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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: emelda
cipher variations:
fnfmeb gognfc hphogd iqiphe jrjqif
kskrjg ltlskh mumtli nvnumj owovnk
pxpwol qyqxpm rzryqn saszro tbtasp
ucubtq vdvcur wewdvs xfxewt ygyfxu
zhzgyv aiahzw bjbiax ckcjby dldkcz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: emelda
Cipher: vnvowz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: emelda
Cipher: AABAA ABABB AABAA ABABA AAABB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: emelda
cipher variations:
fnfmebnlnikbvjveqbdhdawblflwcbtdtsibjzjkubrxrgab
zvzcgbhthymbprpusbxpxqybgognfcomojlcwkwfrceiebxc
mgmxdcueutjckaklvcsyshbcawadhciuizncqsqvtcyqyrzc
hphogdpnpkmdxlxgsdfjfcydnhnyedvfvukdlblmwdtzticd
bxbeidjvjaodrtrwudzrzsadiqipheqoqlneymyhtegkgdze
oiozfewgwvlemcmnxeuaujdecycfjekwkbpesusxveasatbe
jrjqifrprmofznziufhlheafpjpagfxhxwmfndnoyfvbvkef
dzdgkflxlcqftvtywfbtbucfkskrjgsqsnpgaoajvgimifbg
qkqbhgyiyxngoeopzgwcwlfgeaehlgmymdrguwuzxgcucvdg
ltlskhtrtoqhbpbkwhjnjgchrlrcihzjzyohpfpqahxdxmgh
fbfimhnzneshvxvayhdvdwehmumtliusupricqclxikokhdi
smsdjiakazpiqgqrbiyeynhigcgjnioaoftiwywbziewexfi
nvnumjvtvqsjdrdmyjlpliejtntekjblbaqjrhrscjzfzoij
hdhkojpbpgujxzxcajfxfygjowovnkwuwrtkesenzkmqmjfk
uouflkcmcbrksistdkagapjkieilpkqcqhvkyaydbkgygzhk
pxpwolxvxsulftfoalnrnkglvpvgmldndcsltjtuelbhbqkl
jfjmqlrdriwlzbzeclhzhailqyqxpmywytvmgugpbmosolhm
wqwhnmeoedtmukuvfmcicrlmkgknrmsesjxmacafdmiaibjm
rzryqnzxzuwnhvhqcnptpminxrxionfpfeunvlvwgndjdsmn
lhlosntftkynbdbgenjbjcknsaszroayavxoiwirdoquqnjo
ysyjpogqgfvowmwxhoeketnomimptougulzocechfokckdlo
tbtaspbzbwypjxjseprvrokpztzkqphrhgwpxnxyipflfuop
njnqupvhvmapdfdigpldlempucubtqcacxzqkyktfqswsplq
aualrqisihxqyoyzjqgmgvpqokorvqwiwnbqegejhqmemfnq
vdvcurdbdyarlzlugrtxtqmrbvbmsrjtjiyrzpzakrhnhwqr
plpswrxjxocrfhfkirnfngorwewdvsecezbsmamvhsuyurns
cwcntskukjzsaqablsioixrsqmqtxsykypdsgigljsogohps
xfxewtfdfactnbnwitvzvsotdxdoutlvlkatbrbcmtjpjyst
rnruytzlzqethjhmktphpiqtygyfxugegbduocoxjuwawtpu
eyepvumwmlbucscdnukqkztusosvzuamarfuikinluqiqjru
zhzgyvhfhcevpdpykvxbxuqvfzfqwvnxnmcvdtdeovlrlauv
tptwavbnbsgvjljomvrjrksvaiahzwigidfwqeqzlwycyvrw
gagrxwoyondweuefpwmsmbvwuquxbwcocthwkmkpnwsksltw
bjbiaxjhjegxrframxzdzwsxhbhsyxpzpoexfvfgqxntncwx
vrvycxdpduixlnlqoxtltmuxckcjbykikfhysgsbnyaeaxty
icitzyqaqpfygwghryouodxywswzdyeqevjymomrpyumunvy
dldkczljlgizthtcozbfbyuzjdjuazrbrqgzhxhiszpvpeyz
xtxaezfrfwkznpnsqzvnvowzemeldamkmhjauiudpacgczva
kekvbascsrhaiyijtaqwqfzayuybfagsgxlaoqotrawowpxa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: emelda
Cipher: rzryqn

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: emelda
Cipher: 512351134111

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: emelda
method variations:
krkqifpwpvolubuatqzgzfyv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e m e l d a 
5 2 5 1 4 1 
1 3 1 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
525141131311
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: emelda
Cipher: kedlla

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: emelda
method variations:
fxasav xasavf asavfx
savfxa avfxas vfxasa

