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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: dreary
cipher variations:
esfbsz ftgcta guhdub hvievc iwjfwd
jxkgxe kylhyf lzmizg manjah nbokbi
ocplcj pdqmdk qernel rfsofm sgtpgn
thuqho uivrip vjwsjq wkxtkr xlyuls
ymzvmt znawnu aobxov bpcypw cqdzqx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: dreary
Cipher: wivzib

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: dreary
Cipher: AAABB BAAAA AABAA AAAAA BAAAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: dreary
cipher variations:
esfbszkanbavqivbirwqdbqncylbyjigtbgfuwjbwxaerbet
gmzbmpmuhbulscpbchykxbkdftgctalbocbwrjwcjsxrecro
dzmczkjhuchgvxkcxybfscfuhnacnqnvicvmtdqcdizlycle
guhdubmcpdcxskxdktysfdspeandalkivdihwyldyzcgtdgv
iobdorowjdwnuerdejamzdmfhvievcndqedytlyeluztgetq
fboebmljwejixzmezadhuehwjpcepspxkexovfsefkbnaeng
iwjfwdoerfezumzfmvauhfurgcpfcnmkxfkjyanfabeivfix
kqdfqtqylfypwgtfglcobfohjxkgxepfsgfavnagnwbvigvs
hdqgdonlyglkzbogbcfjwgjylregrurzmgzqxhughmdpcgpi
kylhyfqgthgbwobhoxcwjhwtierhepomzhmlacphcdgkxhkz
msfhsvsanharyivhineqdhqjlzmizgrhuihcxpcipydxkixu
jfsifqpnainmbdqidehlyilantgitwtboibszjwijofreirk
manjahsivjidyqdjqzeyljyvkgtjgrqobjoncerjefimzjmb
ouhjuxucpjctakxjkpgsfjslnbokbitjwkjezrekrafzmkzw
lhukhsrpckpodfskfgjnakncpvikvyvdqkdublyklqhtgktm
ocplcjukxlkfasflsbganlaxmivlitsqdlqpegtlghkoblod
qwjlwzwerlevcmzlmriuhlunpdqmdkvlymlgbtgmtchbomby
njwmjutremrqfhumhilpcmperxkmxaxfsmfwdnamnsjvimvo
qernelwmznmhcuhnudicpnczokxnkvusfnsrgivnijmqdnqf
sylnybygtngxeobnotkwjnwprfsofmxnaonidviovejdqoda
plyolwvtgotshjwojknreorgtzmozczhuohyfpcopulxkoxq
sgtpgnyobpojewjpwfkerpebqmzpmxwuhputikxpklosfpsh
uanpadaivpizgqdpqvmylpyrthuqhozpcqpkfxkqxglfsqfc
rnaqnyxviqvujlyqlmptgqtivboqbebjwqjahreqrwnzmqzs
uivripaqdrqlgylryhmgtrgdsobrozywjrwvkmzrmnquhruj
wcprcfckxrkbisfrsxoanratvjwsjqbresrmhzmszinhushe
tpcspazxksxwlnasnorvisvkxdqsdgdlyslcjtgstypbosbu
wkxtkrcsftsniantajoivtifuqdtqbayltyxmobtopswjtwl
yertehemztmdkuhtuzqcptcvxlyulsdtgutojboubkpjwujg
vreurcbzmuzynpcupqtxkuxmzfsufifnaunelviuvardqudw
ymzvmteuhvupkcpvclqkxvkhwsfvsdcanvazoqdvqruylvyn
agtvgjgobvofmwjvwbservexznawnufviwvqldqwdmrlywli
xtgwtedbowbaprewrsvzmwzobhuwhkhpcwpgnxkwxctfswfy
aobxovgwjxwrmerxensmzxmjyuhxufecpxcbqsfxstwanxap
civxiliqdxqhoylxydugtxgzbpcypwhxkyxsnfsyfotnaynk
zviyvgfdqydcrtgytuxboybqdjwyjmjreyripzmyzevhuyha
cqdzqxiylzytogtzgpuobzolawjzwhgerzedsuhzuvycpzcr
ekxzknksfzsjqanzafwivzibdrearyjzmazuphuahqvpcapm
bxkaxihfsafetviavwzdqadsflyaloltgatkrboabgxjwajc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: dreary
Cipher: qernel

