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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: deperm
cipher variations:
efqfsn fgrgto ghshup hitivq ijujwr
jkvkxs klwlyt lmxmzu mnynav nozobw
opapcx pqbqdy qrcrez rsdsfa stetgb
tufuhc uvgvid vwhwje wxixkf xyjylg
yzkzmh zalani abmboj bcncpk cdodql

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: deperm
Cipher: wvkvin

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: deperm
Cipher: AAABB AABAA ABBBA AABAA BAAAA ABABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: deperm
cipher variations:
efqfsnknunalqvyvijwdcdqhclglyfitktgdujsjwzarwrex
gzazmvmhehutspipcryxmxkpfgrgtolovobmrwzwjkxederi
dmhmzgjuluhevktkxabsxsfyhabanwnifivutqjqdszynylq
ghshupmpwpcnsxaxklyfefsjeninahkvmvifwlulybctytgz
ibcboxojgjwvurkretazozmrhitivqnqxqdotybylmzgfgtk
fojobilwnwjgxmvmzcduzuhajcdcpypkhkxwvslsfubapans
ijujwroryrepuzczmnahghulgpkpcjmxoxkhynwnadevavib
kdedqzqlilyxwtmtgvcbqbotjkvkxspszsfqvadanobihivm
hqlqdknypylizoxobefwbwjcleferarmjmzyxunuhwdcrcpu
klwlytqtatgrwbebopcjijwnirmrelozqzmjapypcfgxcxkd
mfgfsbsnknazyvovixedsdqvlmxmzurubuhsxcfcpqdkjkxo
jsnsfmparankbqzqdghydylenghgtctolobazwpwjyfeterw
mnynavsvcvitydgdqrelklypktotgnqbsbolcrarehizezmf
ohihudupmpcbaxqxkzgfufsxnozobwtwdwjuzehersfmlmzq
lupuhorctcpmdsbsfijafangpijivevqnqdcbyrylahgvgty
opapcxuxexkvafifstgnmnarmvqvipsdudqnetctgjkbgboh
qjkjwfwroredczszmbihwhuzpqbqdyvyfylwbgjgtuhonobs
nwrwjqteverofuduhklchcpirklkxgxspsfedatancjixiva
qrcrezwzgzmxchkhuvipopctoxsxkrufwfspgvevilmdidqj
slmlyhytqtgfebubodkjyjwbrsdsfaxahanydilivwjqpqdu
pytylsvgxgtqhwfwjmnejerktmnmzizuruhgfcvcpelkzkxc
stetgbybibozejmjwxkrqrevqzuzmtwhyhurixgxknofkfsl
unonajavsvihgdwdqfmlalydtufuhczcjcpafknkxylsrsfw
ravanuxizivsjyhylopglgtmvopobkbwtwjihexergnmbmze
uvgvidadkdqbglolyzmtstgxsbwbovyjajwtkzizmpqhmhun
wpqpclcxuxkjifyfshoncnafvwhwjebelerchmpmzanutuhy
tcxcpwzkbkxulajanqrinivoxqrqdmdyvylkjgzgtipodobg
wxixkfcfmfsdinqnabovuvizudydqxalclyvmbkborsjojwp
yrsrenezwzmlkhahujqpepchxyjylgdgngtejorobcpwvwja
vezerybmdmzwnclcpstkpkxqzstsfofaxanmlibivkrqfqdi
yzkzmhehohufkpspcdqxwxkbwfafszcnenaxodmdqtulqlyr
atutgpgbybonmjcjwlsrgrejzalanifipivglqtqderyxylc
xgbgtadofobypeneruvmrmzsbuvuhqhczcponkdkxmtshsfk
abmbojgjqjwhmrurefszyzmdyhchubepgpczqfofsvwnsnat
cvwviridadqpolelynutitglbcncpkhkrkxinsvsfgtazane
zidivcfqhqdargpgtwxotobudwxwjsjeberqpmfmzovujuhm
cdodqlilslyjotwtghubabofajejwdgrirebshqhuxypupcv
exyxktkfcfsrqngnapwvkvindepermjmtmzkpuxuhivcbcpg
bkfkxehsjsfctirivyzqvqdwfyzylulgdgtsrohobqxwlwjo

