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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: dirled
cipher variations:
ejsmfe fktngf gluohg hmvpih inwqji
joxrkj kpyslk lqztml mraunm nsbvon
otcwpo pudxqp qveyrq rwfzsr sxgats
tyhbut uzicvu vajdwv wbkexw xclfyx
ydmgzy zenhaz afoiba bgpjcb chqkdc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: dirled
Cipher: wriovw

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: dirled
Cipher: AAABB ABAAA BAAAA ABABA AABAA AAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: dirled
cipher variations:
ejsmfekzainkqpievqwfqadwcvywlcilgstiurwkjuahegra
gxmczgmnuyhmsdcupsytkqxyfktngflabjolrqjfwrxgrbex
dwzxmdjmhtujvsxlkvbifhsbhyndahnovzintedvqtzulryz
gluohgmbckpmsrkgxsyhscfyexaynekniuvkwtymlwcjgitc
izoebiopwajoufewruavmszahmvpihncdlqntslhytzitdgz
fybzoflojvwlxuznmxdkhjudjapfcjpqxbkpvgfxsvbwntab
inwqjiodemroutmizuajuehagzcapgmpkwxmyvaonyelikve
kbqgdkqryclqwhgytwcxoubcjoxrkjpefnspvunjavbkvfib
hadbqhnqlxynzwbpozfmjlwflcrhelrszdmrxihzuxdypvcd
kpyslkqfgotqwvokbwclwgjcibecriormyzoaxcqpagnkmxg
mdsifmstaensyjiavyezqwdelqztmlrghpurxwplcxdmxhkd
jcfdsjpsnzapbydrqbholnyhnetjgntubfotzkjbwzfarxef
mraunmshiqvsyxqmdyenyilekdgetkqtoabqczesrcipmozi
ofukhouvcgpualkcxagbsyfgnsbvontijrwtzyrnezfozjmf
lehfulrupbcrdaftsdjqnpajpgvlipvwdhqvbmldybhctzgh
otcwpoujksxuazsofagpakngmfigvmsvqcdsebgutekroqbk
qhwmjqwxeirwcnmezciduahipudxqpvkltyvbatpgbhqbloh
ngjhwntwrdetfchvuflsprclrixnkrxyfjsxdonfadjevbij
qveyrqwlmuzwcbuqhcircmpiohkixouxsefugdiwvgmtqsdm
sjyolsyzgktyepogbekfwcjkrwfzsrxmnvaxdcvridjsdnqj
piljypvytfgvhejxwhnurtentkzpmtzahluzfqphcflgxdkl
sxgatsynowbyedwsjekteorkqjmkzqwzughwifkyxiovsufo
ulaqnuabimvagrqidgmhyelmtyhbutzopxczfextkflufpsl
rknlarxavhixjglzyjpwtvgpvmbrovbcjnwbhsrjehnizfmn
uzicvuapqydagfyulgmvgqtmslombsybwijykhmazkqxuwhq
wncspwcdkoxcitskfiojagnovajdwvbqrzebhgzvmhnwhrun
tmpnctzcxjkzlinbalryvxirxodtqxdelpydjutlgjpkbhop
wbkexwcrsafcihawnioxisvounqoduadyklamjocbmszwyjs
ypeuryefmqzekvumhkqlcipqxclfyxdstbgdjibxojpyjtwp
vorpevbezlmbnkpdcntaxzktzqfvszfgnraflwvnilrmdjqr
ydmgzyetuchekjcypkqzkuxqwpsqfwcfamncolqedoubyalu
argwtaghosbgmxwojmsnekrszenhazfuvdiflkdzqlralvyr
xqtrgxdgbnodpmrfepvczbmvbshxubhiptchnyxpkntoflst
afoibagvwejgmlearmsbmwzsyrushyehcopeqnsgfqwdacnw
ctiyvcijqudiozyqloupgmtubgpjcbhwxfkhnmfbsntcnxat
zsvtizfidpqfrothgrxebdoxdujzwdjkrvejpazrmpvqhnuv
chqkdcixygliongctoudoybuatwujagjeqrgspuihsyfcepy
evkaxeklswfkqbasnqwriovwdirledjyzhmjpohdupvepzcv
buxvkbhkfrshtqvjitzgdfqzfwlbyflmtxglrcbtorxsjpwx

