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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: euterp
cipher variations:
fvufsq gwvgtr hxwhus iyxivt jzyjwu
kazkxv lbalyw mcbmzx ndcnay oedobz
pfepca qgfqdb rhgrec sihsfd tjitge
ukjuhf vlkvig wmlwjh xnmxki yonylj
zpozmk aqpanl brqbom csrcpn dtsdqo

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: euterp
Cipher: vfgvik

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: euterp
Cipher: AABAA BAABB BAABA AABAA BAAAA ABBBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: euterp
cipher variations:
fvufsqnjgnauvxsviydledqclzqlygtnctgkjpajwsrdmrew
zryzmahfkhueptwpcixhixkmgwvgtrokhobvwytwjzemferd
marmzhuoduhlkqbkxtsensfxaszanbiglivfquxqdjyijyln
hxwhusplipcwxzuxkafngfsenbsnaivpevimlrclyutfotgy
btabocjhmjwgrvyrekzjkzmoiyxivtqmjqdxyavylbgohgtf
octobjwqfwjnmsdmzvugpuhzcubcpdkinkxhswzsflaklanp
jzyjwurnkreyzbwzmchpihugpdupckxrgxkontenawvhqvia
dvcdqeljolyitxatgmblmboqkazkxvsolsfzacxandiqjivh
qevqdlyshylpoufobxwirwjbewderfmkpmzjuybuhncmncpr
lbalywtpmtgabdyboejrkjwirfwremztizmqpvgpcyxjsxkc
fxefsgnlqnakvzcviodnodqsmcbmzxuqnuhbcezcpfkslkxj
sgxsfnaujanrqwhqdzyktyldgyfgthomroblwadwjpeopert
ndcnayvrovicdfadqgltmlykthytgobvkbosrxireazluzme
hzghuipnspcmxbexkqfpqfsuoedobzwspwjdegberhmunmzl
uizuhpcwlcptsyjsfbamvanfiahivjqotqdnycfylrgqrgtv
pfepcaxtqxkefhcfsinvonamvjaviqdxmdqutzktgcbnwbog
jbijwkrpureozdgzmshrshuwqgfqdbyurylfgidgtjowpobn
wkbwjreynervualuhdcoxcphkcjkxlsqvsfpaehantistivx
rhgreczvszmghjehukpxqpcoxlcxksfzofswvbmviedpydqi
ldklymtrwtgqbfiboujtujwysihsfdawtanhikfivlqyrqdp
ymdyltgapgtxwcnwjfeqzerjmelmznusxuhrcgjcpvkuvkxz
tjitgebxuboijlgjwmrzsreqznezmuhbqhuyxdoxkgfrafsk
nfmnaovtyvisdhkdqwlvwlyaukjuhfcyvcpjkmhkxnsatsfr
aofanvicrivzyepylhgsbgtlognobpwuzwjteilerxmwxmzb
vlkvigdzwdqklnilyotbutgsbpgbowjdsjwazfqzmihtchum
phopcqxvaxkufjmfsynxynacwmlwjheaxerlmojmzpucvuht
cqhcpxketkxbagranjiudivnqipqdrywbylvgkngtzoyzobd
xnmxkifbyfsmnpknaqvdwviudridqylfulycbhsbokjvejwo
rjqreszxczmwhlohuapzapceyonyljgczgtnoqlobrwexwjv
esjerzmgvmzdcitcplkwfkxpskrsftaydanximpivbqabqdf
zpozmkhdahuoprmpcsxfyxkwftkfsanhwnaedjudqmlxglyq
tlstgubzeboyjnqjwcrbcregaqpanliebivpqsnqdtygzylx
gulgtboixobfekvernmyhmzrumtuhvcafcpzkorkxdscdsfh
brqbomjfcjwqrtoreuzhazmyhvmhucpjypcgflwfsonzinas
vnuviwdbgdqalpslyetdetgicsrcpnkgdkxrsupsfvaibanz
iwnivdqkzqdhgmxgtpoajobtwovwjxecherbmqtmzfuefuhj
dtsdqolhelystvqtgwbjcboajxojwerlareihnyhuqpbkpcu
xpwxkyfdifscnrunagvfgvikeuterpmifmztuwruhxckdcpb
kypkxfsmbsfjiozivrqclqdvyqxylzgejgtdosvobhwghwjl

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: euterp
Cipher: rhgrec

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: euterp
Cipher: 515444512453

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: euterp
method variations:
kzykwupedpbzukiugezpozmk

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e u t e r p 
5 5 4 5 2 5 
1 4 4 1 4 3 
They are then read out in rows:
554525144143
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: euterp
Cipher: zywqdo

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: euterp
method variations:
vtyfyx tyfyxv yfyxvt
fyxvty yxvtyf xvtyfy