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: deperm
Cipher: qrcrez

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: deperm
Cipher: 415153512423

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: deperm
method variations:
ikukwropzpbwtueugbyzkzmg

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d e p e r m 
4 5 5 5 2 2 
1 1 3 1 4 3 
They are then read out in rows:
455522113143
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: deperm
Cipher: yzgaco

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: deperm
method variations:
vvxfis vxfisv xfisvv
fisvvx isvvxf svvxfi

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: deperm

all 720 cipher variations:
deperm depemr deprem deprme depmre depmer deeprm deepmr deerpm deermp deemrp
deempr derepm deremp derpem derpme dermpe dermep demerp demepr demrep demrpe
dempre demper dpeerm dpeemr dperem dperme dpemre dpemer dpeerm dpeemr dperem
dperme dpemre dpemer dpreem dpreme dpreem dpreme dprmee dprmee dpmere dpmeer
dpmree dpmree dpmere dpmeer deperm depemr deprem deprme depmre depmer deeprm
deepmr deerpm deermp deemrp deempr derepm deremp derpem derpme dermpe dermep
demerp demepr demrep demrpe dempre demper drpeem drpeme drpeem drpeme drpmee
drpmee drepem drepme dreepm dreemp dremep drempe dreepm dreemp drepem drepme
drempe dremep drmeep drmepe drmeep drmepe drmpee drmpee dmpere dmpeer dmpree
dmpree dmpere dmpeer dmepre dmeper dmerpe dmerep dmeerp dmeepr dmrepe dmreep
dmrpee dmrpee dmrepe dmreep dmeerp dmeepr dmerep dmerpe dmepre dmeper edperm
edpemr edprem edprme edpmre edpmer edeprm edepmr ederpm edermp edemrp edempr
edrepm edremp edrpem edrpme edrmpe edrmep edmerp edmepr edmrep edmrpe edmpre
edmper epderm epdemr epdrem epdrme epdmre epdmer epedrm epedmr eperdm epermd
epemrd epemdr epredm epremd eprdem eprdme eprmde eprmed epmerd epmedr epmred
epmrde epmdre epmder eepdrm eepdmr eeprdm eeprmd eepmrd eepmdr eedprm eedpmr
eedrpm eedrmp eedmrp eedmpr eerdpm eerdmp eerpdm eerpmd eermpd eermdp eemdrp
eemdpr eemrdp eemrpd eemprd eempdr erpedm erpemd erpdem erpdme erpmde erpmed
erepdm erepmd eredpm eredmp eremdp erempd erdepm erdemp erdpem erdpme erdmpe
erdmep ermedp ermepd ermdep ermdpe ermpde ermped emperd empedr empred emprde
empdre empder emeprd emepdr emerpd emerdp emedrp emedpr emrepd emredp emrped
emrpde emrdpe emrdep emderp emdepr emdrep emdrpe emdpre emdper pederm pedemr
pedrem pedrme pedmre pedmer peedrm peedmr peerdm peermd peemrd peemdr peredm
peremd perdem perdme permde permed pemerd pemedr pemred pemrde pemdre pemder
pdeerm pdeemr pderem pderme pdemre pdemer pdeerm pdeemr pderem pderme pdemre
pdemer pdreem pdreme pdreem pdreme pdrmee pdrmee pdmere pdmeer pdmree pdmree
pdmere pdmeer pederm pedemr pedrem pedrme pedmre pedmer peedrm peedmr peerdm
peermd peemrd peemdr peredm peremd perdem perdme permde permed pemerd pemedr
pemred pemrde pemdre pemder prdeem prdeme prdeem prdeme prdmee prdmee predem
