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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: ebonee
cipher variations:
fcpoff gdqpgg herqhh ifsrii jgtsjj
khutkk livull mjwvmm nkxwnn olyxoo
pmzypp qnazqq robarr spcbss tqdctt
ureduu vsfevv wtgfww xuhgxx yvihyy
zwjizz axkjaa bylkbb czmlcc danmdd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: ebonee
Cipher: vylmvv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: ebonee
Cipher: AABAA AAAAB ABBAB ABBAA AABAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: ebonee
cipher variations:
fcpoffneronnvgtovvdivoddlkxolltmzottjqdojjrsforr
zuhozzhwjohhpyloppxanoxxgdqpggofspoowhupwwejwpee
mlypmmunapuukrepkkstgpssavipaaixkpiiqzmpqqybopyy
herqhhpgtqppxivqxxfkxqffnmzqnnvobqvvlsfqlltuhqtt
bwjqbbjylqjjranqrrzcpqzzifsriiqhurqqyjwryyglyrgg
onaroowpcrwwmtgrmmuviruucxkrcckzmrkksborssadqraa
jgtsjjrivsrrzkxszzhmzshhpobsppxqdsxxnuhsnnvwjsvv
dylsddlanslltcpsttbersbbkhutkksjwtssalytaainatii
qpctqqyretyyovitoowxktwwezmteembotmmudqtuucfstcc
livulltkxuttbmzubbjobujjrqdurrzsfuzzpwjuppxyluxx
fanuffncpunnveruvvdgtuddmjwvmmulyvuucnavcckpcvkk
srevssatgvaaqxkvqqyzmvyygbovggodqvoowfsvwwehuvee
nkxwnnvmzwvvdobwddlqdwlltsfwttbuhwbbrylwrrzanwzz
hcpwhhperwppxgtwxxfivwffolyxoownaxwwepcxeemrexmm
utgxuucvixccszmxssaboxaaidqxiiqfsxqqyhuxyygjwxgg
pmzyppxobyxxfqdyffnsfynnvuhyvvdwjyddtanyttbcpybb
jeryjjrgtyrrzivyzzhkxyhhqnazqqypczyygrezggotgzoo
wvizwwexkzeeubozuucdqzcckfszkkshuzssajwzaailyzii
robarrzqdazzhsfahhpuhappxwjaxxfylaffvcpavvderadd
lgtalltivattbkxabbjmzajjspcbssarebaaitgbiiqvibqq
yxkbyygzmbggwdqbwwefsbeemhubmmujwbuuclybccknabkk
tqdcttbsfcbbjuhcjjrwjcrrzylczzhanchhxercxxfgtcff
nivcnnvkxcvvdmzcddlobcllureduuctgdcckvidkksxkdss
azmdaaibodiiyfsdyyghudggojwdoowlydwwenadeempcdmm
vsfevvduheddlwjelltylettbanebbjcpejjzgtezzhivehh
pkxeppxmzexxfobeffnqdennwtgfwwevifeemxkfmmuzmfuu
cbofcckdqfkkahufaaijwfiiqlyfqqynafyygpcfggorefoo
xuhgxxfwjgffnylgnnvangvvdcpgddlergllbivgbbjkxgjj
rmzgrrzobgzzhqdghhpsfgppyvihyygxkhggozmhoowbohww
edqheemfshmmcjwhccklyhkksnahssapchaairehiiqtghqq
zwjizzhylihhpanippxcpixxferiffngtinndkxiddlmzill
tobittbqdibbjsfijjruhirraxkjaaizmjiiqbojqqydqjyy
gfsjggohujooelyjeemnajmmupcjuucrejccktgjkksvijss
bylkbbjankjjrcpkrrzerkzzhgtkhhpivkppfmzkffnobknn
vqdkvvdsfkddluhklltwjkttczmlcckbolkksdqlssafslaa
ihuliiqjwlqqgnalggopcloowrelwwetgleemvilmmuxkluu
danmddlcpmlltermttbgtmbbjivmjjrkxmrrhobmhhpqdmpp
xsfmxxfuhmffnwjmnnvylmvveboneemdqnmmufsnuuchuncc
kjwnkkslynssipcniiqrenqqytgnyygvinggoxknoowzmnww