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: dreary
Cipher: 412451112445

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: dreary
method variations:
iwkfwdobplbitguqgoymzvmt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d r e a r y 
4 2 5 1 2 4 
1 4 1 1 4 5 
They are then read out in rows:
425124141145
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: dreary
Cipher: ierqay

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Method #3

Plaintext: dreary
method variations:
fyaftu yaftuf aftufy
ftufya tufyaf ufyaft

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: dreary

all 720 cipher variations:
dreary dreayr dreray drerya dreyra dreyar draery draeyr drarey drarye drayre
drayer drraey drraye drreay drreya drryea drryae dryare dryaer dryrae dryrea
dryera dryear derary derayr derray derrya deryra deryar dearry dearyr dearry
dearyr deayrr deayrr derary derayr derray derrya deryra deryar deyarr deyarr
deyrar deyrra deyrra deyrar daerry daeryr daerry daeryr daeyrr daeyrr darery
dareyr darrey darrye daryre daryer darrey darrye darery dareyr daryer daryre
dayrre dayrer dayrre dayrer dayerr dayerr dreary dreayr dreray drerya dreyra
dreyar draery draeyr drarey drarye drayre drayer drraey drraye drreay drreya
drryea drryae dryare dryaer dryrae dryrea dryera dryear dyearr dyearr dyerar
dyerra dyerra dyerar dyaerr dyaerr dyarer dyarre dyarre dyarer dyraer dyrare
dyrear dyrera dyrrea dyrrae dyrare dyraer dyrrae dyrrea dyrera dyrear rdeary
rdeayr rderay rderya rdeyra rdeyar rdaery rdaeyr rdarey rdarye rdayre rdayer
rdraey rdraye rdreay rdreya rdryea rdryae rdyare rdyaer rdyrae rdyrea rdyera
rdyear redary redayr redray redrya redyra redyar readry readyr reardy rearyd
reayrd reaydr rerady rerayd rerday rerdya reryda reryad reyard reyadr reyrad
reyrda reydra reydar raedry raedyr raerdy raeryd raeyrd raeydr radery radeyr
radrey radrye radyre radyer rardey rardye raredy rareyd raryed raryde raydre
rayder rayrde rayred rayerd rayedr rready rreayd rreday rredya rreyda rreyad
rraedy rraeyd rradey rradye rrayde rrayed rrdaey rrdaye rrdeay rrdeya rrdyea
rrdyae rryade rryaed rrydae rrydea rryeda rryead ryeard ryeadr ryerad ryerda
ryedra ryedar ryaerd ryaedr ryared ryarde ryadre ryader ryraed ryrade ryread
ryreda ryrdea ryrdae rydare rydaer rydrae rydrea rydera rydear erdary erdayr
erdray erdrya erdyra erdyar eradry eradyr erardy eraryd erayrd eraydr errady
errayd errday errdya erryda erryad eryard eryadr eryrad eryrda erydra erydar
edrary edrayr edrray edrrya edryra edryar edarry edaryr edarry edaryr edayrr
edayrr edrary edrayr edrray edrrya edryra edryar edyarr edyarr edyrar edyrra
edyrra edyrar eadrry eadryr eadrry eadryr eadyrr eadyrr eardry eardyr earrdy
earryd earyrd earydr earrdy earryd eardry eardyr earydr earyrd eayrrd eayrdr
eayrrd eayrdr eaydrr eaydrr erdary erdayr erdray erdrya erdyra erdyar eradry
