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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: estrus
cipher variations:
ftusvt guvtwu hvwuxv iwxvyw jxywzx
kyzxay lzaybz mabzca nbcadb ocdbec
pdecfd qefdge rfgehf sghfig thigjh
uijhki vjkilj wkljmk xlmknl ymnlom
znompn aopnqo bpqorp cqrpsq drsqtr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: estrus
Cipher: vhgifh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: estrus
Cipher: AABAA BAAAB BAABA BAAAA BAABB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: estrus
cipher variations:
ftusvtndgajdvnsixndxeqlxlhqyzhtrcgnrjlawplrvmedv
zfymrfhpkufppzwctzxjikhjguvtwuoehbkewotjyoeyfrmy
mirzaiusdhoskmbxqmswnfewagznsgiqlvgqqaxduaykjlik
hvwuxvpficlfxpukzpfzgsnznjsabjvteiptlncyrntxogfx
bhaothjrmwhrrbyevbzlkmjliwxvywqgjdmgyqvlaqgahtoa
oktbckwufjqumodzsouyphgycibpuiksnxissczfwcamlnkm
jxywzxrhkenhzrwmbrhbiupbplucdlxvgkrvnpeatpvzqihz
djcqvjltoyjttdagxdbnmolnkyzxaysilfoiasxncsicjvqc
qmvdemywhlswoqfbuqwarjiaekdrwkmupzkuuebhyeconpmo
lzaybztjmgpjbtyodtjdkwrdrnwefnzximtxprgcvrxbskjb
flesxlnvqalvvfcizfdpoqnpmabzcauknhqkcuzpeukelxse
soxfgoayjnuyqshdwsyctlkcgmftymowrbmwwgdjageqproq
nbcadbvloirldvaqfvlfmytftpyghpbzkovzrtiextzdumld
hnguznpxscnxxhekbhfrqsprocdbecwmpjsmewbrgwmgnzug
uqzhiqcalpwasujfyuaevnmeiohvaoqytdoyyiflcigsrtqs
pdecfdxnqktnfxcshxnhoavhvraijrdbmqxbtvkgzvbfwonf
jpiwbprzuepzzjgmdjhtsurtqefdgeyorluogydtiyoipbwi
wsbjksecnrycuwlhawcgxpogkqjxcqsavfqaakhnekiutvsu
rfgehfzpsmvphzeujzpjqcxjxtckltfdoszdvxmibxdhyqph
lrkydrtbwgrbbliofljvuwtvsghfigaqtnwqiafvkaqkrdyk
yudlmugeptaewynjcyeizrqimslzesucxhsccmjpgmkwvxuw
thigjhbruoxrjbgwlbrlsezlzvemnvhfqubfxzokdzfjasrj
ntmaftvdyitddnkqhnlxwyvxuijhkicsvpyskchxmcsmtfam
awfnowigrvcgyapleagkbtskounbguwezjueeolriomyxzwy
vjkiljdtwqztldiyndtnugbnbxgopxjhswdhzbqmfbhlcutl
pvochvxfakvffpmsjpnzyaxzwkljmkeuxraumejzoeuovhco
cyhpqykitxeiacrngcimdvumqwpdiwygblwggqntkqoazbya
xlmknlfvysbvnfkapfvpwidpdziqrzljuyfjbdsohdjnewvn
rxqejxzhcmxhhroulrpbaczbymnlomgwztcwoglbqgwqxjeq
eajrsamkvzgkcetpiekofxwosyrfkyaidnyiispvmsqcbdac
znompnhxaudxphmcrhxrykfrfbkstbnlwahldfuqjflpgyxp
tzsglzbjeozjjtqwntrdcebdaopnqoiybveyqindsiyszlgs
gcltucomxbimegvrkgmqhzyquathmackfpakkurxousedfce
bpqorpjzcwfzrjoetjztamhthdmuvdpnycjnfhwslhnriazr
vbuinbdlgqbllvsypvtfegdfcqrpsqkadxgaskpfukaubniu
ienvweqozdkogixtmiosjbaswcvjocemhrcmmwtzqwugfheg
drsqtrlbeyhbtlqgvlbvcojvjfowxfrpaelphjyunjptkcbt
xdwkpdfnisdnnxuarxvhgifhestrusmcfzicumrhwmcwdpkw
kgpxygsqbfmqikzvokquldcuyexlqegojteooyvbsywihjgi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: estrus
Cipher: rfgehf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: estrus
Cipher: 513444245434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: estrus
method variations:
kxywzxpcdbecuhigkhznompn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e s t r u s 
5 3 4 2 5 3 
1 4 4 4 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
534253144444
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: estrus
Cipher: pipqtt

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: estrus
method variations:
ltiyoy tiyoyl iyoylt
yoylti oyltiy yltiyo

