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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: davidl
cipher variations:
ebwjem fcxkfn gdylgo hezmhp ifaniq
jgbojr khcpks lidqlt mjermu nkfsnv
olgtow pmhupx qnivqy rojwrz spkxsa
tqlytb urmzuc vsnavd wtobwe xupcxf
yvqdyg zwrezh axsfai bytgbj czuhck

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: davidl
Cipher: wzerwo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: davidl
Cipher: AAABB AAAAA BBBAB ABAAA AAABB ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: davidl
cipher variations:
ebwjemkbmzkiqbcpqewbsfwacbivcwibylisuberukabuhag
gbkxgcmbanmysbqdsuybgtyqfcxkfnlcnaljrcdqrfxctgxb
dcjwdxjczmjtvcfsvlbcvibhhclyhdncbonztcretvzchuzr
gdylgomdobmksdersgyduhycedkxeykdankuwdgtwmcdwjci
idmzieodcpoaudsfuwadivashezmhpnepcnltefsthzevizd
felyfzlebolvxehuxndexkdjjenajfpedqpbvetgvxbejwbt
ifaniqofqdomufgtuiafwjaegfmzgamfcpmwyfivyoefylek
kfobkgqferqcwfuhwycfkxcujgbojrpgrepnvghuvjbgxkbf
hgnahbngdqnxzgjwzpfgzmfllgpclhrgfsrdxgvixzdglydv
khcpksqhsfqowhivwkchylcgihobicoheroyahkxaqghangm
mhqdmishgtseyhwjyaehmzewlidqltritgrpxijwxldizmdh
jipcjdpifspzbilybrhibohnnirenjtihutfzixkzbfinafx
mjermusjuhsqyjkxymejaneikjqdkeqjgtqacjmzcsijcpio
ojsfokujivugajylacgjobgynkfsnvtkvitrzklyznfkbofj
lkrelfrkhurbdknadtjkdqjppktgplvkjwvhbkzmbdhkpchz
olgtowulwjusalmzaoglcpgkmlsfmgslivscelobeuklerkq
qluhqmwlkxwiclanceilqdiapmhupxvmxkvtbmnabphmdqhl
nmtgnhtmjwtdfmpcfvlmfslrrmvirnxmlyxjdmbodfjmrejb
qnivqywnylwucnobcqinerimonuhoiunkxuegnqdgwmngtms
snwjsoynmzykencpegknsfkcrojwrzxozmxvdopcdrjofsjn
povipjvolyvfhorehxnohunttoxktpzonazlfodqfhlotgld
spkxsaypanywepqdeskpgtkoqpwjqkwpmzwgipsfiyopivou
upyluqapobamgpergimpuhmetqlytbzqbozxfqreftlqhulp
rqxkrlxqnaxhjqtgjzpqjwpvvqzmvrbqpcbnhqfshjnqvinf
urmzucarcpaygrsfgumrivmqsrylsmyrobyikruhkaqrkxqw
wranwscrqdcoirgtikorwjogvsnavdbsdqbzhstghvnsjwnr
tszmtnzspczjlsvilbrslyrxxsboxtdsredpjshujlpsxkph
wtobwectercaituhiwotkxosutanuoatqdakmtwjmcstmzsy
ytcpyuetsfeqktivkmqtylqixupcxfdufsdbjuvijxpulypt
vubovpbureblnuxkndtunatzzudqzvfutgfrlujwlnruzmrj
yvqdygevgteckvwjkyqvmzquwvcpwqcvsfcmovyloeuvobua
averawgvuhgsmvkxmosvanskzwrezhfwhufdlwxklzrwnarv
xwdqxrdwtgdnpwzmpfvwpcvbbwfsbxhwvihtnwlynptwbotl
axsfaigxivgemxylmasxobswyxerysexuheoqxanqgwxqdwc
cxgtcyixwjiuoxmzoquxcpumbytgbjhyjwhfnyzmnbtypctx
zyfsztfyvifpryborhxyrexddyhudzjyxkjvpynaprvydqvn
czuhckizkxigozanocuzqduyazgtaugzwjgqszcpsiyzsfye
eziveakzylkwqzobqswzerwodavidljalyjhpabopdvarevz
bahubvhaxkhrtadqtjzatgzffajwfblazmlxrapcrtxafsxp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: davidl
Cipher: qnivqy

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: davidl
Cipher: 411115424113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: davidl
method variations:
ifaoiqolftovtqlytayvqdyf

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d a v i d l 
4 1 1 4 4 1 
1 1 5 2 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
411441115213
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: davidl
Cipher: dqdakl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: davidl
method variations:
aauras aurasa urasaa
rasaau asaaur saaura

