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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: deetta
cipher variations:
effuub fggvvc ghhwwd hiixxe ijjyyf
jkkzzg kllaah lmmbbi mnnccj nooddk
oppeel pqqffm qrrggn rsshho sttiip
tuujjq uvvkkr vwwlls wxxmmt xyynnu
yzzoov zaappw abbqqx bccrry cddssz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: deetta
Cipher: wvvggz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: deetta
Cipher: AAABB AABAA AABAA BAABA BAABA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: deetta
cipher variations:
effuubknnggbqvvssbwddeebcllqqbittccbujjaabarrmmb
gzzyybmhhkkbsppwwbyxxiibfggvvcloohhcrwwttcxeeffc
dmmrrcjuuddcvkkbbcbssnnchaazzcniillctqqxxczyyjjc
ghhwwdmppiidsxxuudyffggdennssdkvveedwllccdcttood
ibbaadojjmmdurryydazzkkdhiixxenqqjjetyyvvezgghhe
foottelwwffexmmddeduuppejccbbepkknnevsszzebaalle
ijjyyforrkkfuzzwwfahhiifgppuufmxxggfynneefevvqqf
kddccfqlloofwttaafcbbmmfjkkzzgpssllgvaaxxgbiijjg
hqqvvgnyyhhgzooffgfwwrrgleeddgrmmppgxuubbgdccnng
kllaahqttmmhwbbyyhcjjkkhirrwwhozziihappgghgxxssh
mffeehsnnqqhyvvccheddoohlmmbbiruunnixcczzidkklli
jssxxipaajjibqqhhihyyttinggffitoorrizwwddifeeppi
mnnccjsvvoojyddaajellmmjkttyyjqbbkkjcrriijizzuuj
ohhggjuppssjaxxeejgffqqjnooddktwwppkzeebbkfmmnnk
luuzzkrccllkdssjjkjaavvkpiihhkvqqttkbyyffkhggrrk
oppeeluxxqqlaffcclgnnoolmvvaalsddmmlettkklkbbwwl
qjjiilwrruulczzgglihhsslpqqffmvyyrrmbggddmhooppm
nwwbbmteennmfuullmlccxxmrkkjjmxssvvmdaahhmjiittm
qrrggnwzzssnchheenippqqnoxxccnuffoongvvmmnmddyyn
sllkknyttwwnebbiinkjjuunrsshhoxaattodiiffojqqrro
pyyddovggppohwwnnoneezzotmmllozuuxxofccjjolkkvvo
sttiipybbuupejjggpkrrsspqzzeepwhhqqpixxoopoffaap
unnmmpavvyypgddkkpmllwwptuujjqzccvvqfkkhhqlssttq
raaffqxiirrqjyyppqpggbbqvoonnqbwwzzqheellqnmmxxq
uvvkkraddwwrglliirmttuursbbggryjjssrkzzqqrqhhccr
wppoorcxxaariffmmronnyyrvwwllsbeexxshmmjjsnuuvvs
tcchhszkkttslaarrsriiddsxqqppsdyybbsjggnnspoozzs
wxxmmtcffyytinnkktovvwwtuddiitalluutmbbsstsjjeet
yrrqqtezzcctkhhootqppaatxyynnudggzzujoollupwwxxu
veejjubmmvvunccttutkkffuzssrrufaadduliippurqqbbu
yzzoovehhaavkppmmvqxxyyvwffkkvcnnwwvodduuvullggv
attssvgbbeevmjjqqvsrrccvzaappwfiibbwlqqnnwryyzzw
xggllwdooxxwpeevvwvmmhhwbuuttwhccffwnkkrrwtssddw
abbqqxgjjccxmrrooxszzaaxyhhmmxeppyyxqffwwxwnniix
cvvuuxiddggxollssxutteexbccrryhkkddynssppytaabby
ziinnyfqqzzyrggxxyxoojjydwwvvyjeehhypmmttyvuuffy
cddsszilleezottqqzubbcczajjoozgrraazshhyyzyppkkz
exxwwzkffiizqnnuuzwvvggzdeettajmmffapuurravccdda
bkkppahssbbatiizzazqqllafyyxxalggjjaroovvaxwwhha

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: deetta
Cipher: qrrggn

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: deetta
Cipher: 415151444411

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: deetta
method variations:
ikkyyfoppddltuuiiqyzzoov

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d e e t t a 
4 5 5 4 4 1 
1 1 1 4 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
455441111441
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: deetta
Cipher: yudaqd

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: deetta
method variations:
vvqtdq vqtdqv qtdqvv
tdqvvq dqvvqt qvvqtd