eradyr erardy eraryd erayrd eraydr errady errayd errday errdya erryda erryad
eryard eryadr eryrad eryrda erydra erydar eydarr eydarr eydrar eydrra eydrra
eydrar eyadrr eyadrr eyardr eyarrd eyarrd eyardr eyradr eyrard eyrdar eyrdra
eyrrda eyrrad eyrard eyradr eyrrad eyrrda eyrdra eyrdar aredry aredyr arerdy
areryd areyrd areydr ardery ardeyr ardrey ardrye ardyre ardyer arrdey arrdye
arredy arreyd arryed arryde arydre aryder aryrde aryred aryerd aryedr aerdry
aerdyr aerrdy aerryd aeryrd aerydr aedrry aedryr aedrry aedryr aedyrr aedyrr
aerdry aerdyr aerrdy aerryd aeryrd aerydr aeydrr aeydrr aeyrdr aeyrrd aeyrrd
aeyrdr aderry aderyr aderry aderyr adeyrr adeyrr adrery adreyr adrrey adrrye
adryre adryer adrrey adrrye adrery adreyr adryer adryre adyrre adyrer adyrre
adyrer adyerr adyerr aredry aredyr arerdy areryd areyrd areydr ardery ardeyr
ardrey ardrye ardyre ardyer arrdey arrdye arredy arreyd arryed arryde arydre
aryder aryrde aryred aryerd aryedr ayedrr ayedrr ayerdr ayerrd ayerrd ayerdr
ayderr ayderr aydrer aydrre aydrre aydrer ayrder ayrdre ayredr ayrerd ayrred
ayrrde ayrdre ayrder ayrrde ayrred ayrerd ayredr rready rreayd rreday rredya
rreyda rreyad rraedy rraeyd rradey rradye rrayde rrayed rrdaey rrdaye rrdeay
rrdeya rrdyea rrdyae rryade rryaed rrydae rrydea rryeda rryead rerady rerayd
rerday rerdya reryda reryad reardy rearyd readry readyr reaydr reayrd redary
redayr redray redrya redyra redyar reyadr reyard reydar reydra reyrda reyrad
raerdy raeryd raedry raedyr raeydr raeyrd raredy rareyd rardey rardye raryde
raryed radrey radrye radery radeyr radyer radyre rayrde rayred raydre rayder
rayedr rayerd rdeary rdeayr rderay rderya rdeyra rdeyar rdaery rdaeyr rdarey
rdarye rdayre rdayer rdraey rdraye rdreay rdreya rdryea rdryae rdyare rdyaer
rdyrae rdyrea rdyera rdyear ryeadr ryeard ryedar ryedra ryerda ryerad ryaedr
ryaerd ryader ryadre ryarde ryared rydaer rydare rydear rydera rydrea rydrae
ryrade ryraed ryrdae ryrdea ryreda ryread yreard yreadr yrerad yrerda yredra
yredar yraerd yraedr yrared yrarde yradre yrader yrraed yrrade yrread yrreda
yrrdea yrrdae yrdare yrdaer yrdrae yrdrea yrdera yrdear yerard yeradr yerrad
yerrda yerdra yerdar yearrd yeardr yearrd yeardr yeadrr yeadrr yerard yeradr
yerrad yerrda yerdra yerdar yedarr yedarr yedrar yedrra yedrra yedrar yaerrd
yaerdr yaerrd yaerdr yaedrr yaedrr yarerd yaredr yarred yarrde yardre yarder
yarred yarrde yarerd yaredr yarder yardre yadrre yadrer yadrre yadrer yaderr
yaderr yreard yreadr yrerad yrerda yredra yredar yraerd yraedr yrared yrarde
yradre yrader yrraed yrrade yrread yrreda yrrdea yrrdae yrdare yrdaer yrdrae
yrdrea yrdera yrdear ydearr ydearr yderar yderra yderra yderar ydaerr ydaerr
ydarer ydarre ydarre ydarer ydraer ydrare ydrear ydrera ydrrea ydrrae ydrare
ydraer ydrrae ydrrea ydrera ydrear

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