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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: dbplot
cipher variations:
ecqmpu fdrnqv gesorw hftpsx iguqty
jhvruz kiwsva ljxtwb mkyuxc nlzvyd
omawze pnbxaf qocybg rpdzch sqeadi
trfbej usgcfk vthdgl wuiehm xvjfin
ywkgjo zxlhkp aymilq bznjmr caokns

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: dbplot
Cipher: wykolg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: dbplot

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: dbplot
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: dbplot
Cipher: qocybg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: dbplot
Cipher: 412153134344

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: dbplot
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d b p l o t 
4 2 5 1 4 4 
1 1 3 3 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: dbplot
Cipher: ietans

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Method #3

Plaintext: dbplot
method variations:
fvcsst vcsstf csstfv
sstfvc stfvcs tfvcss

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: dbplot

all 720 cipher variations:
dbplot dbplto dbpolt dbpotl dbptol dbptlo dblpot dblpto dblopt dblotp dbltop
dbltpo dbolpt dboltp dboplt dboptl dbotpl dbotlp dbtlop dbtlpo dbtolp dbtopl
dbtpol dbtplo dpblot dpblto dpbolt dpbotl dpbtol dpbtlo dplbot dplbto dplobt
dplotb dpltob dpltbo dpolbt dpoltb dpoblt dpobtl dpotbl dpotlb dptlob dptlbo
dptolb dptobl dptbol dptblo dlpbot dlpbto dlpobt dlpotb dlptob dlptbo dlbpot
dlbpto dlbopt dlbotp dlbtop dlbtpo dlobpt dlobtp dlopbt dloptb dlotpb dlotbp
dltbop dltbpo dltobp dltopb dltpob dltpbo doplbt dopltb dopblt dopbtl doptbl
doptlb dolpbt dolptb dolbpt dolbtp doltbp doltpb doblpt dobltp dobplt dobptl
dobtpl dobtlp dotlbp dotlpb dotblp dotbpl dotpbl dotplb dtplob dtplbo dtpolb
dtpobl dtpbol dtpblo dtlpob dtlpbo dtlopb dtlobp dtlbop dtlbpo dtolpb dtolbp
dtoplb dtopbl dtobpl dtoblp dtblop dtblpo dtbolp dtbopl dtbpol dtbplo bdplot
bdplto bdpolt bdpotl bdptol bdptlo bdlpot bdlpto bdlopt bdlotp bdltop bdltpo
bdolpt bdoltp bdoplt bdoptl bdotpl bdotlp bdtlop bdtlpo bdtolp bdtopl bdtpol
bdtplo bpdlot bpdlto bpdolt bpdotl bpdtol bpdtlo bpldot bpldto bplodt bplotd
bpltod bpltdo bpoldt bpoltd bpodlt bpodtl bpotdl bpotld bptlod bptldo bptold
bptodl bptdol bptdlo blpdot blpdto blpodt blpotd blptod blptdo bldpot bldpto
bldopt bldotp bldtop bldtpo blodpt blodtp blopdt bloptd blotpd blotdp bltdop
bltdpo bltodp bltopd bltpod bltpdo bopldt bopltd bopdlt bopdtl boptdl boptld
bolpdt bolptd boldpt boldtp boltdp boltpd bodlpt bodltp bodplt bodptl bodtpl
bodtlp botldp botlpd botdlp botdpl botpdl botpld btplod btpldo btpold btpodl
btpdol btpdlo btlpod btlpdo btlopd btlodp btldop btldpo btolpd btoldp btopld
btopdl btodpl btodlp btdlop btdlpo btdolp btdopl btdpol btdplo pbdlot pbdlto
pbdolt pbdotl pbdtol pbdtlo pbldot pbldto pblodt pblotd pbltod pbltdo pboldt
pboltd pbodlt pbodtl pbotdl pbotld pbtlod pbtldo pbtold pbtodl pbtdol pbtdlo
pdblot pdblto pdbolt pdbotl pdbtol pdbtlo pdlbot pdlbto pdlobt pdlotb pdltob
pdltbo pdolbt pdoltb pdoblt pdobtl pdotbl pdotlb pdtlob pdtlbo pdtolb pdtobl
