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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: factam
cipher variations:
gbdubn hcevco idfwdp jegxeq kfhyfr
lgizgs mhjaht nikbiu ojlcjv pkmdkw
qlnelx rmofmy snpgnz toqhoa upripb
vqsjqc wrtkrd xsulse ytvmtf zuwnug
avxovh bwypwi cxzqxj dyaryk ezbszl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: factam
Cipher: uzxgzn

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: factam
Cipher: AABAB AAAAA AAABA BAABA AAAAA ABABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: factam
cipher variations:
gbdubnqbhgblablsbjkbpebhubtqbfebxcbdybfabzibjmbx
sbnybvcbrkbtmbvwbrwbzibphcevcorcihcmbcmtcklcqfci
vcurcgfcydcezcgbcajckncytcozcwdcslcuncwxcsxcajcq
idfwdpsdjidncdnudlmdrgdjwdvsdhgdzedfadhcdbkdlodz
udpadxedtmdvodxydtydbkdrjegxeqtekjeodeovemneshek
xewteiheafegbeideclempeaveqbeyfeunewpeyzeuzecles
kfhyfruflkfpefpwfnoftiflyfxufjifbgfhcfjefdmfnqfb
wfrcfzgfvofxqfzafvafdmftlgizgsvgmlgqfgqxgopgujgm
zgyvgkjgchgidgkfgengorgcxgsdgahgwpgyrgabgwbgengu
mhjahtwhnmhrghryhpqhvkhnahzwhlkhdihjehlghfohpshd
yhtehbihxqhzshbchxchfohvnikbiuxionishisziqriwlio
biaximliejikfimhigpiqtieziuficjiyriaticdiydigpiw
ojlcjvyjpojtijtajrsjxmjpcjbyjnmjfkjlgjnijhqjrujf
ajvgjdkjzsjbujdejzejhqjxpkmdkwzkqpkujkubkstkynkq
dkczkonkglkmhkojkirksvkgbkwhkelkatkcvkefkafkirky
qlnelxalrqlvklvcltulzolreldalpolhmlnilpkljsltwlh
clxilfmlbuldwlfglbgljslzrmofmybmsrmwlmwdmuvmapms
fmebmqpminmojmqlmktmuxmidmyjmgnmcvmexmghmchmktma
snpgnzcntsnxmnxenvwnbqntgnfcnrqnjonpknrmnlunvynj
enzknhondwnfynhindinlunbtoqhoadoutoynoyfowxocrou
hogdosrokpoqlosnomvowzokfoaloipoexogzoijoejomvoc
upripbepvupzopzgpxypdspvipheptsplqprmptopnwpxapl
gpbmpjqpfyphapjkpfkpnwpdvqsjqcfqwvqapqahqyzqetqw
jqifqutqmrqsnqupqoxqybqmhqcnqkrqgzqibqklqglqoxqe
wrtkrdgrxwrbqrbirzarfurxkrjgrvurnsrtorvqrpyrzcrn
irdorlsrharjcrlmrhmrpyrfxsulsehsyxscrscjsabsgvsy
lskhswvsotsupswrsqzsadsojsepsmtsibskdsmnsinsqzsg
ytvmtfitzytdstdktbcthwtzmtlitxwtputvqtxstratbetp
ktfqtnutjctletnotjotrathzuwnugjuazuetuelucduixua
numjuyxuqvuwruytusbucfuqlugruovukdumfuopukpusbui
avxovhkvbavfuvfmvdevjyvbovnkvzyvrwvxsvzuvtcvdgvr
mvhsvpwvlevngvpqvlqvtcvjbwypwilwcbwgvwgnwefwkzwc
pwolwazwsxwytwavwudwehwsnwitwqxwmfwohwqrwmrwudwk
cxzqxjmxdcxhwxhoxfgxlaxdqxpmxbaxtyxzuxbwxvexfixt
oxjuxryxngxpixrsxnsxvexldyaryknyedyixyipyghymbye
ryqnycbyuzyavycxywfygjyupykvyszyohyqjystyotywfym
ezbszlozfezjyzjqzhiznczfszrozdczvazbwzdyzxgzhkzv
qzlwztazpizrkztuzpuzxgznfactampagfakzakraijaodag
taspaedawbacxaezayhailawramxaubaqjaslauvaqvayhao