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: ebonee
Cipher: robarr

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: ebonee
Cipher: 512143335151

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: ebonee
method variations:
kgtskkpmyxppurdcuuzwihzz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e b o n e e 
5 2 4 3 5 5 
1 1 3 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
524355113311
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: ebonee
Cipher: kozana

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: ebonee
method variations:
fqnxvv qnxvvf nxvvfq
xvvfqn vvfqnx vfqnxv

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: ebonee

all 720 cipher variations:
ebonee ebonee eboene eboeen eboeen eboene ebnoee ebnoee ebneoe ebneeo ebneeo
ebneoe ebenoe ebeneo ebeone ebeoen ebeeon ebeeno ebeneo ebenoe ebeeno ebeeon
ebeoen ebeone eobnee eobnee eobene eobeen eobeen eobene eonbee eonbee eonebe
eoneeb eoneeb eonebe eoenbe eoeneb eoebne eoeben eoeebn eoeenb eoeneb eoenbe
eoeenb eoeebn eoeben eoebne enobee enobee enoebe enoeeb enoeeb enoebe enboee
enboee enbeoe enbeeo enbeeo enbeoe eneboe enebeo eneobe eneoeb eneeob eneebo
enebeo eneboe eneebo eneeob eneoeb eneobe eeonbe eeoneb eeobne eeoben eeoebn
eeoenb eenobe eenoeb eenboe eenbeo eenebo eeneob eebnoe eebneo eebone eeboen
eebeon eebeno eeenbo eeenob eeebno eeebon eeeobn eeeonb eeoneb eeonbe eeoenb
eeoebn eeoben eeobne eenoeb eenobe eeneob eenebo eenbeo eenboe eeenob eeenbo
eeeonb eeeobn eeebon eeebno eebneo eebnoe eebeno eebeon eeboen eebone beonee
beonee beoene beoeen beoeen beoene benoee benoee beneoe beneeo beneeo beneoe
beenoe beeneo beeone beeoen beeeon beeeno beeneo beenoe beeeno beeeon beeoen
beeone boenee boenee boeene boeeen boeeen boeene boneee boneee boneee boneee
boneee boneee boenee boenee boeene boeeen boeeen boeene boenee boenee boeene
boeeen boeeen boeene bnoeee bnoeee bnoeee bnoeee bnoeee bnoeee bneoee bneoee
bneeoe bneeeo bneeeo bneeoe bneeoe bneeeo bneoee bneoee bneeoe bneeeo bneeeo
bneeoe bneeeo bneeoe bneoee bneoee beonee beonee beoene beoeen beoeen beoene
benoee benoee beneoe beneeo beneeo beneoe beenoe beeneo beeone beeoen beeeon
beeeno beeneo beenoe beeeno beeeon beeoen beeone beonee beonee beoene beoeen
beoeen beoene benoee benoee beneoe beneeo beneeo beneoe beenoe beeneo beeone
beeoen beeeon beeeno beeneo beenoe beeeno beeeon beeoen beeone obenee obenee
obeene obeeen obeeen obeene obneee obneee obneee obneee obneee obneee obenee
obenee obeene obeeen obeeen obeene obenee obenee obeene obeeen obeeen obeene
oebnee oebnee oebene oebeen oebeen oebene oenbee oenbee oenebe oeneeb oeneeb
oenebe oeenbe oeeneb oeebne oeeben oeeebn oeeenb oeeneb oeenbe oeeenb oeeebn
oeeben oeebne onebee onebee oneebe oneeeb oneeeb oneebe onbeee onbeee onbeee
onbeee onbeee onbeee onebee onebee oneebe oneeeb oneeeb oneebe onebee onebee
oneebe oneeeb oneeeb oneebe oeenbe oeeneb oeebne oeeben oeeebn oeeenb oenebe
