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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: eudeve
cipher variations:
fvefwf gwfgxg hxghyh iyhizi jzijaj
kajkbk lbklcl mclmdm ndmnen oenofo
pfopgp qgpqhq rhqrir sirsjs tjstkt
uktulu vluvmv wmvwnw xnwxox yoxypy
zpyzqz aqzara brabsb csbctc dtcdud

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: eudeve
Cipher: vfwvev

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: eudeve
Cipher: AABAA BAABB AAABB AABAA BBBAB AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: eudeve
cipher variations:
fvefwfnjknmnvxqvcvdlwdsdlzcliltnitytjpujejrdarur
zrgzkzhfmhahptspqpxhyxgxgwfgxgoklonowyrwdwemxete
madmjmuojuzukqvkfksebsvsashalaignibiqutqrqyizyhy
hxghyhplmpopxzsxexfnyfufnbenknvpkvavlrwlgltfctwt
btibmbjhojcjrvursrzjaziziyhiziqmnqpqyatyfygozgvg
ocfolowqlwbwmsxmhmugduxucujcnckipkdkswvstsakbaja
jzijajrnorqrzbuzgzhpahwhpdgpmpxrmxcxntyninvhevyv
dvkdodljqleltxwtutblcbkbkajkbksopsrsacvahaiqbixi
qehqnqysnydyouzojowifwzwewlepemkrmfmuyxuvucmdclc
lbklcltpqtstbdwbibjrcjyjrfirorztozezpvapkpxjgxax
fxmfqfnlsngnvzyvwvdnedmdmclmdmuqrutucexcjcksdkzk
sgjspsaupafaqwbqlqykhybygyngrgomtohowazwxweofene
ndmnenvrsvuvdfydkdltelalthktqtbvqbgbrxcrmrzlizcz
hzohshpnupipxbaxyxfpgfofoenofowstwvwegzelemufmbm
uilurucwrchcsydsnsamjadaiapitiqovqjqycbyzygqhgpg
pfopgpxtuxwxfhafmfnvgncnvjmvsvdxsdidtzetotbnkbeb
jbqjujrpwrkrzdczazhrihqhqgpqhqyuvyxygibgngowhodo
wknwtweytejeuafupucolcfckcrkvksqxslsaedabaisjiri
rhqrirzvwzyzhjchohpxipepxloxuxfzufkfvbgvqvdpmdgd
ldslwltrytmtbfebcbjtkjsjsirsjsawxazaikdipiqyjqfq
ympyvygavglgwchwrweqnehemetmxmuszunucgfcdckulktk
tjstktbxybabjlejqjrzkrgrznqzwzhbwhmhxdixsxfrofif
nfunynvtavovdhgdedlvmluluktulucyzcbckmfkrksalshs
aoraxaicxiniyejytygspgjgogvozowubwpweihefemwnmvm
vluvmvdzadcdlnglsltbmtitbpsbybjdyjojzfkzuzhtqhkh
phwpapxvcxqxfjifgfnxonwnwmvwnweabedemohmtmucnuju
cqtczckezkpkaglavaiuriliqixqbqywdyrygkjghgoypoxo
xnwxoxfbcfefnpinunvdovkvdrudadlfalqlbhmbwbjvsjmj
rjyrcrzxezszhlkhihpzqpypyoxypygcdgfgoqjovowepwlw
esvebemgbmrmcincxckwtknkskzsdsayfataimlijiqarqzq
zpyzqzhdehghprkpwpxfqxmxftwfcfnhcnsndjodydlxulol
tlatetbzgbubjnmjkjrbsraraqzaraiefihiqslqxqygryny
guxgdgoidotoekpezemyvmpmumbufucahcvckonklksctsbs
brabsbjfgjijrtmryrzhszozhvyhehpjepupflqfafnzwnqn
vncvgvdbidwdlpolmltdutctcsbctckghkjksunszsaitapa
iwzifiqkfqvqgmrgbgoaxorowodwhwecjexemqpmnmuevudu
dtcdudlhilkltvotatbjubqbjxajgjrlgrwrhnshchpbypsp
xpexixfdkfyfnrqnonvfwveveudevemijmlmuwpubuckvcrc
kybkhksmhsxsiotidiqczqtqyqfyjygelgzgosropowgxwfw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: eudeve
Cipher: rhqrir