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: factam
Cipher: snpgnz

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: factam
Cipher: 121131441123

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: factam
method variations:
lfhyfrqlndlwvqsiqbavxovg

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
f a c t a m 
1 1 3 4 1 2 
2 1 1 4 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
113412211413
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: factam
Cipher: asfbql

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: factam
method variations:
blqdfc lqdfcb qdfcbl
dfcblq fcblqd cblqdf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: factam

all 720 cipher variations:
factam factma facatm facamt facmat facmta fatcam fatcma fatacm fatamc fatmac
fatmca faatcm faatmc faactm faacmt faamct faamtc famtac famtca famatc famact
famcat famcta fcatam fcatma fcaatm fcaamt fcamat fcamta fctaam fctama fctaam
fctama fctmaa fctmaa fcatam fcatma fcaatm fcaamt fcamat fcamta fcmtaa fcmtaa
fcmata fcmaat fcmaat fcmata ftcaam ftcama ftcaam ftcama ftcmaa ftcmaa ftacam
ftacma ftaacm ftaamc ftamac ftamca ftaacm ftaamc ftacam ftacma ftamca ftamac
ftmaac ftmaca ftmaac ftmaca ftmcaa ftmcaa factam factma facatm facamt facmat
facmta fatcam fatcma fatacm fatamc fatmac fatmca faatcm faatmc faactm faacmt
faamct faamtc famtac famtca famatc famact famcat famcta fmctaa fmctaa fmcata
fmcaat fmcaat fmcata fmtcaa fmtcaa fmtaca fmtaac fmtaac fmtaca fmatca fmatac
fmacta fmacat fmaact fmaatc fmatac fmatca fmaatc fmaact fmacat fmacta afctam
afctma afcatm afcamt afcmat afcmta aftcam aftcma aftacm aftamc aftmac aftmca
afatcm afatmc afactm afacmt afamct afamtc afmtac afmtca afmatc afmact afmcat
afmcta acftam acftma acfatm acfamt acfmat acfmta actfam actfma actafm actamf
actmaf actmfa acatfm acatmf acaftm acafmt acamft acamtf acmtaf acmtfa acmatf
acmaft acmfat acmfta atcfam atcfma atcafm atcamf atcmaf atcmfa atfcam atfcma
atfacm atfamc atfmac atfmca atafcm atafmc atacfm atacmf atamcf atamfc atmfac
atmfca atmafc atmacf atmcaf atmcfa aactfm aactmf aacftm aacfmt aacmft aacmtf
aatcfm aatcmf aatfcm aatfmc aatmfc aatmcf aaftcm aaftmc aafctm aafcmt aafmct
aafmtc aamtfc aamtcf aamftc aamfct aamcft aamctf amctaf amctfa amcatf amcaft
amcfat amcfta amtcaf amtcfa amtacf amtafc amtfac amtfca amatcf amatfc amactf
amacft amafct amaftc amftac amftca amfatc amfact amfcat amfcta caftam caftma
cafatm cafamt cafmat cafmta catfam catfma catafm catamf catmaf catmfa caatfm
caatmf caaftm caafmt caamft caamtf camtaf camtfa camatf camaft camfat camfta
cfatam cfatma cfaatm cfaamt cfamat cfamta cftaam cftama cftaam cftama cftmaa
cftmaa cfatam cfatma cfaatm cfaamt cfamat cfamta cfmtaa cfmtaa cfmata cfmaat
cfmaat cfmata ctfaam ctfama ctfaam ctfama ctfmaa ctfmaa ctafam ctafma ctaafm
ctaamf ctamaf ctamfa ctaafm ctaamf ctafam ctafma ctamfa ctamaf ctmaaf ctmafa
ctmaaf ctmafa ctmfaa ctmfaa caftam caftma cafatm cafamt cafmat cafmta catfam