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: euterp

all 720 cipher variations:
euterp eutepr eutrep eutrpe eutpre eutper euetrp euetpr euertp euerpt eueprt
eueptr euretp eurept eurtep eurtpe eurpte eurpet eupert eupetr eupret euprte
euptre eupter etuerp etuepr eturep eturpe etupre etuper eteurp eteupr eterup
eterpu etepru etepur etreup etrepu etruep etrupe etrpue etrpeu etperu etpeur
etpreu etprue etpure etpuer eeturp eetupr eetrup eetrpu eetpru eetpur eeutrp
eeutpr eeurtp eeurpt eeuprt eeuptr eerutp eerupt eertup eertpu eerptu eerput
eepurt eeputr eeprut eeprtu eeptru eeptur erteup ertepu ertuep ertupe ertpue
ertpeu eretup eretpu ereutp ereupt ereput ereptu eruetp eruept erutep erutpe
erupte erupet erpeut erpetu erpuet erpute erptue erpteu epteru epteur eptreu
eptrue epture eptuer epetru epetur epertu eperut epeurt epeutr epretu epreut
eprteu eprtue eprute epruet epuert epuetr epuret epurte eputre eputer ueterp
uetepr uetrep uetrpe uetpre uetper ueetrp ueetpr ueertp ueerpt ueeprt ueeptr
ueretp uerept uertep uertpe uerpte uerpet uepert uepetr uepret ueprte ueptre
uepter uteerp uteepr uterep uterpe utepre uteper uteerp uteepr uterep uterpe
utepre uteper utreep utrepe utreep utrepe utrpee utrpee utpere utpeer utpree
utpree utpere utpeer ueterp uetepr uetrep uetrpe uetpre uetper ueetrp ueetpr
ueertp ueerpt ueeprt ueeptr ueretp uerept uertep uertpe uerpte uerpet uepert
uepetr uepret ueprte ueptre uepter urteep urtepe urteep urtepe urtpee urtpee
uretep uretpe ureetp ureept urepet urepte ureetp ureept uretep uretpe urepte
urepet urpeet urpete urpeet urpete urptee urptee uptere upteer uptree uptree
uptere upteer upetre upeter uperte uperet upeert upeetr uprete upreet uprtee
uprtee uprete upreet upeert upeetr uperet uperte upetre upeter tueerp tueepr
tuerep tuerpe tuepre tueper tueerp tueepr tuerep tuerpe tuepre tueper tureep
turepe tureep turepe turpee turpee tupere tupeer tupree tupree tupere tupeer
teuerp teuepr teurep teurpe teupre teuper teeurp teeupr teerup teerpu teepru
teepur tereup terepu teruep terupe terpue terpeu teperu tepeur tepreu teprue
tepure tepuer teeurp teeupr teerup teerpu teepru teepur teuerp teuepr teurep
teurpe teupre teuper teruep terupe tereup terepu terpeu terpue tepure tepuer
teprue tepreu teperu tepeur treeup treepu treuep treupe trepue trepeu treeup
treepu treuep treupe trepue trepeu trueep truepe trueep truepe trupee trupee
trpeue trpeeu trpuee trpuee trpeue trpeeu tpeeru tpeeur tpereu tperue tpeure
tpeuer tpeeru tpeeur tpereu tperue tpeure tpeuer tpreeu tpreue tpreeu tpreue
tpruee tpruee tpuere tpueer tpuree tpuree tpuere tpueer euterp eutepr eutrep
eutrpe eutpre eutper euetrp euetpr euertp euerpt eueprt eueptr euretp eurept
eurtep eurtpe eurpte eurpet eupert eupetr eupret euprte euptre eupter etuerp
etuepr eturep eturpe etupre etuper eteurp eteupr eterup eterpu etepru etepur
etreup etrepu etruep etrupe etrpue etrpeu etperu etpeur etpreu etprue etpure
etpuer eeturp eetupr eetrup eetrpu eetpru eetpur eeutrp eeutpr eeurtp eeurpt
eeuprt eeuptr eerutp eerupt eertup eertpu eerptu eerput eepurt eeputr eeprut
eeprtu eeptru eeptur erteup ertepu ertuep ertupe ertpue ertpeu eretup eretpu
ereutp ereupt ereput ereptu eruetp eruept erutep erutpe erupte erupet erpeut
erpetu erpuet erpute erptue erpteu epteru epteur eptreu eptrue epture eptuer
epetru epetur epertu eperut epeurt epeutr epretu epreut eprteu eprtue eprute
epruet epuert epuetr epuret epurte eputre eputer ruteep rutepe ruteep rutepe
rutpee rutpee ruetep ruetpe rueetp rueept ruepet ruepte rueetp rueept ruetep
ruetpe ruepte ruepet rupeet rupete rupeet rupete ruptee ruptee rtueep rtuepe
rtueep rtuepe rtupee rtupee rteuep rteupe rteeup rteepu rtepeu rtepue rteeup
rteepu rteuep rteupe rtepue rtepeu rtpeeu rtpeue rtpeeu rtpeue rtpuee rtpuee
retuep retupe reteup retepu retpeu retpue reutep reutpe reuetp reuept reupet
reupte reeutp reeupt reetup reetpu reeptu reeput repuet repute repeut repetu
repteu reptue reteup retepu retuep retupe retpue retpeu reetup reetpu reeutp
reeupt reeput reeptu reuetp reuept reutep reutpe reupte reupet repeut repetu
repuet repute reptue repteu rpteeu rpteue rpteeu rpteue rptuee rptuee rpeteu
rpetue rpeetu rpeeut rpeuet rpeute rpeetu rpeeut rpeteu rpetue rpeute rpeuet
rpueet rpuete rpueet rpuete rputee rputee putere puteer putree putree putere
puteer puetre pueter puerte pueret pueert pueetr purete pureet purtee purtee
purete pureet pueert pueetr pueret puerte puetre pueter ptuere ptueer pturee
pturee ptuere ptueer pteure pteuer pterue ptereu pteeru pteeur ptreue ptreeu
ptruee ptruee ptreue ptreeu pteeru pteeur ptereu pterue pteure pteuer peture
petuer petrue petreu peteru peteur peutre peuter peurte peuret peuert peuetr
perute peruet pertue perteu peretu pereut peeurt peeutr peerut peertu peetru
peetur prteue prteeu prtuee prtuee prteue prteeu pretue preteu preute preuet
preeut preetu pruete prueet prutee prutee pruete prueet preeut preetu preuet
preute pretue preteu peteru peteur petreu petrue peture petuer peetru peetur
peertu peerut peeurt peeutr peretu pereut perteu pertue perute peruet peuert
peuetr peuret peurte peutre peuter

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History of cryptography
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