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: deetta

all 720 cipher variations:
deetta deetat deetta deetat deeatt deeatt deteta deteat dettea dettae detate
detaet dettea dettae deteta deteat detaet detate deatte deatet deatte deatet
deaett deaett deetta deetat deetta deetat deeatt deeatt deteta deteat dettea
dettae detate detaet dettea dettae deteta deteat detaet detate deatte deatet
deatte deatet deaett deaett dteeta dteeat dtetea dtetae dteate dteaet dteeta
dteeat dtetea dtetae dteate dteaet dtteea dtteae dtteea dtteae dttaee dttaee
dtaete dtaeet dtatee dtatee dtaete dtaeet dtetea dtetae dteeta dteeat dteaet
dteate dtteea dtteae dtteea dtteae dttaee dttaee dtetea dtetae dteeta dteeat
dteaet dteate dtatee dtatee dtaete dtaeet dtaeet dtaete daette daetet daette
daetet daeett daeett datete dateet dattee dattee datete dateet dattee dattee
datete dateet dateet datete daette daetet daette daetet daeett daeett edetta
edetat edetta edetat edeatt edeatt edteta edteat edttea edttae edtate edtaet
edttea edttae edteta edteat edtaet edtate edatte edatet edatte edatet edaett
edaett eedtta eedtat eedtta eedtat eedatt eedatt eetdta eetdat eettda eettad
eetatd eetadt eettda eettad eetdta eetdat eetadt eetatd eeattd eeatdt eeattd
eeatdt eeadtt eeadtt etedta etedat etetda etetad eteatd eteadt etdeta etdeat
etdtea etdtae etdate etdaet ettdea ettdae etteda ettead ettaed ettade etadte
etadet etatde etated etaetd etaedt etetda etetad etedta etedat eteadt eteatd
etteda ettead ettdea ettdae ettade ettaed etdtea etdtae etdeta etdeat etdaet
etdate etatde etated etadte etadet etaedt etaetd eaettd eaetdt eaettd eaetdt
eaedtt eaedtt eatetd eatedt eatted eattde eatdte eatdet eatted eattde eatetd
eatedt eatdet eatdte eadtte eadtet eadtte eadtet eadett eadett eedtta eedtat
eedtta eedtat eedatt eedatt eetdta eetdat eettda eettad eetatd eetadt eettda
eettad eetdta eetdat eetadt eetatd eeattd eeatdt eeattd eeatdt eeadtt eeadtt
edetta edetat edetta edetat edeatt edeatt edteta edteat edttea edttae edtate
edtaet edttea edttae edteta edteat edtaet edtate edatte edatet edatte edatet
edaett edaett etdeta etdeat etdtea etdtae etdate etdaet etedta etedat etetda
etetad eteatd eteadt etteda ettead ettdea ettdae ettade ettaed etaetd etaedt
etated etatde etadte etadet etdtea etdtae etdeta etdeat etdaet etdate ettdea
ettdae etteda ettead ettaed ettade etetda etetad etedta etedat eteadt eteatd
etated etatde etaetd etaedt etadet etadte eadtte eadtet eadtte eadtet eadett
eadett eatdte eatdet eattde eatted eatetd eatedt eattde eatted eatdte eatdet
eatedt eatetd eaettd eaetdt eaettd eaetdt eaedtt eaedtt teedta teedat teetda
teetad teeatd teeadt tedeta tedeat tedtea tedtae tedate tedaet tetdea tetdae
teteda tetead tetaed tetade teadte teadet teatde teated teaetd teaedt teedta
teedat teetda teetad teeatd teeadt tedeta tedeat tedtea tedtae tedate tedaet
tetdea tetdae teteda tetead tetaed tetade teadte teadet teatde teated teaetd
teaedt tdeeta tdeeat tdetea tdetae tdeate tdeaet tdeeta tdeeat tdetea tdetae
tdeate tdeaet tdteea tdteae tdteea tdteae tdtaee tdtaee tdaete tdaeet tdatee
tdatee tdaete tdaeet ttedea ttedae tteeda tteead tteaed tteade ttdeea ttdeae
ttdeea ttdeae ttdaee ttdaee ttedea ttedae tteeda tteead tteaed tteade ttadee
ttadee ttaede ttaeed ttaeed ttaede taedte taedet taetde taeted taeetd taeedt
tadete tadeet tadtee tadtee tadete tadeet tatdee tatdee tatede tateed tateed
tatede taedte taedet taetde taeted taeetd taeedt teetda teetad teedta teedat
teeadt teeatd teteda tetead tetdea tetdae tetade tetaed tedtea tedtae tedeta
tedeat tedaet tedate teatde teated teadte teadet teaedt teaetd teetda teetad
teedta teedat teeadt teeatd teteda tetead tetdea tetdae tetade tetaed tedtea
tedtae tedeta tedeat tedaet tedate teatde teated teadte teadet teaedt teaetd
tteeda tteead ttedea ttedae tteade tteaed tteeda tteead ttedea ttedae tteade
tteaed ttdeea ttdeae ttdeea ttdeae ttdaee ttdaee ttaede ttaeed ttadee ttadee
ttaede ttaeed tdetea tdetae tdeeta tdeeat tdeaet tdeate tdteea tdteae tdteea
tdteae tdtaee tdtaee tdetea tdetae tdeeta tdeeat tdeaet tdeate tdatee tdatee
tdaete tdaeet tdaeet tdaete taetde taeted taedte taedet taeedt taeetd tatede
tateed tatdee tatdee tatede tateed tadtee tadtee tadete tadeet tadeet tadete
taetde taeted taedte taedet taeedt taeetd aeettd aeetdt aeettd aeetdt aeedtt
aeedtt aetetd aetedt aetted aettde aetdte aetdet aetted aettde aetetd aetedt
aetdet aetdte aedtte aedtet aedtte aedtet aedett aedett aeettd aeetdt aeettd
aeetdt aeedtt aeedtt aetetd aetedt aetted aettde aetdte aetdet aetted aettde
aetetd aetedt aetdet aetdte aedtte aedtet aedtte aedtet aedett aedett ateetd
ateedt ateted atetde atedte atedet ateetd ateedt ateted atetde atedte atedet
atteed attede atteed attede attdee attdee atdete atdeet atdtee atdtee atdete
atdeet ateted atetde ateetd ateedt atedet atedte atteed attede atteed attede
attdee attdee ateted atetde ateetd ateedt atedet atedte atdtee atdtee atdete
atdeet atdeet atdete adette adetet adette adetet adeett adeett adtete adteet
adttee adttee adtete adteet adttee adttee adtete adteet adteet adtete adette
adetet adette adetet adeett adeett

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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