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: dirled
Cipher: qveyrq

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: dirled
Cipher: 414224135141

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: dirled
method variations:
iowqkiotbvpotygautydmfzy

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d i r l e d 
4 4 2 1 5 4 
1 2 4 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
442154124311
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: dirled
Cipher: tbufoa

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: dirled
method variations:
qgdxqq gdxqqq dxqqqg
xqqqgd qqqgdx qqgdxq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: dirled

all 720 cipher variations:
dirled dirlde direld diredl dirdel dirdle dilred dilrde dilerd diledr dilder
dildre dielrd dieldr dierld dierdl diedrl diedlr didler didlre didelr diderl
didrel didrle driled drilde drield driedl dridel dridle drlied drlide drleid
drledi drldei drldie drelid dreldi dreild dreidl dredil dredli drdlei drdlie
drdeli drdeil drdiel drdile dlried dlride dlreid dlredi dlrdei dlrdie dlired
dlirde dlierd dliedr dlider dlidre dleird dleidr dlerid dlerdi dledri dledir
dldier dldire dldeir dlderi dldrei dldrie derlid derldi derild deridl derdil
derdli delrid delrdi delird delidr deldir deldri deilrd deildr deirld deirdl
deidrl deidlr dedlir dedlri dedilr dedirl dedril dedrli ddrlei ddrlie ddreli
ddreil ddriel ddrile ddlrei ddlrie ddleri ddleir ddlier ddlire ddelri ddelir
dderli dderil ddeirl ddeilr ddiler ddilre ddielr ddierl ddirel ddirle idrled
idrlde idreld idredl idrdel idrdle idlred idlrde idlerd idledr idlder idldre
idelrd ideldr iderld iderdl idedrl idedlr iddler iddlre iddelr idderl iddrel
iddrle irdled irdlde irdeld irdedl irddel irddle irlded irldde irledd irledd
irlded irldde ireldd ireldd iredld ireddl ireddl iredld irdled irdlde irdeld
irdedl irddel irddle ilrded ilrdde ilredd ilredd ilrded ilrdde ildred ildrde
ilderd ildedr ildder ilddre iledrd ileddr ilerdd ilerdd iledrd ileddr ildder
ilddre ildedr ilderd ildred ildrde ierldd ierldd ierdld ierddl ierddl ierdld
ielrdd ielrdd ieldrd ielddr ielddr ieldrd iedlrd iedldr iedrld iedrdl ieddrl
ieddlr iedldr iedlrd ieddlr ieddrl iedrdl iedrld idrled idrlde idreld idredl
idrdel idrdle idlred idlrde idlerd idledr idlder idldre idelrd ideldr iderld
iderdl idedrl idedlr iddler iddlre iddelr idderl iddrel iddrle ridled ridlde
rideld ridedl riddel riddle rilded rildde riledd riledd rilded rildde rieldd
rieldd riedld rieddl rieddl riedld ridled ridlde rideld ridedl riddel riddle
rdiled rdilde rdield rdiedl rdidel rdidle rdlied rdlide rdleid rdledi rdldei
rdldie rdelid rdeldi rdeild rdeidl rdedil rdedli rddlei rddlie rddeli rddeil
rddiel rddile rldied rldide rldeid rldedi rlddei rlddie rlided rlidde rliedd
rliedd rlided rlidde rleidd rleidd rledid rleddi rleddi rledid rldied rldide
rldeid rldedi rlddei rlddie redlid redldi redild redidl reddil reddli reldid
