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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: exodos
cipher variations:
fypept gzqfqu hargrv ibshsw jctitx
kdujuy levkvz mfwlwa ngxmxb ohynyc
pizozd qjapae rkbqbf slcrcg tmdsdh
unetei vofufj wpgvgk xqhwhl yrixim
zsjyjn atkzko bulalp cvmbmq dwncnr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: exodos
Cipher: vclwlh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: exodos
Cipher: AABAA BABAB ABBAB AAABB ABBAB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: exodos
cipher variations:
fypeptnsrkrdvmtqtndgvwvxlaxcxhtuzizrjidudlrcfafv
zwhghfhqjmjppklslzxenynjgzqfquotslsewnuruoehwxwy
mbydyiuvajaskjevemsdgbgwaxihigirknkqqlmtmayfozok
hargrvputmtfxovsvpfixyxznczezjvwbkbtlkfwfntehchx
byjijhjslolrrmnunbzgpaplibshswqvunugypwtwqgjyzya
odafakwxclcumlgxgoufidiyczkjkiktmpmssnovocahqbqm
jctitxrwvovhzqxuxrhkzazbpebgblxydmdvnmhyhpvgjejz
dalkljlunqnttopwpdbircrnkdujuysxwpwiaryvysilabac
qfchcmyzenewoniziqwhkfkaebmlmkmvorouupqxqecjsdso
levkvztyxqxjbszwztjmbcbdrgdidnzafofxpojajrxilglb
fcnmnlnwpspvvqryrfdktetpmfwlwauzyrykctaxaukncdce
shejeoabgpgyqpkbksyjmhmcgdonomoxqtqwwrszsgelufuq
ngxmxbvazszldubybvlodedftifkfpbchqhzrqlcltzknind
hepopnpyrurxxstathfmvgvrohynycwbatamevczcwmpefeg
ujglgqcdiriasrmdmualojoeifqpqoqzsvsyytubuignwhws
pizozdxcbubnfwdadxnqfgfhvkhmhrdejsjbtsnenvbmpkpf
jgrqrpratwtzzuvcvjhoxixtqjapaeydcvcogxebeyorghgi
wlinisefktkcutofowcnqlqgkhsrsqsbuxuaavwdwkipyjyu
rkbqbfzedwdphyfcfzpshihjxmjojtfgluldvupgpxdormrh
litstrtcvyvbbwxexljqzkzvslcrcgafexeqizgdgaqtijik
ynkpkughmvmewvqhqyepsnsimjutusudwzwccxyfymkralaw
tmdsdhbgfyfrjahehbrujkjlzolqlvhinwnfxwrirzfqtotj
nkvuvtvexaxddyzgznlsbmbxuneteichgzgskbificsvklkm
apmrmwijoxogyxsjsagrupukolwvwuwfybyeezahaomtcncy
vofufjdihahtlcjgjdtwlmlnbqnsnxjkpyphzytktbhsvqvl
pmxwxvxgzczffabibpnudodzwpgvgkejibiumdkhkeuxmnmo
crotoyklqzqiazulucitwrwmqnyxywyhadaggbcjcqovepea
xqhwhlfkjcjvnelilfvynonpdspupzlmrarjbavmvdjuxsxn
rozyzxzibebhhcdkdrpwfqfbyriximglkdkwofmjmgwzopoq
etqvqamnsbskcbwnwekvytyospazayajcfciidelesqxgrgc
zsjyjnhmlelxpgnknhxapqprfurwrbnotctldcxoxflwzuzp
tqbabzbkdgdjjefmftryhshdatkzkoinmfmyqholoiybqrqs
gvsxscopudumedypygmxavaqurcbcaclehekkfgnguszitie
bulalpjongnzripmpjzcrsrthwtytdpqvevnfezqzhnybwbr
vsdcdbdmfifllghohvtajujfcvmbmqkpohoasjqnqkadstsu
ixuzueqrwfwogfaraiozcxcswtedecengjgmmhipiwubkvkg
dwncnrlqpipbtkrorlbetutvjyvavfrsxgxphgbsbjpadydt
xufefdfohkhnnijqjxvclwlhexodosmrqjqculspsmcfuvuw
kzwbwgstyhyqihctckqbezeuyvgfgegpilioojkrkywdmxmi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: exodos
Cipher: rkbqbf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: exodos
Cipher: 513543414334

