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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: domino
cipher variations:
epnjop fqokpq grplqr hsqmrs itrnst
jusotu kvtpuv lwuqvw mxvrwx nywsxy
ozxtyz payuza qbzvab rcawbc sdbxcd
tecyde ufdzef vgeafg whfbgh xigchi
yjhdij zkiejk aljfkl bmkglm cnlhmn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: domino
Cipher: wlnrml

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: domino
Cipher: AAABB ABBAB ABABB ABAAA ABBAA ABBAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: domino
cipher variations:
epnjopkrlzorqtjpotwvhfovcxfvoxizdlozudzrodafxhof
ghvxohmjtnojslrdolynptonfqokpqlsmapsrukqpuxwigpw
dygwpyjaempaveaspebgyipghiwypinkuopktmsepmzoqupo
grplqrmtnbqtsvlrqvyxjhqxezhxqzkbfnqbwfbtqfchzjqh
ijxzqjolvpqluntfqnaprvqphsqmrsnuocrutwmsrwzykiry
faiyralcgorcxgcurgdiakrijkyarkpmwqrmvougrobqswrq
itrnstovpdsvuxntsxazljszgbjzsbmdhpsdyhdvshejblsj
klzbslqnxrsnwpvhspcrtxsrjusotupwqetwvyoutybamkta
hckatcneiqteziewtifkcmtklmactmroystoxqwitqdsuyts
kvtpuvqxrfuxwzpvuzcbnlubidlbudofjrufajfxujgldnul
mnbdunspztupyrxjuretvzutlwuqvwrysgvyxaqwvadcomvc
jemcvepgksvgbkgyvkhmeovmnocevotqauvqzsykvsfuwavu
mxvrwxszthwzybrxwbedpnwdkfndwfqhltwhclhzwlinfpwn
opdfwpurbvwratzlwtgvxbwvnywsxytauixazcsyxcfeqoxe
lgoexgrimuxidmiaxmjogqxopqegxqvscwxsbuamxuhwycxw
ozxtyzubvjybadtzydgfrpyfmhpfyhsjnvyjenjbynkphryp
qrfhyrwtdxytcvbnyvixzdyxpayuzavcwkzcbeuazehgsqzg
niqgzitkowzkfokczolqiszqrsgizsxueyzudwcozwjyaezy
qbzvabwdxladcfvbafihtrahojrhajulpxalgpldapmrjtar
sthjatyvfzavexdpaxkzbfazrcawbcxeymbedgwcbgjiusbi
pksibkvmqybmhqmebqnskubstuikbuzwgabwfyeqbylacgba
sdbxcdyfzncfehxdchkjvtcjqltjclwnrzcnirnfcrotlvct
uvjlcvaxhbcxgzfrczmbdhcbtecydezgaodgfiyedilkwudk
rmukdmxosadojsogdspumwduvwkmdwbyicdyhagsdanceidc
ufdzefahbpehgjzfejmlxvelsnvlenyptbepktphetqvnxev
wxlnexczjdezibhtebodfjedvgeafgbicqfihkagfknmywfm
towmfozqucfqluqifurwoyfwxymofydakefajciufcpegkfe
whfbghcjdrgjilbhglonzxgnupxngparvdgrmvrjgvsxpzgx
yznpgzeblfgbkdjvgdqfhlgfxigchidkeshkjmcihmpoayho
vqyohqbswehsnwskhwtyqahyzaoqhafcmghclekwhergimhg
yjhdijelftilkndjinqpbzipwrzpirctxfitoxtlixuzrbiz
abpribgdnhidmflxifshjnihzkiejkfmgujmloekjorqcajq
xsaqjsduygjupyumjyvascjabcqsjcheoijengmyjgtikoji
aljfklgnhvknmpflkpsrdbkrytbrktevzhkvqzvnkzwbtdkb
cdrtkdifpjkfohnzkhujlpkjbmkglmhoiwlonqgmlqtsecls
zucslufwailwrawolaxcuelcdesulejgqklgpioalivkmqlk
cnlhmnipjxmporhnmrutfdmtavdtmvgxbjmxsbxpmbydvfmd
eftvmfkhrlmhqjpbmjwlnrmldominojqkynqpsionsvugenu
bweunwhycknytcyqnczewgnefguwnglismnirkqcnkxmosnm

