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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: either
cipher variations:
fjuifs gkvjgt hlwkhu imxliv jnymjw
koznkx lpaoly mqbpmz nrcqna osdrob
ptespc quftqd rvgure swhvsf txiwtg
uyjxuh vzkyvi walzwj xbmaxk ycnbyl
zdoczm aepdan bfqebo cgrfcp dhsgdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: either
Cipher: vrgsvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: either
Cipher: AABAA ABAAA BAABA AABBB AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: either
cipher variations:
fjuifsnzgwnavpskvidfeydqlvqmlytlcatgjracjwrhmqre
zxyezmhnkshupdwgpcxtiuxkgkvjgtoahxobwqtlwjegfzer
mwrnmzumdbuhksbdkxsinrsfayzfanioltivqexhqdyujvyl
hlwkhupbiypcxrumxkfhgafsnxsonavnecviltcelytjostg
bzagbojpmujwrfyirezvkwzmimxlivqcjzqdysvnylgihbgt
oytpobwofdwjmudfmzukptuhcabhcpkqnvkxsgzjsfawlxan
jnymjwrdkareztwozmhjichupzuqpcxpgexknvegnavlquvi
dbcidqlrowlythaktgbxmybokoznkxselbsfauxpanikjdiv
qavrqdyqhfylowfhobwmrvwjecdjermspxmzuibluhcynzcp
lpaolytfmctgbvyqbojlkejwrbwsrezrigzmpxgipcxnswxk
fdekfsntqynavjcmvidzoadqmqbpmzugnduhcwzrcpkmlfkx
scxtsfasjhanqyhjqdyotxylgeflgtourzobwkdnwjeapber
nrcqnavhoevidxasdqlnmglytdyutgbtkiborzikrezpuyzm
hfgmhupvsapcxleoxkfbqcfsosdrobwipfwjeybtermonhmz
uezvuhculjcpsajlsfaqvzanighnivqwtbqdymfpylgcrdgt
ptespcxjqgxkfzcufsnpoinavfawvidvmkdqtbkmtgbrwabo
jhiojwrxucrezngqzmhdsehuquftqdykrhylgadvgtoqpjob
wgbxwjewnleruclnuhcsxbcpkijpkxsyvdsfaohranietfiv
rvgurezlsizmhbewhuprqkpcxhcyxkfxomfsvdmovidtycdq
ljkqlytzwetgbpisbojfugjwswhvsfamtjanicfxivqsrlqd
yidzylgypngtwenpwjeuzdermklrmzuaxfuhcqjtcpkgvhkx
txiwtgbnukbojdgyjwrtsmrezjeazmhzqohuxfoqxkfvaefs
nlmsnavbygvidrkudqlhwilyuyjxuhcovlcpkehzkxsutnsf
akfbaniarpivygprylgwbfgtomntobwczhwjeslvermixjmz
vzkyvidpwmdqlfialytvuotgblgcbojbsqjwzhqszmhxcghu
pnoupcxdaixkftmwfsnjyknawalzwjeqxnermgjbmzuwvpuh
cmhdcpkctrkxairtaniydhivqopvqdyebjylgunxgtokzlob
xbmaxkfryofsnhkcnavxwqvidniedqlduslybjsubojzeijw
rpqwrezfckzmhvoyhuplampcycnbylgszpgtoildobwyxrwj
eojfermevtmzcktvcpkafjkxsqrxsfagdlaniwpzivqmbnqd
zdoczmhtaqhupjmepcxzysxkfpkgfsnfwunadluwdqlbgkly
trsytgbhembojxqajwrncoreaepdaniubrivqknfqdyaztyl
gqlhgtogxvobemvxermchlmzustzuhcifncpkyrbkxsodpsf
bfqebojvcsjwrlogrezbauzmhrmihuphywpcfnwyfsndimna
vtuavidjgodqlzsclytpeqtgcgrfcpkwdtkxsmphsfacbvan
isnjivqizxqdgoxzgtoejnobwuvbwjekhpermatdmzuqfruh
dhsgdqlxeulytnqitgbdcwbojtokjwrjayrehpyahupfkopc
xvwcxkfliqfsnbuenavrgsvieithermyfvmzuorjuhcedxcp
kuplkxskbzsfiqzbivqglpqdywxdylgmjrgtocvfobwshtwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: either
Cipher: rvgure

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: either
Cipher: 514244325124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: either
method variations:
koynkwptdspbuyixugzdoczm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e i t h e r 
5 4 4 3 5 2 
1 2 4 2 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
544352124214
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: either
Cipher: uokfiq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: either
method variations:
qrowfy rowfyq owfyqr
wfyqro fyqrow yqrowf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: either