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: exodos
method variations:
kctitxphyoycundtdhzsiyin

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e x o d o s 
5 3 4 4 4 3 
1 5 3 1 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
534443153134
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: exodos
Cipher: ptovcs

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: exodos
method variations:
lusqny usqnyl sqnylu
qnylus nylusq ylusqn

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: exodos

all 720 cipher variations:
exodos exodso exoods exoosd exosod exosdo exdoos exdoso exdoos exdoso exdsoo
exdsoo exodos exodso exoods exoosd exosod exosdo exsdoo exsdoo exsodo exsood
exsood exsodo eoxdos eoxdso eoxods eoxosd eoxsod eoxsdo eodxos eodxso eodoxs
eodosx eodsox eodsxo eoodxs eoodsx eooxds eooxsd eoosxd eoosdx eosdox eosdxo
eosodx eosoxd eosxod eosxdo edoxos edoxso edooxs edoosx edosox edosxo edxoos
edxoso edxoos edxoso edxsoo edxsoo edoxos edoxso edooxs edoosx edosox edosxo
edsxoo edsxoo edsoxo edsoox edsoox edsoxo eoodxs eoodsx eooxds eooxsd eoosxd
eoosdx eodoxs eodosx eodxos eodxso eodsxo eodsox eoxdos eoxdso eoxods eoxosd
eoxsod eoxsdo eosdxo eosdox eosxdo eosxod eosoxd eosodx esodox esodxo esoodx
esooxd esoxod esoxdo esdoox esdoxo esdoox esdoxo esdxoo esdxoo esodox esodxo
esoodx esooxd esoxod esoxdo esxdoo esxdoo esxodo esxood esxood esxodo xeodos
xeodso xeoods xeoosd xeosod xeosdo xedoos xedoso xedoos xedoso xedsoo xedsoo
xeodos xeodso xeoods xeoosd xeosod xeosdo xesdoo xesdoo xesodo xesood xesood
xesodo xoedos xoedso xoeods xoeosd xoesod xoesdo xodeos xodeso xodoes xodose
xodsoe xodseo xoodes xoodse xooeds xooesd xoosed xoosde xosdoe xosdeo xosode
xosoed xoseod xosedo xdoeos xdoeso xdooes xdoose xdosoe xdoseo xdeoos xdeoso
xdeoos xdeoso xdesoo xdesoo xdoeos xdoeso xdooes xdoose xdosoe xdoseo xdseoo
xdseoo xdsoeo xdsooe xdsooe xdsoeo xoodes xoodse xooeds xooesd xoosed xoosde
xodoes xodose xodeos xodeso xodseo xodsoe xoedos xoedso xoeods xoeosd xoesod
xoesdo xosdeo xosdoe xosedo xoseod xosoed xosode xsodoe xsodeo xsoode xsooed
xsoeod xsoedo xsdooe xsdoeo xsdooe xsdoeo xsdeoo xsdeoo xsodoe xsodeo xsoode
xsooed xsoeod xsoedo xsedoo xsedoo xseodo xseood xseood xseodo oxedos oxedso
oxeods oxeosd oxesod oxesdo oxdeos oxdeso oxdoes oxdose oxdsoe oxdseo oxodes
oxodse oxoeds oxoesd oxosed oxosde oxsdoe oxsdeo oxsode oxsoed oxseod oxsedo
oexdos oexdso oexods oexosd oexsod oexsdo oedxos oedxso oedoxs oedosx oedsox
oedsxo oeodxs oeodsx oeoxds oeoxsd oeosxd oeosdx oesdox oesdxo oesodx oesoxd
oesxod oesxdo odexos odexso odeoxs odeosx odesox odesxo odxeos odxeso odxoes
odxose odxsoe odxseo odoxes odoxse odoexs odoesx odosex odosxe odsxoe odsxeo
odsoxe odsoex odseox odsexo ooedxs ooedsx ooexds ooexsd ooesxd ooesdx oodexs
oodesx oodxes oodxse oodsxe oodsex ooxdes ooxdse ooxeds ooxesd ooxsed ooxsde