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: domino
Cipher: qbzvab

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: domino
Cipher: 414323423343

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: domino
method variations:
itrostoywtxytdbycdyigdhi

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d o m i n o 
4 4 2 4 3 4 
1 3 3 2 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
442434133233
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: domino
Cipher: trslhn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: domino
method variations:
qhsmss hsmssq smssqh
mssqhs ssqhsm sqhsms

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: domino

all 720 cipher variations:
domino domion domnio domnoi domoni domoin doimno doimon doinmo doinom doionm
doiomn donimo doniom donmio donmoi donomi donoim dooinm dooimn doonim doonmi
doomni doomin dmoino dmoion dmonio dmonoi dmooni dmooin dmiono dmioon dminoo
dminoo dmiono dmioon dmnioo dmnioo dmnoio dmnooi dmnooi dmnoio dmoino dmoion
dmonio dmonoi dmooni dmooin dimono dimoon dimnoo dimnoo dimono dimoon diomno
diomon dionmo dionom dioonm dioomn dinomo dinoom dinmoo dinmoo dinomo dinoom
dioonm dioomn dionom dionmo diomno diomon dnmioo dnmioo dnmoio dnmooi dnmooi
dnmoio dnimoo dnimoo dniomo dnioom dnioom dniomo dnoimo dnoiom dnomio dnomoi
dnoomi dnooim dnoiom dnoimo dnooim dnoomi dnomoi dnomio domino domion domnio
domnoi domoni domoin doimno doimon doinmo doinom doionm doiomn donimo doniom
donmio donmoi donomi donoim dooinm dooimn doonim doonmi doomni doomin odmino
odmion odmnio odmnoi odmoni odmoin odimno odimon odinmo odinom odionm odiomn
odnimo odniom odnmio odnmoi odnomi odnoim odoinm odoimn odonim odonmi odomni
odomin omdino omdion omdnio omdnoi omdoni omdoin omidno omidon omindo ominod
omiond omiodn omnido omniod omndio omndoi omnodi omnoid omoind omoidn omonid
omondi omodni omodin oimdno oimdon oimndo oimnod oimond oimodn oidmno oidmon
oidnmo oidnom oidonm oidomn oindmo oindom oinmdo oinmod oinomd oinodm oiodnm
oiodmn oiondm oionmd oiomnd oiomdn onmido onmiod onmdio onmdoi onmodi onmoid
onimdo onimod onidmo onidom oniodm oniomd ondimo ondiom ondmio ondmoi ondomi
ondoim onoidm onoimd onodim onodmi onomdi onomid oomind oomidn oomnid oomndi
oomdni oomdin ooimnd ooimdn ooinmd ooindm ooidnm ooidmn oonimd oonidm oonmid
oonmdi oondmi oondim oodinm oodimn oodnim oodnmi oodmni oodmin modino modion
modnio modnoi modoni modoin moidno moidon moindo moinod moiond moiodn monido
moniod mondio mondoi monodi monoid mooind mooidn moonid moondi moodni moodin
mdoino mdoion mdonio mdonoi mdooni mdooin mdiono mdioon mdinoo mdinoo mdiono
mdioon mdnioo mdnioo mdnoio mdnooi mdnooi mdnoio mdoino mdoion mdonio mdonoi
mdooni mdooin midono midoon midnoo midnoo midono midoon miodno miodon miondo
mionod mioond mioodn minodo minood mindoo mindoo minodo minood mioond mioodn
mionod miondo miodno miodon mndioo mndioo mndoio mndooi mndooi mndoio mnidoo