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: estrus

all 720 cipher variations:
estrus estrsu esturs estusr estsur estsru esrtus esrtsu esruts esrust esrsut
esrstu esurts esurst esutrs esutsr esustr esusrt essrut essrtu essurt essutr
esstur esstru etsrus etsrsu etsurs etsusr etssur etssru etrsus etrssu etruss
etruss etrsus etrssu eturss eturss etusrs etussr etussr etusrs etsrus etsrsu
etsurs etsusr etssur etssru ertsus ertssu ertuss ertuss ertsus ertssu erstus
erstsu ersuts ersust erssut ersstu erusts erusst erutss erutss erusts erusst
erssut ersstu ersust ersuts erstus erstsu eutrss eutrss eutsrs eutssr eutssr
eutsrs eurtss eurtss eursts eursst eursst eursts eusrts eusrst eustrs eustsr
eusstr eussrt eusrst eusrts eussrt eusstr eustsr eustrs estrus estrsu esturs
estusr estsur estsru esrtus esrtsu esruts esrust esrsut esrstu esurts esurst
esutrs esutsr esustr esusrt essrut essrtu essurt essutr esstur esstru setrus
setrsu seturs setusr setsur setsru sertus sertsu seruts serust sersut serstu
seurts seurst seutrs seutsr seustr seusrt sesrut sesrtu sesurt sesutr sestur
sestru sterus stersu steurs steusr stesur stesru streus stresu strues struse
strsue strseu stures sturse stuers stuesr stuser stusre stsrue stsreu stsure
stsuer stseur stseru srteus srtesu srtues srtuse srtsue srtseu sretus sretsu
sreuts sreust sresut srestu sruets sruest srutes srutse sruste sruset srseut
srsetu srsuet srsute srstue srsteu sutres sutrse suters sutesr sutser sutsre
surtes surtse surets surest surset surste suerts suerst suetrs suetsr suestr
suesrt susret susrte susert susetr suster sustre sstrue sstreu ssture sstuer
ssteur ssteru ssrtue ssrteu ssrute ssruet ssreut ssretu ssurte ssuret ssutre
ssuter ssuetr ssuert sserut ssertu sseurt sseutr ssetur ssetru tserus tsersu
tseurs tseusr tsesur tsesru tsreus tsresu tsrues tsruse tsrsue tsrseu tsures
tsurse tsuers tsuesr tsuser tsusre tssrue tssreu tssure tssuer tsseur tsseru
tesrus tesrsu tesurs tesusr tessur tessru tersus terssu teruss teruss tersus
terssu teurss teurss teusrs teussr teussr teusrs tesrus tesrsu tesurs tesusr
tessur tessru tresus tressu treuss treuss tresus tressu trseus trsesu trsues
trsuse trssue trsseu truses trusse truess truess truses trusse trssue trsseu
trsuse trsues trseus trsesu tuerss tuerss tuesrs tuessr tuessr tuesrs turess
turess turses tursse tursse turses tusres tusrse tusers tusesr tusser tussre
tusrse tusres tussre tusser tusesr tusers tserus tsersu tseurs tseusr tsesur
tsesru tsreus tsresu tsrues tsruse tsrsue tsrseu tsures tsurse tsuers tsuesr
tsuser tsusre tssrue tssreu tssure tssuer tsseur tsseru rsteus rstesu rstues
rstuse rstsue rstseu rsetus rsetsu rseuts rseust rsesut rsestu rsuets rsuest
rsutes rsutse rsuste rsuset rsseut rssetu rssuet rssute rsstue rssteu rtseus
rtsesu rtsues rtsuse rtssue rtsseu rtesus rtessu rteuss rteuss rtesus rtessu
rtuess rtuess rtuses rtusse rtusse rtuses rtseus rtsesu rtsues rtsuse rtssue
rtsseu retsus retssu retuss retuss retsus retssu restus restsu resuts resust
ressut resstu reusts reusst reutss reutss reusts reusst ressut resstu resust
resuts restus restsu rutess rutess rutses rutsse rutsse rutses ruetss ruetss
ruests ruesst ruesst ruests rusets rusest rustes rustse russte russet rusest
rusets russet russte rustse rustes rsteus rstesu rstues rstuse rstsue rstseu
rsetus rsetsu rseuts rseust rsesut rsestu rsuets rsuest rsutes rsutse rsuste
rsuset rsseut rssetu rssuet rssute rsstue rssteu ustres ustrse usters ustesr
ustser ustsre usrtes usrtse usrets usrest usrset usrste userts userst usetrs
usetsr usestr usesrt ussret ussrte ussert ussetr usster usstre utsres utsrse
utsers utsesr utsser utssre utrses utrsse utress utress utrses utrsse uterss
uterss utesrs utessr utessr utesrs utsres utsrse utsers utsesr utsser utssre
urtses urtsse urtess urtess urtses urtsse urstes urstse ursets ursest ursset
ursste urests uresst uretss uretss urests uresst ursset ursste ursest ursets
urstes urstse uetrss uetrss uetsrs uetssr uetssr uetsrs uertss uertss uersts
uersst uersst uersts uesrts uesrst uestrs uestsr uesstr uessrt uesrst uesrts
uessrt uesstr uestsr uestrs ustres ustrse usters ustesr ustser ustsre usrtes
usrtse usrets usrest usrset usrste userts userst usetrs usetsr usestr usesrt
ussret ussrte ussert ussetr usster usstre sstrue sstreu ssture sstuer ssteur
ssteru ssrtue ssrteu ssrute ssruet ssreut ssretu ssurte ssuret ssutre ssuter
ssuetr ssuert sserut ssertu sseurt sseutr ssetur ssetru stsrue stsreu stsure
stsuer stseur stseru strsue strseu struse strues streus stresu sturse stures
stusre stuser stuesr stuers sterus stersu steurs steusr stesur stesru srtsue
srtseu srtuse srtues srteus srtesu srstue srsteu srsute srsuet srseut srsetu
sruste sruset srutse srutes sruets sruest sresut srestu sreust sreuts sretus
sretsu sutrse sutres sutsre sutser sutesr suters surtse surtes surste surset
surest surets susrte susret sustre suster susetr susert suerst suerts suesrt
suestr suetsr suetrs setrus setrsu seturs setusr setsur setsru sertus sertsu
seruts serust sersut serstu seurts seurst seutrs seutsr seustr seusrt sesrut
sesrtu sesurt sesutr sestur sestru

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History of cryptography
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