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: eudeve
Cipher: 515441511551

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: eudeve
method variations:
kzikakpeopfpuktuluzpyzqz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e u d e v e 
5 5 4 5 1 5 
1 4 1 1 5 1 
They are then read out in rows:
554515141151
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: eudeve
Cipher: zyvqae

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: eudeve
method variations:
vtvazv tvazvv vazvvt
azvvtv zvvtva vvtvaz

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: eudeve

all 720 cipher variations:
eudeve eudeev eudvee eudvee eudeve eudeev euedve euedev euevde eueved eueevd
eueedv euvede euveed euvdee euvdee euvede euveed eueevd eueedv eueved euevde
euedve euedev edueve edueev eduvee eduvee edueve edueev edeuve edeuev edevue
edeveu edeevu edeeuv edveue edveeu edvuee edvuee edveue edveeu edeevu edeeuv
edeveu edevue edeuve edeuev eeduve eeduev eedvue eedveu eedevu eedeuv eeudve
eeudev eeuvde eeuved eeuevd eeuedv eevude eevued eevdue eevdeu eevedu eeveud
eeeuvd eeeudv eeevud eeevdu eeedvu eeeduv evdeue evdeeu evduee evduee evdeue
evdeeu evedue evedeu eveude eveued eveeud eveedu evuede evueed evudee evudee
evuede evueed eveeud eveedu eveued eveude evedue evedeu eedevu eedeuv eedveu
eedvue eeduve eeduev eeedvu eeeduv eeevdu eeevud eeeuvd eeeudv eevedu eeveud
eevdeu eevdue eevude eevued eeuevd eeuedv eeuved eeuvde eeudve eeudev uedeve
uedeev uedvee uedvee uedeve uedeev ueedve ueedev ueevde ueeved ueeevd ueeedv
uevede ueveed uevdee uevdee uevede ueveed ueeevd ueeedv ueeved ueevde ueedve
ueedev udeeve udeeev udevee udevee udeeve udeeev udeeve udeeev udevee udevee
udeeve udeeev udveee udveee udveee udveee udveee udveee udeeve udeeev udevee
udevee udeeve udeeev uedeve uedeev uedvee uedvee uedeve uedeev ueedve ueedev
ueevde ueeved ueeevd ueeedv uevede ueveed uevdee uevdee uevede ueveed ueeevd
ueeedv ueeved ueevde ueedve ueedev uvdeee uvdeee uvdeee uvdeee uvdeee uvdeee
uvedee uvedee uveede uveeed uveeed uveede uveede uveeed uvedee uvedee uveede
uveeed uveeed uveede uveeed uveede uvedee uvedee uedeve uedeev uedvee uedvee
uedeve uedeev ueedve ueedev ueevde ueeved ueeevd ueeedv uevede ueveed uevdee
uevdee uevede ueveed ueeevd ueeedv ueeved ueevde ueedve ueedev dueeve dueeev
duevee duevee dueeve dueeev dueeve dueeev duevee duevee dueeve dueeev duveee
duveee duveee duveee duveee duveee dueeve dueeev duevee duevee dueeve dueeev
deueve deueev deuvee deuvee deueve deueev deeuve deeuev deevue deeveu deeevu
deeeuv deveue deveeu devuee devuee deveue deveeu deeevu deeeuv deeveu deevue
deeuve deeuev deeuve deeuev deevue deeveu deeevu deeeuv deueve deueev deuvee
deuvee deueve deueev devuee devuee deveue deveeu deveeu deveue deeuve deeuev
deevue deeveu deeevu deeeuv dveeue dveeeu dveuee dveuee dveeue dveeeu dveeue