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: emelda

all 720 cipher variations:
emelda emelad emedla emedal emeadl emeald emleda emlead emldea emldae emlade
emlaed emdlea emdlae emdela emdeal emdael emdale emalde emaled emadle emadel
emaedl emaeld eemlda eemlad eemdla eemdal eemadl eemald eelmda eelmad eeldma
eeldam eeladm eelamd eedlma eedlam eedmla eedmal eedaml eedalm eealdm eealmd
eeadlm eeadml eeamdl eeamld elemda elemad eledma eledam eleadm eleamd elmeda
elmead elmdea elmdae elmade elmaed eldmea eldmae eldema eldeam eldaem eldame
elamde elamed eladme eladem elaedm elaemd edelma edelam edemla edemal edeaml
edealm edlema edleam edlmea edlmae edlame edlaem edmlea edmlae edmela edmeal
edmael edmale edalme edalem edamle edamel edaeml edaelm eaeldm eaelmd eaedlm
eaedml eaemdl eaemld ealedm ealemd ealdem ealdme ealmde ealmed eadlem eadlme
eadelm eademl eadmel eadmle eamlde eamled eamdle eamdel eamedl eameld meelda
meelad meedla meedal meeadl meeald meleda melead meldea meldae melade melaed
medlea medlae medela medeal medael medale mealde mealed meadle meadel meaedl
meaeld meelda meelad meedla meedal meeadl meeald meleda melead meldea meldae
melade melaed medlea medlae medela medeal medael medale mealde mealed meadle
meadel meaedl meaeld mleeda mleead mledea mledae mleade mleaed mleeda mleead
mledea mledae mleade mleaed mldeea mldeae mldeea mldeae mldaee mldaee mlaede
mlaeed mladee mladee mlaede mlaeed mdelea mdelae mdeela mdeeal mdeael mdeale
mdleea mdleae mdleea mdleae mdlaee mdlaee mdelea mdelae mdeela mdeeal mdeael
mdeale mdalee mdalee mdaele mdaeel mdaeel mdaele maelde maeled maedle maedel
maeedl maeeld malede maleed maldee maldee malede maleed madlee madlee madele
madeel madeel madele maelde maeled maedle maedel maeedl maeeld emelda emelad
emedla emedal emeadl emeald emleda emlead emldea emldae emlade emlaed emdlea
emdlae emdela emdeal emdael emdale emalde emaled emadle emadel emaedl emaeld
eemlda eemlad eemdla eemdal eemadl eemald eelmda eelmad eeldma eeldam eeladm
eelamd eedlma eedlam eedmla eedmal eedaml eedalm eealdm eealmd eeadlm eeadml
eeamdl eeamld elemda elemad eledma eledam eleadm eleamd elmeda elmead elmdea
elmdae elmade elmaed eldmea eldmae eldema eldeam eldaem eldame elamde elamed
eladme eladem elaedm elaemd edelma edelam edemla edemal edeaml edealm edlema
edleam edlmea edlmae edlame edlaem edmlea edmlae edmela edmeal edmael edmale
edalme edalem edamle edamel edaeml edaelm eaeldm eaelmd eaedlm eaedml eaemdl
eaemld ealedm ealemd ealdem ealdme ealmde ealmed eadlem eadlme eadelm eademl
eadmel eadmle eamlde eamled eamdle eamdel eamedl eameld lmeeda lmeead lmedea
lmedae lmeade lmeaed lmeeda lmeead lmedea lmedae lmeade lmeaed lmdeea lmdeae
lmdeea lmdeae lmdaee lmdaee lmaede lmaeed lmadee lmadee lmaede lmaeed lemeda
lemead lemdea lemdae lemade lemaed leemda leemad leedma leedam leeadm leeamd
ledema ledeam ledmea ledmae ledame ledaem leaedm leaemd leadem leadme leamde
leamed leemda leemad leedma leedam leeadm leeamd lemeda lemead lemdea lemdae
lemade lemaed ledmea ledmae ledema ledeam ledaem ledame leamde leamed leadme
leadem leaedm leaemd ldeema ldeeam ldemea ldemae ldeame ldeaem ldeema ldeeam
ldemea ldemae ldeame ldeaem ldmeea ldmeae ldmeea ldmeae ldmaee ldmaee ldaeme
ldaeem ldamee ldamee ldaeme ldaeem laeedm laeemd laedem laedme laemde laemed
laeedm laeemd laedem laedme laemde laemed ladeem lademe ladeem lademe ladmee
ladmee lamede lameed lamdee lamdee lamede lameed dmelea dmelae dmeela dmeeal
dmeael dmeale dmleea dmleae dmleea dmleae dmlaee dmlaee dmelea dmelae dmeela
dmeeal dmeael dmeale dmalee dmalee dmaele dmaeel dmaeel dmaele demlea demlae
demela demeal demael demale delmea delmae delema deleam delaem delame deelma
deelam deemla deemal deeaml deealm dealem dealme deaelm deaeml deamel deamle
dlemea dlemae dleema dleeam dleaem dleame dlmeea dlmeae dlmeea dlmeae dlmaee
dlmaee dlemea dlemae dleema dleeam dleaem dleame dlamee dlamee dlaeme dlaeem
dlaeem dlaeme deelma deelam deemla deemal deeaml deealm delema deleam delmea
delmae delame delaem demlea demlae demela demeal demael demale dealme dealem
deamle deamel deaeml deaelm daelem daelme daeelm daeeml daemel daemle daleem
daleme daleem daleme dalmee dalmee daelem daelme daeelm daeeml daemel daemle
damlee damlee damele dameel dameel damele amelde ameled amedle amedel ameedl
ameeld amlede amleed amldee amldee amlede amleed amdlee amdlee amdele amdeel
amdeel amdele amelde ameled amedle amedel ameedl ameeld aemlde aemled aemdle
aemdel aemedl aemeld aelmde aelmed aeldme aeldem aeledm aelemd aedlme aedlem
aedmle aedmel aedeml aedelm aeeldm aeelmd aeedlm aeedml aeemdl aeemld alemde
alemed aledme aledem aleedm aleemd almede almeed almdee almdee almede almeed
aldmee aldmee aldeme aldeem aldeem aldeme alemde alemed aledme aledem aleedm
aleemd adelme adelem ademle ademel adeeml adeelm adleme adleem adlmee adlmee
adleme adleem admlee admlee admele admeel admeel admele adelme adelem ademle
ademel adeeml adeelm aeeldm aeelmd aeedlm aeedml aeemdl aeemld aeledm aelemd
aeldem aeldme aelmde aelmed aedlem aedlme aedelm aedeml aedmel aedmle aemlde
aemled aemdle aemdel aemedl aemeld

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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