pdtbol pdtblo pldbot pldbto pldobt pldotb pldtob pldtbo plbdot plbdto plbodt
plbotd plbtod plbtdo plobdt plobtd plodbt plodtb plotdb plotbd pltbod pltbdo
pltobd pltodb pltdob pltdbo podlbt podltb podblt podbtl podtbl podtlb poldbt
poldtb polbdt polbtd poltbd poltdb pobldt pobltd pobdlt pobdtl pobtdl pobtld
potlbd potldb potbld potbdl potdbl potdlb ptdlob ptdlbo ptdolb ptdobl ptdbol
ptdblo ptldob ptldbo ptlodb ptlobd ptlbod ptlbdo ptoldb ptolbd ptodlb ptodbl
ptobdl ptobld ptblod ptbldo ptbold ptbodl ptbdol ptbdlo lbpdot lbpdto lbpodt
lbpotd lbptod lbptdo lbdpot lbdpto lbdopt lbdotp lbdtop lbdtpo lbodpt lbodtp
lbopdt lboptd lbotpd lbotdp lbtdop lbtdpo lbtodp lbtopd lbtpod lbtpdo lpbdot
lpbdto lpbodt lpbotd lpbtod lpbtdo lpdbot lpdbto lpdobt lpdotb lpdtob lpdtbo
lpodbt lpodtb lpobdt lpobtd lpotbd lpotdb lptdob lptdbo lptodb lptobd lptbod
lptbdo ldpbot ldpbto ldpobt ldpotb ldptob ldptbo ldbpot ldbpto ldbopt ldbotp
ldbtop ldbtpo ldobpt ldobtp ldopbt ldoptb ldotpb ldotbp ldtbop ldtbpo ldtobp
ldtopb ldtpob ldtpbo lopdbt lopdtb lopbdt lopbtd loptbd loptdb lodpbt lodptb
lodbpt lodbtp lodtbp lodtpb lobdpt lobdtp lobpdt lobptd lobtpd lobtdp lotdbp
lotdpb lotbdp lotbpd lotpbd lotpdb ltpdob ltpdbo ltpodb ltpobd ltpbod ltpbdo
ltdpob ltdpbo ltdopb ltdobp ltdbop ltdbpo ltodpb ltodbp ltopdb ltopbd ltobpd
ltobdp ltbdop ltbdpo ltbodp ltbopd ltbpod ltbpdo obpldt obpltd obpdlt obpdtl
obptdl obptld oblpdt oblptd obldpt obldtp obltdp obltpd obdlpt obdltp obdplt
obdptl obdtpl obdtlp obtldp obtlpd obtdlp obtdpl obtpdl obtpld opbldt opbltd
opbdlt opbdtl opbtdl opbtld oplbdt oplbtd opldbt opldtb opltdb opltbd opdlbt
opdltb opdblt opdbtl opdtbl opdtlb optldb optlbd optdlb optdbl optbdl optbld
olpbdt olpbtd olpdbt olpdtb olptdb olptbd olbpdt olbptd olbdpt olbdtp olbtdp
olbtpd oldbpt oldbtp oldpbt oldptb oldtpb oldtbp oltbdp oltbpd oltdbp oltdpb
oltpdb oltpbd odplbt odpltb odpblt odpbtl odptbl odptlb odlpbt odlptb odlbpt
odlbtp odltbp odltpb odblpt odbltp odbplt odbptl odbtpl odbtlp odtlbp odtlpb
odtblp odtbpl odtpbl odtplb otpldb otplbd otpdlb otpdbl otpbdl otpbld otlpdb
otlpbd otldpb otldbp otlbdp otlbpd otdlpb otdlbp otdplb otdpbl otdbpl otdblp
otbldp otblpd otbdlp otbdpl otbpdl otbpld tbplod tbpldo tbpold tbpodl tbpdol
tbpdlo tblpod tblpdo tblopd tblodp tbldop tbldpo tbolpd tboldp tbopld tbopdl
tbodpl tbodlp tbdlop tbdlpo tbdolp tbdopl tbdpol tbdplo tpblod tpbldo tpbold
tpbodl tpbdol tpbdlo tplbod tplbdo tplobd tplodb tpldob tpldbo tpolbd tpoldb
tpobld tpobdl tpodbl tpodlb tpdlob tpdlbo tpdolb tpdobl tpdbol tpdblo tlpbod
tlpbdo tlpobd tlpodb tlpdob tlpdbo tlbpod tlbpdo tlbopd tlbodp tlbdop tlbdpo
tlobpd tlobdp tlopbd tlopdb tlodpb tlodbp tldbop tldbpo tldobp tldopb tldpob
tldpbo toplbd topldb topbld topbdl topdbl topdlb tolpbd tolpdb tolbpd tolbdp
toldbp toldpb toblpd tobldp tobpld tobpdl tobdpl tobdlp todlbp todlpb todblp
todbpl todpbl todplb tdplob tdplbo tdpolb tdpobl tdpbol tdpblo tdlpob tdlpbo
tdlopb tdlobp tdlbop tdlbpo tdolpb tdolbp tdoplb tdopbl tdobpl tdoblp tdblop
tdblpo tdbolp tdbopl tdbpol tdbplo

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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