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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: drudge
cipher variations:
esvehf ftwfig guxgjh hvyhki iwzilj
jxajmk kybknl lzclom madmpn nbenqo
ocforp pdgpsq qehqtr rfirus sgjsvt
thktwu uiluxv vjmvyw wknwzx xloxay
ympybz znqzca aoradb bpsbec cqtcfd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: drudge
Cipher: wifwtv

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: drudge
Cipher: AAABB BAAAA BAABB AAABB AABBA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: drudge
cipher variations:
esvehfkajktnqixqfvwqlwrdcyzcdligniptuwpunjaedazr
gmrglzmufmxhsctsjpykhyvxftwfiglbkluorjyrgwxrmxse
dzademjhojquvxqvokbfebashnshmanvgnyitdutkqzlizwy
guxgjhmclmvpskzshxysnytfeabefnkipkrvwyrwplcgfcbt
iotinbowhozjuevulramjaxzhvyhkindmnwqtlatiyztozug
fbcfgoljqlswxzsxqmdhgdcujpujocpxipakvfwvmsbnkbya
iwziljoenoxrumbujzaupavhgcdghpmkrmtxyatyrneihedv
kqvkpdqyjqblwgxwntcolczbjxajmkpfopysvncvkabvqbwi
hdehiqnlsnuyzbuzsofjifewlrwlqerzkrcmxhyxoudpmdac
kybknlqgpqztwodwlbcwrcxjiefijromtovzacvatpgkjgfx
msxmrfsalsdnyizypveqnebdlzclomrhqrauxpexmcdxsdyk
jfgjkspnupwabdwbuqhlkhgyntynsgtbmteozjazqwfrofce
madmpnsirsbvyqfyndeytezlkghkltqovqxbcexcvrimlihz
ouzothucnufpakbarxgspgdfnbenqotjstcwzrgzoefzufam
lhilmurpwrycdfydwsjnmjiapvapuivdovgqblcbsyhtqheg
ocforpuktudxashapfgavgbnmijmnvsqxszdegzextkonkjb
qwbqvjwepwhrcmdctziurifhpdgpsqvluveybtibqghbwhco
njknowtrytaefhafyulpolkcrxcrwkxfqxisdneduajvsjgi
qehqtrwmvwfzcujcrhicxidpoklopxuszubfgibgzvmqpmld
sydsxlygryjteofevbkwtkhjrfirusxnwxgadvkdsijdyjeq
plmpqyvtavcghjchawnrqnmetzetymzhszkufpgfwclxulik
sgjsvtyoxyhbewletjkezkfrqmnqrzwubwdhikdibxosronf
uafuznaitalvgqhgxdmyvmjlthktwuzpyzicfxmfuklfalgs
rnorsaxvcxeijlejcyptspogvbgvaobjubmwhrihyenzwnkm
uiluxvaqzajdgyngvlmgbmhtsopstbywdyfjkmfkdzqutqph
wchwbpckvcnxisjizfoaxolnvjmvywbrabkehzohwmnhcniu
tpqtuczxezgklnglearvurqixdixcqdlwdoyjtkjagpbypmo
wknwzxcsbclfiapixnoidojvuqruvdayfahlmohmfbswvsrj
yejydremxepzkulkbhqczqnpxloxaydtcdmgjbqjyopjepkw
vrsvwebzgbimnpingctxwtskzfkzesfnyfqalvmlcirdaroq
ympybzeudenhkcrkzpqkfqlxwstwxfcahcjnoqjohduyxutl
aglaftgozgrbmwnmdjsebsprznqzcafvefoildslaqrlgrmy
xtuxygdbidkoprkpievzyvumbhmbguhpahscnxonektfctqs
aoradbgwfgpjmetmbrsmhsnzyuvyzhecjelpqslqjfwazwvn
cinchviqbitdoypoflugdurtbpsbechxghqknfuncstnitoa
zvwzaifdkfmqrtmrkgxbaxwodjodiwjrcjuepzqpgmvhevsu
cqtcfdiyhirlogvodtuojupbawxabjgelgnrsunslhycbyxp
ekpejxksdkvfqarqhnwifwtvdrudgejzijsmphwpeuvpkvqc
bxybckhfmhostvotmizdczyqflqfkyltelwgrbsrioxjgxuw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: drudge
Cipher: qehqtr