catfma catafm catamf catmaf catmfa caatfm caatmf caaftm caafmt caamft caamtf
camtaf camtfa camatf camaft camfat camfta cmftaa cmftaa cmfata cmfaat cmfaat
cmfata cmtfaa cmtfaa cmtafa cmtaaf cmtaaf cmtafa cmatfa cmataf cmafta cmafat
cmaaft cmaatf cmataf cmatfa cmaatf cmaaft cmafat cmafta tacfam tacfma tacafm
tacamf tacmaf tacmfa tafcam tafcma tafacm tafamc tafmac tafmca taafcm taafmc
taacfm taacmf taamcf taamfc tamfac tamfca tamafc tamacf tamcaf tamcfa tcafam
tcafma tcaafm tcaamf tcamaf tcamfa tcfaam tcfama tcfaam tcfama tcfmaa tcfmaa
tcafam tcafma tcaafm tcaamf tcamaf tcamfa tcmfaa tcmfaa tcmafa tcmaaf tcmaaf
tcmafa tfcaam tfcama tfcaam tfcama tfcmaa tfcmaa tfacam tfacma tfaacm tfaamc
tfamac tfamca tfaacm tfaamc tfacam tfacma tfamca tfamac tfmaac tfmaca tfmaac
tfmaca tfmcaa tfmcaa tacfam tacfma tacafm tacamf tacmaf tacmfa tafcam tafcma
tafacm tafamc tafmac tafmca taafcm taafmc taacfm taacmf taamcf taamfc tamfac
tamfca tamafc tamacf tamcaf tamcfa tmcfaa tmcfaa tmcafa tmcaaf tmcaaf tmcafa
tmfcaa tmfcaa tmfaca tmfaac tmfaac tmfaca tmafca tmafac tmacfa tmacaf tmaacf
tmaafc tmafac tmafca tmaafc tmaacf tmacaf tmacfa aactfm aactmf aacftm aacfmt
aacmft aacmtf aatcfm aatcmf aatfcm aatfmc aatmfc aatmcf aaftcm aaftmc aafctm
aafcmt aafmct aafmtc aamtfc aamtcf aamftc aamfct aamcft aamctf acatfm acatmf
acaftm acafmt acamft acamtf actafm actamf actfam actfma actmfa actmaf acftam
acftma acfatm acfamt acfmat acfmta acmtfa acmtaf acmfta acmfat acmaft acmatf
atcafm atcamf atcfam atcfma atcmfa atcmaf atacfm atacmf atafcm atafmc atamfc
atamcf atfacm atfamc atfcam atfcma atfmca atfmac atmafc atmacf atmfac atmfca
atmcfa atmcaf afctam afctma afcatm afcamt afcmat afcmta aftcam aftcma aftacm
aftamc aftmac aftmca afatcm afatmc afactm afacmt afamct afamtc afmtac afmtca
afmatc afmact afmcat afmcta amctfa amctaf amcfta amcfat amcaft amcatf amtcfa
amtcaf amtfca amtfac amtafc amtacf amftca amftac amfcta amfcat amfact amfatc
amatfc amatcf amaftc amafct amacft amactf mactaf mactfa macatf macaft macfat
macfta matcaf matcfa matacf matafc matfac matfca maatcf maatfc maactf maacft
maafct maaftc maftac maftca mafatc mafact mafcat mafcta mcataf mcatfa mcaatf
mcaaft mcafat mcafta mctaaf mctafa mctaaf mctafa mctfaa mctfaa mcataf mcatfa
mcaatf mcaaft mcafat mcafta mcftaa mcftaa mcfata mcfaat mcfaat mcfata mtcaaf
mtcafa mtcaaf mtcafa mtcfaa mtcfaa mtacaf mtacfa mtaacf mtaafc mtafac mtafca
mtaacf mtaafc mtacaf mtacfa mtafca mtafac mtfaac mtfaca mtfaac mtfaca mtfcaa
mtfcaa mactaf mactfa macatf macaft macfat macfta matcaf matcfa matacf matafc
matfac matfca maatcf maatfc maactf maacft maafct maaftc maftac maftca mafatc
mafact mafcat mafcta mfctaa mfctaa mfcata mfcaat mfcaat mfcata mftcaa mftcaa
mftaca mftaac mftaac mftaca mfatca mfatac mfacta mfacat mfaact mfaatc mfatac
mfatca mfaatc mfaact mfacat mfacta

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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