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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: derrow
cipher variations:
efsspx fgttqy ghuurz hivvsa ijwwtb
jkxxuc klyyvd lmzzwe mnaaxf nobbyg
opcczh pqddai qreebj rsffck stggdl
tuhhem uviifn vwjjgo wxkkhp xylliq
yzmmjr zannks aboolt bcppmu cdqqnv

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: derrow
Cipher: wviild

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: derrow
Cipher: AAABB AABAA BAAAA BAAAA ABBAB BABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: derrow
cipher variations:
efsspxknaarpqviithwdqqvzclyyxritggzjujwwdtareefl
gzmmhdmhuujvspcclnyxkknffgttqylobbsqrwjjuixerrwa
dmzzysjuhhakvkxxeubsffgmhannienivvkwtqddmozyllog
ghuurzmpcctrsxkkvjyfssxbenaaztkviiblwlyyfvctgghn
iboojfojwwlxureenpazmmphhivvsanqddustyllwkzgttyc
fobbaulwjjcmxmzzgwduhhiojcppkgpkxxmyvsffoqbannqi
ijwwtboreevtuzmmxlahuuzdgpccbvmxkkdnynaahxeviijp
kdqqlhqlyynzwtggprcboorjjkxxucpsffwuvannymbivvae
hqddcwnylleozobbiyfwjjkqlerrmirmzzoaxuhhqsdcppsk
klyyvdqtggxvwboozncjwwbfireedxozmmfpapccjzgxkklr
mfssnjsnaapbyviirtedqqtllmzzweruhhywxcppaodkxxcg
jsffeypanngqbqddkahyllmsngttoktobbqczwjjsuferrum
mnaaxfsviizxydqqbpelyydhktggfzqboohrcreelbizmmnt
ohuuplupccrdaxkktvgfssvnnobbygtwjjayzerrcqfmzzei
luhhgarcppisdsffmcjannoupivvqmvqddsebylluwhgttwo
opcczhuxkkbzafssdrgnaafjmviihbsdqqjtetggndkboopv
qjwwrnwreetfczmmvxihuuxppqddaivyllcabgtteshobbgk
nwjjicterrkufuhhoelcppqwrkxxsoxsffugdannwyjivvyq
qreebjwzmmdbchuuftipcchloxkkjdufsslvgviipfmdqqrx
slyytpytggvhebooxzkjwwzrrsffckxannecdivvgujqddim
pyllkevgttmwhwjjqgnerrsytmzzuqzuhhwifcppyalkxxas
stggdlyboofdejwwhvkreejnqzmmlfwhuunxixkkrhofsstz
unaavraviixjgdqqzbmlyybttuhhemzcppgefkxxiwlsffko
rannmgxivvoyjyllsipgttuavobbwsbwjjykherracnmzzcu
uviifnadqqhfglyyjxmtgglpsboonhyjwwpzkzmmtjqhuuvb
wpccxtcxkkzlifssbdonaadvvwjjgoberrighmzzkynuhhmq
tcppoizkxxqalannukrivvwcxqddyudyllamjgttcepobbew
wxkkhpcfssjhinaalzoviinrudqqpjalyyrbmboovlsjwwxd
yreezvezmmbnkhuudfqpccfxxylliqdgttkijobbmapwjjos
verrqkbmzzscncppwmtkxxyezsffawfanncolivvegrqddgy
yzmmjrehuuljkpccnbqxkkptwfssrlcnaatdodqqxnulyyzf
atggbxgboodpmjwwfhsreehzzannksfivvmklqddocryllqu
xgttsmdobbueperryovmzzagbuhhcyhcppeqnkxxgitsffia
abooltgjwwnlmreepdszmmrvyhuutnepccvfqfsszpwnaabh
cviidzidqqfrolyyhjutggjbbcppmuhkxxomnsffqetannsw
zivvuofqddwgrgttaqxobbcidwjjeajerrgspmzzikvuhhkc
cdqqnvilyypnotggrfubootxajwwvpgreexhshuubrypccdj
exkkfbkfsshtqnaajlwviildderrowjmzzqopuhhsgvcppuy
bkxxwqhsffyitivvcszqddekfyllgclgttiurobbkmxwjjme