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: drudge
Cipher: 412454412251

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: drudge
method variations:
iwzimkobeorptgktwuympybz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d r u d g e 
4 2 5 4 2 5 
1 4 4 1 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
425425144121
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: drudge
Cipher: iuwqdb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: drudge
method variations:
fytfwq ytfwqf tfwqfy
fwqfyt wqfytf qfytfw

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: drudge

all 720 cipher variations:
drudge drudeg drugde druged druegd druedg drduge drdueg drdgue drdgeu drdegu
drdeug drgdue drgdeu drgude drgued drgeud drgedu dredgu dredug dregdu dregud
dreugd dreudg durdge durdeg durgde durged duregd duredg dudrge dudreg dudgre
dudger dudegr duderg dugdre dugder dugrde dugred dugerd dugedr duedgr duedrg
duegdr duegrd duergd duerdg ddurge ddureg ddugre dduger dduegr dduerg ddruge
ddrueg ddrgue ddrgeu ddregu ddreug ddgrue ddgreu ddgure ddguer ddgeur ddgeru
ddergu dderug ddegru ddegur ddeugr ddeurg dgudre dguder dgurde dgured dguerd
dguedr dgdure dgduer dgdrue dgdreu dgderu dgdeur dgrdue dgrdeu dgrude dgrued
dgreud dgredu dgedru dgedur dgerdu dgerud dgeurd dgeudr deudgr deudrg deugdr
deugrd deurgd deurdg dedugr dedurg dedgur dedgru dedrgu dedrug degdur degdru
degudr degurd degrud degrdu derdgu derdug dergdu dergud derugd derudg rdudge
rdudeg rdugde rduged rduegd rduedg rdduge rddueg rddgue rddgeu rddegu rddeug
rdgdue rdgdeu rdgude rdgued rdgeud rdgedu rdedgu rdedug rdegdu rdegud rdeugd
rdeudg ruddge ruddeg rudgde rudged rudegd rudedg ruddge ruddeg rudgde rudged
rudegd rudedg rugdde rugded rugdde rugded rugedd rugedd ruedgd rueddg ruegdd
ruegdd ruedgd rueddg rdudge rdudeg rdugde rduged rduegd rduedg rdduge rddueg
rddgue rddgeu rddegu rddeug rdgdue rdgdeu rdgude rdgued rdgeud rdgedu rdedgu
rdedug rdegdu rdegud rdeugd rdeudg rgudde rguded rgudde rguded rguedd rguedd
rgdude rgdued rgddue rgddeu rgdedu rgdeud rgddue rgddeu rgdude rgdued rgdeud
rgdedu rgeddu rgedud rgeddu rgedud rgeudd rgeudd reudgd reuddg reugdd reugdd
reudgd reuddg redugd redudg redgud redgdu reddgu reddug regdud regddu regudd
regudd regdud regddu reddgu reddug redgdu redgud redugd redudg urddge urddeg
urdgde urdged urdegd urdedg urddge urddeg urdgde urdged urdegd urdedg urgdde
urgded urgdde urgded urgedd urgedd uredgd ureddg uregdd uregdd uredgd ureddg
udrdge udrdeg udrgde udrged udregd udredg uddrge uddreg uddgre uddger uddegr
udderg udgdre udgder udgrde udgred udgerd udgedr udedgr udedrg udegdr udegrd
udergd uderdg uddrge uddreg uddgre uddger uddegr udderg udrdge udrdeg udrgde
udrged udregd udredg udgrde udgred udgdre udgder udgedr udgerd udergd uderdg
udegrd udegdr udedgr udedrg ugddre ugdder ugdrde ugdred ugderd ugdedr ugddre