oeneeb oenbee oenbee oenebe oeneeb oebnee oebnee oebene oebeen oebeen oebene
oeenbe oeeneb oeebne oeeben oeeebn oeeenb oeeneb oeenbe oeeenb oeeebn oeeben
oeebne oeneeb oenebe oeneeb oenebe oenbee oenbee oeeneb oeenbe oeeenb oeeebn
oeeben oeebne oebnee oebnee oebene oebeen oebeen oebene nboeee nboeee nboeee
nboeee nboeee nboeee nbeoee nbeoee nbeeoe nbeeeo nbeeeo nbeeoe nbeeoe nbeeeo
nbeoee nbeoee nbeeoe nbeeeo nbeeeo nbeeoe nbeeeo nbeeoe nbeoee nbeoee nobeee
nobeee nobeee nobeee nobeee nobeee noebee noebee noeebe noeeeb noeeeb noeebe
noeebe noeeeb noebee noebee noeebe noeeeb noeeeb noeebe noeeeb noeebe noebee
noebee neobee neobee neoebe neoeeb neoeeb neoebe neboee neboee nebeoe nebeeo
nebeeo nebeoe neeboe neebeo neeobe neeoeb neeeob neeebo neebeo neeboe neeebo
neeeob neeoeb neeobe neoebe neoeeb neobee neobee neoebe neoeeb neeobe neeoeb
neeboe neebeo neeebo neeeob nebeoe nebeeo neboee neboee nebeoe nebeeo neeebo
neeeob neebeo neeboe neeobe neeoeb neoeeb neoebe neoeeb neoebe neobee neobee
neeoeb neeobe neeeob neeebo neebeo neeboe neeeob neeebo neeoeb neeobe neeboe
neebeo nebeeo nebeoe nebeeo nebeoe neboee neboee ebonee ebonee eboene eboeen
eboeen eboene ebnoee ebnoee ebneoe ebneeo ebneeo ebneoe ebenoe ebeneo ebeone
ebeoen ebeeon ebeeno ebeneo ebenoe ebeeno ebeeon ebeoen ebeone eobnee eobnee
eobene eobeen eobeen eobene eonbee eonbee eonebe eoneeb eoneeb eonebe eoenbe
eoeneb eoebne eoeben eoeebn eoeenb eoeneb eoenbe eoeenb eoeebn eoeben eoebne
enobee enobee enoebe enoeeb enoeeb enoebe enboee enboee enbeoe enbeeo enbeeo
enbeoe eneboe enebeo eneobe eneoeb eneeob eneebo enebeo eneboe eneebo eneeob
eneoeb eneobe eeonbe eeoneb eeobne eeoben eeoebn eeoenb eenobe eenoeb eenboe
eenbeo eenebo eeneob eebnoe eebneo eebone eeboen eebeon eebeno eeenbo eeenob
eeebno eeebon eeeobn eeeonb eeoneb eeonbe eeoenb eeoebn eeoben eeobne eenoeb
eenobe eeneob eenebo eenbeo eenboe eeenob eeenbo eeeonb eeeobn eeebon eeebno
eebneo eebnoe eebeno eebeon eeboen eebone ebonee ebonee eboene eboeen eboeen
eboene ebnoee ebnoee ebneoe ebneeo ebneeo ebneoe ebenoe ebeneo ebeone ebeoen
ebeeon ebeeno ebeneo ebenoe ebeeno ebeeon ebeoen ebeone eobnee eobnee eobene
eobeen eobeen eobene eonbee eonbee eonebe eoneeb eoneeb eonebe eoenbe eoeneb
eoebne eoeben eoeebn eoeenb eoeneb eoenbe eoeenb eoeebn eoeben eoebne enobee
enobee enoebe enoeeb enoeeb enoebe enboee enboee enbeoe enbeeo enbeeo enbeoe
eneboe enebeo eneobe eneoeb eneeob eneebo enebeo eneboe eneebo eneeob eneoeb
eneobe eeonbe eeoneb eeobne eeoben eeoebn eeoenb eenobe eenoeb eenboe eenbeo
eenebo eeneob eebnoe eebneo eebone eeboen eebeon eebeno eeenbo eeenob eeebno
eeebon eeeobn eeeonb eeoneb eeonbe eeoenb eeoebn eeoben eeobne eenoeb eenobe
eeneob eenebo eenbeo eenboe eeenob eeenbo eeeonb eeeobn eeebon eeebno eebneo
eebnoe eebeno eebeon eeboen eebone

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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