mnidoo mniodo mniood mniood mniodo mnoido mnoiod mnodio mnodoi mnoodi mnooid
mnoiod mnoido mnooid mnoodi mnodoi mnodio modino modion modnio modnoi modoni
modoin moidno moidon moindo moinod moiond moiodn monido moniod mondio mondoi
monodi monoid mooind mooidn moonid moondi moodni moodin iomdno iomdon iomndo
iomnod iomond iomodn iodmno iodmon iodnmo iodnom iodonm iodomn iondmo iondom
ionmdo ionmod ionomd ionodm ioodnm ioodmn ioondm ioonmd ioomnd ioomdn imodno
imodon imondo imonod imoond imoodn imdono imdoon imdnoo imdnoo imdono imdoon
imndoo imndoo imnodo imnood imnood imnodo imodno imodon imondo imonod imoond
imoodn idmono idmoon idmnoo idmnoo idmono idmoon idomno idomon idonmo idonom
idoonm idoomn idnomo idnoom idnmoo idnmoo idnomo idnoom idoonm idoomn idonom
idonmo idomno idomon inmdoo inmdoo inmodo inmood inmood inmodo indmoo indmoo
indomo indoom indoom indomo inodmo inodom inomdo inomod inoomd inoodm inodom
inodmo inoodm inoomd inomod inomdo iomdno iomdon iomndo iomnod iomond iomodn
iodmno iodmon iodnmo iodnom iodonm iodomn iondmo iondom ionmdo ionmod ionomd
ionodm ioodnm ioodmn ioondm ioonmd ioomnd ioomdn nomido nomiod nomdio nomdoi
nomodi nomoid noimdo noimod noidmo noidom noiodm noiomd nodimo nodiom nodmio
nodmoi nodomi nodoim nooidm nooimd noodim noodmi noomdi noomid nmoido nmoiod
nmodio nmodoi nmoodi nmooid nmiodo nmiood nmidoo nmidoo nmiodo nmiood nmdioo
nmdioo nmdoio nmdooi nmdooi nmdoio nmoido nmoiod nmodio nmodoi nmoodi nmooid
nimodo nimood nimdoo nimdoo nimodo nimood niomdo niomod niodmo niodom nioodm
nioomd nidomo nidoom nidmoo nidmoo nidomo nidoom nioodm nioomd niodom niodmo
niomdo niomod ndmioo ndmioo ndmoio ndmooi ndmooi ndmoio ndimoo ndimoo ndiomo
ndioom ndioom ndiomo ndoimo ndoiom ndomio ndomoi ndoomi ndooim ndoiom ndoimo
ndooim ndoomi ndomoi ndomio nomido nomiod nomdio nomdoi nomodi nomoid noimdo
noimod noidmo noidom noiodm noiomd nodimo nodiom nodmio nodmoi nodomi nodoim
nooidm nooimd noodim noodmi noomdi noomid oomind oomidn oomnid oomndi oomdni
oomdin ooimnd ooimdn ooinmd ooindm ooidnm ooidmn oonimd oonidm oonmid oonmdi
oondmi oondim oodinm oodimn oodnim oodnmi oodmni oodmin omoind omoidn omonid
omondi omodni omodin omiond omiodn ominod omindo omidno omidon omniod omnido
omnoid omnodi omndoi omndio omdino omdion omdnio omdnoi omdoni omdoin oimond
oimodn oimnod oimndo oimdno oimdon oiomnd oiomdn oionmd oiondm oiodnm oiodmn
oinomd oinodm oinmod oinmdo oindmo oindom oidonm oidomn oidnom oidnmo oidmno
oidmon onmiod onmido onmoid onmodi onmdoi onmdio onimod onimdo oniomd oniodm
onidom onidmo onoimd onoidm onomid onomdi onodmi onodim ondiom ondimo ondoim
ondomi ondmoi ondmio odmino odmion odmnio odmnoi odmoni odmoin odimno odimon
odinmo odinom odionm odiomn odnimo odniom odnmio odnmoi odnomi odnoim odoinm
odoimn odonim odonmi odomni odomin

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History of cryptography
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