ugdder ugdrde ugdred ugderd ugdedr ugrdde ugrded ugrdde ugrded ugredd ugredd
ugedrd ugeddr ugerdd ugerdd ugedrd ugeddr ueddgr ueddrg uedgdr uedgrd uedrgd
uedrdg ueddgr ueddrg uedgdr uedgrd uedrgd uedrdg uegddr uegdrd uegddr uegdrd
uegrdd uegrdd uerdgd uerddg uergdd uergdd uerdgd uerddg drudge drudeg drugde
druged druegd druedg drduge drdueg drdgue drdgeu drdegu drdeug drgdue drgdeu
drgude drgued drgeud drgedu dredgu dredug dregdu dregud dreugd dreudg durdge
durdeg durgde durged duregd duredg dudrge dudreg dudgre dudger dudegr duderg
dugdre dugder dugrde dugred dugerd dugedr duedgr duedrg duegdr duegrd duergd
duerdg ddurge ddureg ddugre dduger dduegr dduerg ddruge ddrueg ddrgue ddrgeu
ddregu ddreug ddgrue ddgreu ddgure ddguer ddgeur ddgeru ddergu dderug ddegru
ddegur ddeugr ddeurg dgudre dguder dgurde dgured dguerd dguedr dgdure dgduer
dgdrue dgdreu dgderu dgdeur dgrdue dgrdeu dgrude dgrued dgreud dgredu dgedru
dgedur dgerdu dgerud dgeurd dgeudr deudgr deudrg deugdr deugrd deurgd deurdg
dedugr dedurg dedgur dedgru dedrgu dedrug degdur degdru degudr degurd degrud
degrdu derdgu derdug dergdu dergud derugd derudg grudde gruded grudde gruded
gruedd gruedd grdude grdued grddue grddeu grdedu grdeud grddue grddeu grdude
grdued grdeud grdedu greddu gredud greddu gredud greudd greudd gurdde gurded
gurdde gurded guredd guredd gudrde gudred guddre gudder gudedr guderd guddre
gudder gudrde gudred guderd gudedr gueddr guedrd gueddr guedrd guerdd guerdd
gdurde gdured gdudre gduder gduedr gduerd gdrude gdrued gdrdue gdrdeu gdredu
gdreud gddrue gddreu gddure gdduer gddeur gdderu gderdu gderud gdedru gdedur
gdeudr gdeurd gdudre gduder gdurde gdured gduerd gduedr gddure gdduer gddrue
gddreu gdderu gddeur gdrdue gdrdeu gdrude gdrued gdreud gdredu gdedru gdedur
gderdu gderud gdeurd gdeudr geuddr geudrd geuddr geudrd geurdd geurdd gedudr
gedurd geddur geddru gedrdu gedrud geddur geddru gedudr gedurd gedrud gedrdu
gerddu gerdud gerddu gerdud gerudd gerudd erudgd eruddg erugdd erugdd erudgd
eruddg erdugd erdudg erdgud erdgdu erddgu erddug ergdud ergddu ergudd ergudd
ergdud ergddu erddgu erddug erdgdu erdgud erdugd erdudg eurdgd eurddg eurgdd
eurgdd eurdgd eurddg eudrgd eudrdg eudgrd eudgdr euddgr euddrg eugdrd eugddr
eugrdd eugrdd eugdrd eugddr euddgr euddrg eudgdr eudgrd eudrgd eudrdg edurgd
edurdg edugrd edugdr edudgr edudrg edrugd edrudg edrgud edrgdu edrdgu edrdug
edgrud edgrdu edgurd edgudr edgdur edgdru eddrgu eddrug eddgru eddgur eddugr
eddurg egudrd eguddr egurdd egurdd egudrd eguddr egdurd egdudr egdrud egdrdu
egddru egddur egrdud egrddu egrudd egrudd egrdud egrddu egddru egddur egdrdu
egdrud egdurd egdudr edudgr edudrg edugdr edugrd edurgd edurdg eddugr eddurg
eddgur eddgru eddrgu eddrug edgdur edgdru edgudr edgurd edgrud edgrdu edrdgu
edrdug edrgdu edrgud edrugd edrudg

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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