dveeeu dveuee dveuee dveeue dveeeu dvueee dvueee dvueee dvueee dvueee dvueee
dveeue dveeeu dveuee dveuee dveeue dveeeu deeevu deeeuv deeveu deevue deeuve
deeuev deeevu deeeuv deeveu deevue deeuve deeuev deveeu deveue deveeu deveue
devuee devuee deueve deueev deuvee deuvee deueve deueev eudeve eudeev eudvee
eudvee eudeve eudeev euedve euedev euevde eueved eueevd eueedv euvede euveed
euvdee euvdee euvede euveed eueevd eueedv eueved euevde euedve euedev edueve
edueev eduvee eduvee edueve edueev edeuve edeuev edevue edeveu edeevu edeeuv
edveue edveeu edvuee edvuee edveue edveeu edeevu edeeuv edeveu edevue edeuve
edeuev eeduve eeduev eedvue eedveu eedevu eedeuv eeudve eeudev eeuvde eeuved
eeuevd eeuedv eevude eevued eevdue eevdeu eevedu eeveud eeeuvd eeeudv eeevud
eeevdu eeedvu eeeduv evdeue evdeeu evduee evduee evdeue evdeeu evedue evedeu
eveude eveued eveeud eveedu evuede evueed evudee evudee evuede evueed eveeud
eveedu eveued eveude evedue evedeu eedevu eedeuv eedveu eedvue eeduve eeduev
eeedvu eeeduv eeevdu eeevud eeeuvd eeeudv eevedu eeveud eevdeu eevdue eevude
eevued eeuevd eeuedv eeuved eeuvde eeudve eeudev vudeee vudeee vudeee vudeee
vudeee vudeee vuedee vuedee vueede vueeed vueeed vueede vueede vueeed vuedee
vuedee vueede vueeed vueeed vueede vueeed vueede vuedee vuedee vdueee vdueee
vdueee vdueee vdueee vdueee vdeuee vdeuee vdeeue vdeeeu vdeeeu vdeeue vdeeue
vdeeeu vdeuee vdeuee vdeeue vdeeeu vdeeeu vdeeue vdeeeu vdeeue vdeuee vdeuee
veduee veduee vedeue vedeeu vedeeu vedeue veudee veudee veuede veueed veueed
veuede veeude veeued veedue veedeu veeedu veeeud veeued veeude veeeud veeedu
veedeu veedue vedeue vedeeu veduee veduee vedeue vedeeu veedue veedeu veeude
veeued veeeud veeedu veuede veueed veudee veudee veuede veueed veeeud veeedu
veeued veeude veedue veedeu vedeeu vedeue vedeeu vedeue veduee veduee veedeu
veedue veeedu veeeud veeued veeude veeedu veeeud veedeu veedue veeude veeued
veueed veuede veueed veuede veudee veudee eudeve eudeev eudvee eudvee eudeve
eudeev euedve euedev euevde eueved eueevd eueedv euvede euveed euvdee euvdee
euvede euveed eueevd eueedv eueved euevde euedve euedev edueve edueev eduvee
eduvee edueve edueev edeuve edeuev edevue edeveu edeevu edeeuv edveue edveeu
edvuee edvuee edveue edveeu edeevu edeeuv edeveu edevue edeuve edeuev eeduve
eeduev eedvue eedveu eedevu eedeuv eeudve eeudev eeuvde eeuved eeuevd eeuedv
eevude eevued eevdue eevdeu eevedu eeveud eeeuvd eeeudv eeevud eeevdu eeedvu
eeeduv evdeue evdeeu evduee evduee evdeue evdeeu evedue evedeu eveude eveued
eveeud eveedu evuede evueed evudee evudee evuede evueed eveeud eveedu eveued
eveude evedue evedeu eedevu eedeuv eedveu eedvue eeduve eeduev eeedvu eeeduv
eeevdu eeevud eeeuvd eeeudv eevedu eeveud eevdeu eevdue eevude eevued eeuevd
eeuedv eeuved eeuvde eeudve eeudev

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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