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: derrow
Cipher: qreebj

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: derrow
Cipher: 415124244325

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: derrow
method variations:
ikwwtbopbbygtuggdmyzmmir

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d e r r o w 
4 5 2 2 4 2 
1 1 4 4 3 5 
They are then read out in rows:
452242114435
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: derrow
Cipher: ygiatx

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: derrow
method variations:
vfithu fithuv ithuvf
thuvfi huvfit uvfith

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: derrow

all 720 cipher variations:
derrow derrwo derorw derowr derwor derwro derrow derrwo derorw derowr derwor
derwro deorrw deorwr deorrw deorwr deowrr deowrr dewror dewrro deworr deworr
dewror dewrro drerow drerwo dreorw dreowr drewor drewro drreow drrewo drroew
drrowe drrwoe drrweo drorew drorwe droerw droewr drower drowre drwroe drwreo
drwore drwoer drweor drwero drreow drrewo drroew drrowe drrwoe drrweo drerow
drerwo dreorw dreowr drewor drewro droerw droewr drorew drorwe drowre drower
drweor drwero drwoer drwore drwroe drwreo dorrew dorrwe dorerw dorewr dorwer
dorwre dorrew dorrwe dorerw dorewr dorwer dorwre doerrw doerwr doerrw doerwr
doewrr doewrr dowrer dowrre dowerr dowerr dowrer dowrre dwrroe dwrreo dwrore
dwroer dwreor dwrero dwrroe dwrreo dwrore dwroer dwreor dwrero dworre dworer
dworre dworer dwoerr dwoerr dweror dwerro dweorr dweorr dweror dwerro edrrow
edrrwo edrorw edrowr edrwor edrwro edrrow edrrwo edrorw edrowr edrwor edrwro
edorrw edorwr edorrw edorwr edowrr edowrr edwror edwrro edworr edworr edwror
edwrro erdrow erdrwo erdorw erdowr erdwor erdwro errdow errdwo errodw errowd
errwod errwdo erordw erorwd erodrw erodwr erowdr erowrd erwrod erwrdo erword
erwodr erwdor erwdro errdow errdwo errodw errowd errwod errwdo erdrow erdrwo
erdorw erdowr erdwor erdwro erodrw erodwr erordw erorwd erowrd erowdr erwdor
erwdro erwodr erword erwrod erwrdo eorrdw eorrwd eordrw eordwr eorwdr eorwrd
eorrdw eorrwd eordrw eordwr eorwdr eorwrd eodrrw eodrwr eodrrw eodrwr eodwrr
eodwrr eowrdr eowrrd eowdrr eowdrr eowrdr eowrrd ewrrod ewrrdo ewrord ewrodr
ewrdor ewrdro ewrrod ewrrdo ewrord ewrodr ewrdor ewrdro eworrd ewordr eworrd
ewordr ewodrr ewodrr ewdror ewdrro ewdorr ewdorr ewdror ewdrro redrow redrwo
redorw redowr redwor redwro rerdow rerdwo rerodw rerowd rerwod rerwdo reordw
reorwd reodrw reodwr reowdr reowrd rewrod rewrdo reword rewodr rewdor rewdro
rderow rderwo rdeorw rdeowr rdewor rdewro rdreow rdrewo rdroew rdrowe rdrwoe
rdrweo rdorew rdorwe rdoerw rdoewr rdower rdowre rdwroe rdwreo rdwore rdwoer
rdweor rdwero rrdeow rrdewo rrdoew rrdowe rrdwoe rrdweo rredow rredwo rreodw
rreowd rrewod rrewdo rroedw rroewd rrodew rrodwe rrowde rrowed rrweod rrwedo
rrwoed rrwode rrwdoe rrwdeo rodrew rodrwe roderw rodewr rodwer rodwre rordew