oosdxe oosdex oosxde oosxed oosexd oosedx osedox osedxo oseodx oseoxd osexod
osexdo osdeox osdexo osdoex osdoxe osdxoe osdxeo osodex osodxe osoedx osoexd
osoxed osoxde osxdoe osxdeo osxode osxoed osxeod osxedo dxoeos dxoeso dxooes
dxoose dxosoe dxoseo dxeoos dxeoso dxeoos dxeoso dxesoo dxesoo dxoeos dxoeso
dxooes dxoose dxosoe dxoseo dxseoo dxseoo dxsoeo dxsooe dxsooe dxsoeo doxeos
doxeso doxoes doxose doxsoe doxseo doexos doexso doeoxs doeosx doesox doesxo
dooexs dooesx dooxes dooxse doosxe doosex doseox dosexo dosoex dosoxe dosxoe
dosxeo deoxos deoxso deooxs deoosx deosox deosxo dexoos dexoso dexoos dexoso
dexsoo dexsoo deoxos deoxso deooxs deoosx deosox deosxo desxoo desxoo desoxo
desoox desoox desoxo dooexs dooesx dooxes dooxse doosxe doosex doeoxs doeosx
doexos doexso doesxo doesox doxeos doxeso doxoes doxose doxsoe doxseo dosexo
doseox dosxeo dosxoe dosoxe dosoex dsoeox dsoexo dsooex dsooxe dsoxoe dsoxeo
dseoox dseoxo dseoox dseoxo dsexoo dsexoo dsoeox dsoexo dsooex dsooxe dsoxoe
dsoxeo dsxeoo dsxeoo dsxoeo dsxooe dsxooe dsxoeo oxodes oxodse oxoeds oxoesd
oxosed oxosde oxdoes oxdose oxdeos oxdeso oxdseo oxdsoe oxedos oxedso oxeods
oxeosd oxesod oxesdo oxsdeo oxsdoe oxsedo oxseod oxsoed oxsode ooxdes ooxdse
ooxeds ooxesd ooxsed ooxsde oodxes oodxse oodexs oodesx oodsex oodsxe ooedxs
ooedsx ooexds ooexsd ooesxd ooesdx oosdex oosdxe oosedx oosexd oosxed oosxde
odoxes odoxse odoexs odoesx odosex odosxe odxoes odxose odxeos odxeso odxseo
odxsoe odexos odexso odeoxs odeosx odesox odesxo odsxeo odsxoe odsexo odseox
odsoex odsoxe oeodxs oeodsx oeoxds oeoxsd oeosxd oeosdx oedoxs oedosx oedxos
oedxso oedsxo oedsox oexdos oexdso oexods oexosd oexsod oexsdo oesdxo oesdox
oesxdo oesxod oesoxd oesodx osodex osodxe osoedx osoexd osoxed osoxde osdoex
osdoxe osdeox osdexo osdxeo osdxoe osedox osedxo oseodx oseoxd osexod osexdo
osxdeo osxdoe osxedo osxeod osxoed osxode sxodoe sxodeo sxoode sxooed sxoeod
sxoedo sxdooe sxdoeo sxdooe sxdoeo sxdeoo sxdeoo sxodoe sxodeo sxoode sxooed
sxoeod sxoedo sxedoo sxedoo sxeodo sxeood sxeood sxeodo soxdoe soxdeo soxode
soxoed soxeod soxedo sodxoe sodxeo sodoxe sodoex sodeox sodexo soodxe soodex
sooxde sooxed sooexd sooedx soedox soedxo soeodx soeoxd soexod soexdo sdoxoe
sdoxeo sdooxe sdooex sdoeox sdoexo sdxooe sdxoeo sdxooe sdxoeo sdxeoo sdxeoo
sdoxoe sdoxeo sdooxe sdooex sdoeox sdoexo sdexoo sdexoo sdeoxo sdeoox sdeoox
sdeoxo soodxe soodex sooxde sooxed sooexd sooedx sodoxe sodoex sodxoe sodxeo
sodexo sodeox soxdoe soxdeo soxode soxoed soxeod soxedo soedxo soedox soexdo
soexod soeoxd soeodx seodox seodxo seoodx seooxd seoxod seoxdo sedoox sedoxo
sedoox sedoxo sedxoo sedxoo seodox seodxo seoodx seooxd seoxod seoxdo sexdoo
sexdoo sexodo sexood sexood sexodo

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History of cryptography
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