all 720 cipher variations:
either eithre eitehr eiterh eitreh eitrhe eihter eihtre eihetr eihert eihret
eihrte eiehtr eiehrt eiethr eietrh eierth eierht eirhet eirhte eireht eireth
eirteh eirthe etiher etihre etiehr etierh etireh etirhe ethier ethire etheir
etheri ethrei ethrie etehir etehri eteihr eteirh eterih eterhi etrhei etrhie
etrehi etreih etrieh etrihe ehtier ehtire ehteir ehteri ehtrei ehtrie ehiter
ehitre ehietr ehiert ehiret ehirte eheitr eheirt ehetir ehetri eherti eherit
ehriet ehrite ehreit ehreti ehrtei ehrtie eethir eethri eetihr eetirh eetrih
eetrhi eehtir eehtri eehitr eehirt eehrit eehrti eeihtr eeihrt eeithr eeitrh
eeirth eeirht eerhit eerhti eeriht eerith eertih eerthi erthei erthie ertehi
erteih ertieh ertihe erhtei erhtie erheti erheit erhiet erhite erehti erehit
erethi eretih ereith ereiht erihet erihte erieht erieth eriteh erithe iether
iethre ietehr ieterh ietreh ietrhe iehter iehtre iehetr iehert iehret iehrte
ieehtr ieehrt ieethr ieetrh ieerth ieerht ierhet ierhte iereht iereth ierteh
ierthe iteher itehre iteehr iteerh itereh iterhe itheer ithere itheer ithere
ithree ithree iteher itehre iteehr iteerh itereh iterhe itrhee itrhee itrehe
itreeh itreeh itrehe ihteer ihtere ihteer ihtere ihtree ihtree iheter ihetre
iheetr iheert iheret iherte iheetr iheert iheter ihetre iherte iheret ihreet
ihrete ihreet ihrete ihrtee ihrtee iether iethre ietehr ieterh ietreh ietrhe
iehter iehtre iehetr iehert iehret iehrte ieehtr ieehrt ieethr ieetrh ieerth
ieerht ierhet ierhte iereht iereth ierteh ierthe irthee irthee irtehe irteeh
irteeh irtehe irhtee irhtee irhete irheet irheet irhete irehte irehet irethe
ireteh ireeth ireeht irehet irehte ireeht ireeth ireteh irethe tieher tiehre
tieehr tieerh tiereh tierhe tiheer tihere tiheer tihere tihree tihree tieher
tiehre tieehr tieerh tiereh tierhe tirhee tirhee tirehe tireeh tireeh tirehe
teiher teihre teiehr teierh teireh teirhe tehier tehire teheir teheri tehrei
tehrie teehir teehri teeihr teeirh teerih teerhi terhei terhie terehi tereih
terieh terihe theier theire theeir theeri therei therie thieer thiere thieer
thiere thiree thiree theier theire theeir theeri therei therie thriee thriee
threie threei threei threie teehir teehri teeihr teeirh teerih teerhi teheir
teheri tehier tehire tehrie tehrei teiher teihre teiehr teierh teireh teirhe
terhie terhei terihe terieh tereih terehi trehei trehie treehi treeih treieh
treihe trheei trheie trheei trheie trhiee trhiee trehei trehie treehi treeih
treieh treihe trihee trihee triehe trieeh trieeh triehe hiteer hitere hiteer
hitere hitree hitree hieter hietre hieetr hieert hieret hierte hieetr hieert
hieter hietre hierte hieret hireet hirete hireet hirete hirtee hirtee htieer
htiere htieer htiere htiree htiree hteier hteire hteeir hteeri hterei hterie
hteeir hteeri hteier hteire hterie hterei htreei htreie htreei htreie htriee
htriee hetier hetire heteir heteri hetrei hetrie heiter heitre heietr heiert
heiret heirte heeitr heeirt heetir heetri heerti heerit heriet herite hereit
hereti hertei hertie heteir heteri hetier hetire hetrie hetrei heetir heetri
heeitr heeirt heerit heerti heietr heiert heiter heitre heirte heiret hereit
hereti heriet herite hertie hertei hrteei hrteie hrteei hrteie hrtiee hrtiee
hretei hretie hreeti hreeit hreiet hreite hreeti hreeit hretei hretie hreite
hreiet hrieet hriete hrieet hriete hritee hritee either eithre eitehr eiterh
eitreh eitrhe eihter eihtre eihetr eihert eihret eihrte eiehtr eiehrt eiethr
eietrh eierth eierht eirhet eirhte eireht eireth eirteh eirthe etiher etihre
etiehr etierh etireh etirhe ethier ethire etheir etheri ethrei ethrie etehir
etehri eteihr eteirh eterih eterhi etrhei etrhie etrehi etreih etrieh etrihe
ehtier ehtire ehteir ehteri ehtrei ehtrie ehiter ehitre ehietr ehiert ehiret
ehirte eheitr eheirt ehetir ehetri eherti eherit ehriet ehrite ehreit ehreti
ehrtei ehrtie eethir eethri eetihr eetirh eetrih eetrhi eehtir eehtri eehitr
eehirt eehrit eehrti eeihtr eeihrt eeithr eeitrh eeirth eeirht eerhit eerhti
eeriht eerith eertih eerthi erthei erthie ertehi erteih ertieh ertihe erhtei
erhtie erheti erheit erhiet erhite erehti erehit erethi eretih ereith ereiht
erihet erihte erieht erieth eriteh erithe rithee rithee ritehe riteeh riteeh
ritehe rihtee rihtee rihete riheet riheet rihete riehte riehet riethe rieteh
rieeth rieeht riehet riehte rieeht rieeth rieteh riethe rtihee rtihee rtiehe
rtieeh rtieeh rtiehe rthiee rthiee rtheie rtheei rtheei rtheie rtehie rtehei
rteihe rteieh rteeih rteehi rtehei rtehie rteehi rteeih rteieh rteihe rhtiee
rhtiee rhteie rhteei rhteei rhteie rhitee rhitee rhiete rhieet rhieet rhiete
rheite rheiet rhetie rhetei rheeti rheeit rheiet rheite rheeit rheeti rhetei
rhetie rethie rethei retihe retieh reteih retehi rehtie rehtei rehite rehiet
reheit reheti reihte reihet reithe reiteh reieth reieht reehit reehti reeiht
reeith reetih reethi rethei rethie retehi reteih retieh retihe rehtei rehtie
reheti reheit rehiet rehite reehti reehit reethi reetih reeith reeiht reihet
reihte reieht reieth reiteh reithe

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