predme preedm preemd premed premde preedm preemd predem predme premde premed
prmeed prmede prmeed prmede prmdee prmdee pmdere pmdeer pmdree pmdree pmdere
pmdeer pmedre pmeder pmerde pmered pmeerd pmeedr pmrede pmreed pmrdee pmrdee
pmrede pmreed pmeerd pmeedr pmered pmerde pmedre pmeder eepdrm eepdmr eeprdm
eeprmd eepmrd eepmdr eedprm eedpmr eedrpm eedrmp eedmrp eedmpr eerdpm eerdmp
eerpdm eerpmd eermpd eermdp eemdrp eemdpr eemrdp eemrpd eemprd eempdr epedrm
epedmr eperdm epermd epemrd epemdr epderm epdemr epdrem epdrme epdmre epdmer
eprdem eprdme epredm epremd eprmed eprmde epmdre epmder epmrde epmred epmerd
epmedr edperm edpemr edprem edprme edpmre edpmer edeprm edepmr ederpm edermp
edemrp edempr edrepm edremp edrpem edrpme edrmpe edrmep edmerp edmepr edmrep
edmrpe edmpre edmper erpdem erpdme erpedm erpemd erpmed erpmde erdpem erdpme
erdepm erdemp erdmep erdmpe eredpm eredmp erepdm erepmd erempd eremdp ermdep
ermdpe ermedp ermepd ermped ermpde empdre empder emprde empred emperd empedr
emdpre emdper emdrpe emdrep emderp emdepr emrdpe emrdep emrpde emrped emrepd
emredp emedrp emedpr emerdp emerpd emeprd emepdr repedm repemd repdem repdme
repmde repmed reepdm reepmd reedpm reedmp reemdp reempd redepm redemp redpem
redpme redmpe redmep remedp remepd remdep remdpe rempde remped rpeedm rpeemd
rpedem rpedme rpemde rpemed rpeedm rpeemd rpedem rpedme rpemde rpemed rpdeem
rpdeme rpdeem rpdeme rpdmee rpdmee rpmede rpmeed rpmdee rpmdee rpmede rpmeed
repedm repemd repdem repdme repmde repmed reepdm reepmd reedpm reedmp reemdp
reempd redepm redemp redpem redpme redmpe redmep remedp remepd remdep remdpe
rempde remped rdpeem rdpeme rdpeem rdpeme rdpmee rdpmee rdepem rdepme rdeepm
rdeemp rdemep rdempe rdeepm rdeemp rdepem rdepme rdempe rdemep rdmeep rdmepe
rdmeep rdmepe rdmpee rdmpee rmpede rmpeed rmpdee rmpdee rmpede rmpeed rmepde
rmeped rmedpe rmedep rmeedp rmeepd rmdepe rmdeep rmdpee rmdpee rmdepe rmdeep
rmeedp rmeepd rmedep rmedpe rmepde rmeped meperd mepedr mepred meprde mepdre
mepder meeprd meepdr meerpd meerdp meedrp meedpr merepd meredp merped merpde
merdpe merdep mederp medepr medrep medrpe medpre medper mpeerd mpeedr mpered
mperde mpedre mpeder mpeerd mpeedr mpered mperde mpedre mpeder mpreed mprede
mpreed mprede mprdee mprdee mpdere mpdeer mpdree mpdree mpdere mpdeer meperd
mepedr mepred meprde mepdre mepder meeprd meepdr meerpd meerdp meedrp meedpr
merepd meredp merped merpde merdpe merdep mederp medepr medrep medrpe medpre
medper mrpeed mrpede mrpeed mrpede mrpdee mrpdee mreped mrepde mreepd mreedp
mredep mredpe mreepd mreedp mreped mrepde mredpe mredep mrdeep mrdepe mrdeep
mrdepe mrdpee mrdpee mdpere mdpeer mdpree mdpree mdpere mdpeer mdepre mdeper
mderpe mderep mdeerp mdeepr mdrepe mdreep mdrpee mdrpee mdrepe mdreep mdeerp
mdeepr mderep mderpe mdepre mdeper

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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