rordwe roredw rorewd rorwed rorwde roerdw roerwd roedrw roedwr roewdr roewrd
rowred rowrde rowerd rowedr rowder rowdre rwdroe rwdreo rwdore rwdoer rwdeor
rwdero rwrdoe rwrdeo rwrode rwroed rwreod rwredo rworde rwored rwodre rwoder
rwoedr rwoerd rwerod rwerdo rweord rweodr rwedor rwedro rerdow rerdwo rerodw
rerowd rerwod rerwdo redrow redrwo redorw redowr redwor redwro reodrw reodwr
reordw reorwd reowrd reowdr rewdor rewdro rewodr reword rewrod rewrdo rredow
rredwo rreodw rreowd rrewod rrewdo rrdeow rrdewo rrdoew rrdowe rrdwoe rrdweo
rrodew rrodwe rroedw rroewd rrowed rrowde rrwdoe rrwdeo rrwode rrwoed rrweod
rrwedo rdreow rdrewo rdroew rdrowe rdrwoe rdrweo rderow rderwo rdeorw rdeowr
rdewor rdewro rdoerw rdoewr rdorew rdorwe rdowre rdower rdweor rdwero rdwoer
rdwore rdwroe rdwreo rordew rordwe roredw rorewd rorwed rorwde rodrew rodrwe
roderw rodewr rodwer rodwre roedrw roedwr roerdw roerwd roewrd roewdr rowder
rowdre rowedr rowerd rowred rowrde rwrdoe rwrdeo rwrode rwroed rwreod rwredo
rwdroe rwdreo rwdore rwdoer rwdeor rwdero rwodre rwoder rworde rwored rwoerd
rwoedr rwedor rwedro rweodr rweord rwerod rwerdo oerrdw oerrwd oerdrw oerdwr
oerwdr oerwrd oerrdw oerrwd oerdrw oerdwr oerwdr oerwrd oedrrw oedrwr oedrrw
oedrwr oedwrr oedwrr oewrdr oewrrd oewdrr oewdrr oewrdr oewrrd orerdw orerwd
oredrw oredwr orewdr orewrd orredw orrewd orrdew orrdwe orrwde orrwed ordrew
ordrwe orderw ordewr ordwer ordwre orwrde orwred orwdre orwder orwedr orwerd
orredw orrewd orrdew orrdwe orrwde orrwed orerdw orerwd oredrw oredwr orewdr
orewrd orderw ordewr ordrew ordrwe ordwre ordwer orwedr orwerd orwder orwdre
orwrde orwred odrrew odrrwe odrerw odrewr odrwer odrwre odrrew odrrwe odrerw
odrewr odrwer odrwre oderrw oderwr oderrw oderwr odewrr odewrr odwrer odwrre
odwerr odwerr odwrer odwrre owrrde owrred owrdre owrder owredr owrerd owrrde
owrred owrdre owrder owredr owrerd owdrre owdrer owdrre owdrer owderr owderr
owerdr owerrd owedrr owedrr owerdr owerrd werrod werrdo werord werodr werdor
werdro werrod werrdo werord werodr werdor werdro weorrd weordr weorrd weordr
weodrr weodrr wedror wedrro wedorr wedorr wedror wedrro wrerod wrerdo wreord
wreodr wredor wredro wrreod wrredo wrroed wrrode wrrdoe wrrdeo wrored wrorde
wroerd wroedr wroder wrodre wrdroe wrdreo wrdore wrdoer wrdeor wrdero wrreod
wrredo wrroed wrrode wrrdoe wrrdeo wrerod wrerdo wreord wreodr wredor wredro
wroerd wroedr wrored wrorde wrodre wroder wrdeor wrdero wrdoer wrdore wrdroe
wrdreo worred worrde worerd woredr worder wordre worred worrde worerd woredr
worder wordre woerrd woerdr woerrd woerdr woedrr woedrr wodrer wodrre woderr
woderr wodrer wodrre wdrroe wdrreo wdrore wdroer wdreor wdrero wdrroe wdrreo
wdrore wdroer wdreor wdrero wdorre wdorer wdorre wdorer wdoerr wdoerr wderor
wderro wdeorr wdeorr wderor wderro

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History of cryptography
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