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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: ebaugh
cipher variations:
fcbvhi gdcwij hedxjk ifeykl jgfzlm
khgamn lihbno mjicop nkjdpq olkeqr
pmlfrs qnmgst ronhtu spoiuv tqpjvw
urqkwx vsrlxy wtsmyz xutnza yvuoab
zwvpbc axwqcd byxrde czysef daztfg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: ebaugh
Cipher: vyzfts

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: ebaugh

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: ebaugh
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: ebaugh
Cipher: ronhtu

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: ebaugh
Cipher: 512111542232

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: ebaugh
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
e b a u g h 
5 2 1 5 2 3 
1 1 1 4 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: ebaugh
Cipher: kvmaqg

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Method #3

Plaintext: ebaugh
method variations:
favimw avimwf vimwfa
imwfav mwfavi wfavim

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: ebaugh

all 720 cipher variations:
ebaugh ebauhg ebaguh ebaghu ebahgu ebahug ebuagh ebuahg ebugah ebugha ebuhga
ebuhag ebguah ebguha ebgauh ebgahu ebghau ebghua ebhuga ebhuag ebhgua ebhgau
ebhagu ebhaug eabugh eabuhg eabguh eabghu eabhgu eabhug eaubgh eaubhg eaugbh
eaughb eauhgb eauhbg eagubh eaguhb eagbuh eagbhu eaghbu eaghub eahugb eahubg
eahgub eahgbu eahbgu eahbug euabgh euabhg euagbh euaghb euahgb euahbg eubagh
eubahg eubgah eubgha eubhga eubhag eugbah eugbha eugabh eugahb eughab eughba
euhbga euhbag euhgba euhgab euhagb euhabg egaubh egauhb egabuh egabhu egahbu
egahub eguabh eguahb egubah egubha eguhba eguhab egbuah egbuha egbauh egbahu
egbhau egbhua eghuba eghuab eghbua eghbau eghabu eghaub ehaugb ehaubg ehagub
ehagbu ehabgu ehabug ehuagb ehuabg ehugab ehugba ehubga ehubag ehguab ehguba
ehgaub ehgabu ehgbau ehgbua ehbuga ehbuag ehbgua ehbgau ehbagu ehbaug beaugh
beauhg beaguh beaghu beahgu beahug beuagh beuahg beugah beugha beuhga beuhag
beguah beguha begauh begahu beghau beghua behuga behuag behgua behgau behagu
behaug baeugh baeuhg baeguh baeghu baehgu baehug bauegh bauehg baugeh baughe
bauhge bauheg bagueh baguhe bageuh bagehu bagheu baghue bahuge bahueg bahgue
bahgeu bahegu baheug buaegh buaehg buageh buaghe buahge buaheg bueagh bueahg
buegah buegha buehga buehag bugeah bugeha bugaeh bugahe bughae bughea buhega
buheag buhgea buhgae buhage buhaeg bgaueh bgauhe bgaeuh bgaehu bgaheu bgahue
bguaeh bguahe bgueah bgueha bguhea bguhae bgeuah bgeuha bgeauh bgeahu bgehau
bgehua bghuea bghuae bgheua bgheau bghaeu bghaue bhauge bhaueg bhague bhageu
bhaegu bhaeug bhuage bhuaeg bhugae bhugea bhuega bhueag bhguae bhguea bhgaue
bhgaeu bhgeau bhgeua bheuga bheuag bhegua bhegau bheagu bheaug abeugh abeuhg
abeguh abeghu abehgu abehug abuegh abuehg abugeh abughe abuhge abuheg abgueh
abguhe abgeuh abgehu abgheu abghue abhuge abhueg abhgue abhgeu abhegu abheug
aebugh aebuhg aebguh aebghu aebhgu aebhug aeubgh aeubhg aeugbh aeughb aeuhgb
aeuhbg aegubh aeguhb aegbuh aegbhu aeghbu aeghub aehugb aehubg aehgub aehgbu