relddi relidd relidd reldid relddi reildd reildd reidld reiddl reiddl reidld
redlid redldi redild redidl reddil reddli rddlei rddlie rddeli rddeil rddiel
rddile rdldei rdldie rdledi rdleid rdlied rdlide rdeldi rdelid rdedli rdedil
rdeidl rdeild rdiled rdilde rdield rdiedl rdidel rdidle lirded lirdde liredd
liredd lirded lirdde lidred lidrde liderd lidedr lidder liddre liedrd lieddr
lierdd lierdd liedrd lieddr lidder liddre lidedr liderd lidred lidrde lrided
lridde lriedd lriedd lrided lridde lrdied lrdide lrdeid lrdedi lrddei lrddie
lredid lreddi lreidd lreidd lredid lreddi lrddei lrddie lrdedi lrdeid lrdied
lrdide ldried ldride ldreid ldredi ldrdei ldrdie ldired ldirde ldierd ldiedr
ldider ldidre ldeird ldeidr lderid lderdi ldedri ldedir lddier lddire lddeir
ldderi lddrei lddrie lerdid lerddi leridd leridd lerdid lerddi ledrid ledrdi
ledird ledidr leddir leddri leidrd leiddr leirdd leirdd leidrd leiddr leddir
leddri ledidr ledird ledrid ledrdi ldrdei ldrdie ldredi ldreid ldried ldride
lddrei lddrie ldderi lddeir lddier lddire ldedri ldedir lderdi lderid ldeird
ldeidr ldider ldidre ldiedr ldierd ldired ldirde eirldd eirldd eirdld eirddl
eirddl eirdld eilrdd eilrdd eildrd eilddr eilddr eildrd eidlrd eidldr eidrld
eidrdl eiddrl eiddlr eidldr eidlrd eiddlr eiddrl eidrdl eidrld erildd erildd
eridld eriddl eriddl eridld erlidd erlidd erldid erlddi erlddi erldid erdlid
erdldi erdild erdidl erddil erddli erdldi erdlid erddli erddil erdidl erdild
elridd elridd elrdid elrddi elrddi elrdid elirdd elirdd elidrd eliddr eliddr
elidrd eldird eldidr eldrid eldrdi elddri elddir eldidr eldird elddir elddri
eldrdi eldrid edrlid edrldi edrild edridl edrdil edrdli edlrid edlrdi edlird
edlidr edldir edldri edilrd edildr edirld edirdl edidrl edidlr eddlir eddlri
eddilr eddirl eddril eddrli edrldi edrlid edrdli edrdil edridl edrild edlrdi
edlrid edldri edldir edlidr edlird eddlri eddlir eddrli eddril eddirl eddilr
edildr edilrd edidlr edidrl edirdl edirld dirled dirlde direld diredl dirdel
dirdle dilred dilrde dilerd diledr dilder dildre dielrd dieldr dierld dierdl
diedrl diedlr didler didlre didelr diderl didrel didrle driled drilde drield
driedl dridel dridle drlied drlide drleid drledi drldei drldie drelid dreldi
dreild dreidl dredil dredli drdlei drdlie drdeli drdeil drdiel drdile dlried
dlride dlreid dlredi dlrdei dlrdie dlired dlirde dlierd dliedr dlider dlidre
dleird dleidr dlerid dlerdi dledri dledir dldier dldire dldeir dlderi dldrei
dldrie derlid derldi derild deridl derdil derdli delrid delrdi delird delidr
deldir deldri deilrd deildr deirld deirdl deidrl deidlr dedlir dedlri dedilr
dedirl dedril dedrli ddrlei ddrlie ddreli ddreil ddriel ddrile ddlrei ddlrie
ddleri ddleir ddlier ddlire ddelri ddelir dderli dderil ddeirl ddeilr ddiler
ddilre ddielr ddierl ddirel ddirle

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History of cryptography
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