfagon
tfagno tfaogn tfaong tfanog tfango

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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