aehbgu aehbug auebgh auebhg auegbh aueghb auehgb auehbg aubegh aubehg aubgeh
aubghe aubhge aubheg augbeh augbhe augebh augehb augheb aughbe auhbge auhbeg
auhgbe auhgeb auhegb auhebg ageubh ageuhb agebuh agebhu agehbu agehub aguebh
aguehb agubeh agubhe aguhbe aguheb agbueh agbuhe agbeuh agbehu agbheu agbhue
aghube aghueb aghbue aghbeu aghebu agheub aheugb aheubg ahegub ahegbu ahebgu
ahebug ahuegb ahuebg ahugeb ahugbe ahubge ahubeg ahgueb ahgube ahgeub ahgebu
ahgbeu ahgbue ahbuge ahbueg ahbgue ahbgeu ahbegu ahbeug ubaegh ubaehg ubageh
ubaghe ubahge ubaheg ubeagh ubeahg ubegah ubegha ubehga ubehag ubgeah ubgeha
ubgaeh ubgahe ubghae ubghea ubhega ubheag ubhgea ubhgae ubhage ubhaeg uabegh
uabehg uabgeh uabghe uabhge uabheg uaebgh uaebhg uaegbh uaeghb uaehgb uaehbg
uagebh uagehb uagbeh uagbhe uaghbe uagheb uahegb uahebg uahgeb uahgbe uahbge
uahbeg ueabgh ueabhg ueagbh ueaghb ueahgb ueahbg uebagh uebahg uebgah uebgha
uebhga uebhag uegbah uegbha uegabh uegahb ueghab ueghba uehbga uehbag uehgba
uehgab uehagb uehabg ugaebh ugaehb ugabeh ugabhe ugahbe ugaheb ugeabh ugeahb
ugebah ugebha ugehba ugehab ugbeah ugbeha ugbaeh ugbahe ugbhae ugbhea ugheba
ugheab ughbea ughbae ughabe ughaeb uhaegb uhaebg uhageb uhagbe uhabge uhabeg
uheagb uheabg uhegab uhegba uhebga uhebag uhgeab uhgeba uhgaeb uhgabe uhgbae
uhgbea uhbega uhbeag uhbgea uhbgae uhbage uhbaeg gbaueh gbauhe gbaeuh gbaehu
gbaheu gbahue gbuaeh gbuahe gbueah gbueha gbuhea gbuhae gbeuah gbeuha gbeauh
gbeahu gbehau gbehua gbhuea gbhuae gbheua gbheau gbhaeu gbhaue gabueh gabuhe
gabeuh gabehu gabheu gabhue gaubeh gaubhe gauebh gauehb gauheb gauhbe gaeubh
gaeuhb gaebuh gaebhu gaehbu gaehub gahueb gahube gaheub gahebu gahbeu gahbue
guabeh guabhe guaebh guaehb guaheb guahbe gubaeh gubahe gubeah gubeha gubhea
gubhae guebah guebha gueabh gueahb guehab guehba guhbea guhbae guheba guheab
guhaeb guhabe geaubh geauhb geabuh geabhu geahbu geahub geuabh geuahb geubah
geubha geuhba geuhab gebuah gebuha gebauh gebahu gebhau gebhua gehuba gehuab
gehbua gehbau gehabu gehaub ghaueb ghaube ghaeub ghaebu ghabeu ghabue ghuaeb
ghuabe ghueab ghueba ghubea ghubae gheuab gheuba gheaub gheabu ghebau ghebua
ghbuea ghbuae ghbeua ghbeau ghbaeu ghbaue hbauge hbaueg hbague hbageu hbaegu
hbaeug hbuage hbuaeg hbugae hbugea hbuega hbueag hbguae hbguea hbgaue hbgaeu
hbgeau hbgeua hbeuga hbeuag hbegua hbegau hbeagu hbeaug habuge habueg habgue
habgeu habegu habeug haubge haubeg haugbe haugeb hauegb hauebg hagube hagueb
hagbue hagbeu hagebu hageub haeugb haeubg haegub haegbu haebgu haebug huabge
huabeg huagbe huageb huaegb huaebg hubage hubaeg hubgae hubgea hubega hubeag
hugbae hugbea hugabe hugaeb hugeab hugeba huebga huebag huegba huegab hueagb
hueabg hgaube hgaueb hgabue hgabeu hgaebu hgaeub hguabe hguaeb hgubae hgubea
hgueba hgueab hgbuae hgbuea hgbaue hgbaeu hgbeau hgbeua hgeuba hgeuab hgebua
hgebau hgeabu hgeaub heaugb heaubg heagub heagbu heabgu heabug heuagb heuabg
heugab heugba heubga heubag heguab heguba hegaub hegabu hegbau hegbua hebuga
hebuag hebgua hebgau hebagu hebaug

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History of cryptography
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