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: davidl

all 720 cipher variations:
davidl davild davdil davdli davldi davlid daivdl daivld daidvl daidlv daildv
dailvd dadivl dadilv dadvil dadvli dadlvi dadliv dalidv dalivd daldiv daldvi
dalvdi dalvid dvaidl dvaild dvadil dvadli dvaldi dvalid dviadl dviald dvidal
dvidla dvilda dvilad dvdial dvdila dvdail dvdali dvdlai dvdlia dvlida dvliad
dvldia dvldai dvladi dvlaid divadl divald divdal divdla divlda divlad diavdl
diavld diadvl diadlv dialdv dialvd didavl didalv didval didvla didlva didlav
diladv dilavd dildav dildva dilvda dilvad ddvial ddvila ddvail ddvali ddvlai
ddvlia ddival ddivla ddiavl ddialv ddilav ddilva ddaivl ddailv ddavil ddavli
ddalvi ddaliv ddliav ddliva ddlaiv ddlavi ddlvai ddlvia dlvida dlviad dlvdia
dlvdai dlvadi dlvaid dlivda dlivad dlidva dlidav dliadv dliavd dldiva dldiav
dldvia dldvai dldavi dldaiv dlaidv dlaivd dladiv dladvi dlavdi dlavid advidl
advild advdil advdli advldi advlid adivdl adivld adidvl adidlv adildv adilvd
addivl addilv addvil addvli addlvi addliv adlidv adlivd adldiv adldvi adlvdi
adlvid avdidl avdild avddil avddli avdldi avdlid aviddl avidld aviddl avidld
avildd avildd avdidl avdild avddil avddli avdldi avdlid avlidd avlidd avldid
avlddi avlddi avldid aivddl aivdld aivddl aivdld aivldd aivldd aidvdl aidvld
aiddvl aiddlv aidldv aidlvd aiddvl aiddlv aidvdl aidvld aidlvd aidldv ailddv
aildvd ailddv aildvd ailvdd ailvdd advidl advild advdil advdli advldi advlid
adivdl adivld adidvl adidlv adildv adilvd addivl addilv addvil addvli addlvi
addliv adlidv adlivd adldiv adldvi adlvdi adlvid alvidd alvidd alvdid alvddi
alvddi alvdid alivdd alivdd alidvd aliddv aliddv alidvd aldivd aldidv aldvid
aldvdi alddvi alddiv aldidv aldivd alddiv alddvi aldvdi aldvid vadidl vadild
vaddil vaddli vadldi vadlid vaiddl vaidld vaiddl vaidld vaildd vaildd vadidl
vadild vaddil vaddli vadldi vadlid validd validd valdid valddi valddi valdid
vdaidl vdaild vdadil vdadli vdaldi vdalid vdiadl vdiald vdidal vdidla vdilda
vdilad vddial vddila vddail vddali vddlai vddlia vdlida vdliad vdldia vdldai
vdladi vdlaid vidadl vidald viddal viddla vidlda vidlad viaddl viadld viaddl
viadld vialdd vialdd vidadl vidald viddal viddla vidlda vidlad viladd viladd
vildad vildda vildda vildad vddial vddila vddail vddali vddlai vddlia vdidal
vdidla vdiadl vdiald vdilad vdilda vdaidl vdaild vdadil vdadli vdaldi vdalid
vdliad vdlida vdlaid vdladi vdldai vdldia vldida vldiad vlddia vlddai vldadi
vldaid vlidda vlidad vlidda vlidad vliadd vliadd vldida vldiad vlddia vlddai
vldadi vldaid vlaidd vlaidd vladid vladdi vladdi vladid iavddl iavdld iavddl
iavdld iavldd iavldd iadvdl iadvld iaddvl iaddlv iadldv iadlvd iaddvl iaddlv
iadvdl iadvld iadlvd iadldv ialddv ialdvd ialddv ialdvd ialvdd ialvdd ivaddl
ivadld ivaddl ivadld ivaldd ivaldd ivdadl ivdald ivddal ivddla ivdlda ivdlad
ivddal ivddla ivdadl ivdald ivdlad ivdlda ivldda ivldad ivldda ivldad ivladd
ivladd idvadl idvald idvdal idvdla idvlda idvlad idavdl idavld idadvl idadlv
idaldv idalvd iddavl iddalv iddval iddvla iddlva iddlav idladv idlavd idldav
idldva idlvda idlvad idvdal idvdla idvadl idvald idvlad idvlda iddval iddvla
iddavl iddalv iddlav iddlva idadvl idadlv idavdl idavld idalvd idaldv idldav
idldva idladv idlavd idlvad idlvda ilvdda ilvdad ilvdda ilvdad ilvadd ilvadd
ildvda ildvad ilddva ilddav ildadv ildavd ilddva ilddav ildvda ildvad ildavd
ildadv iladdv iladvd iladdv iladvd ilavdd ilavdd davidl davild davdil davdli
davldi davlid daivdl daivld daidvl daidlv daildv dailvd dadivl dadilv dadvil
dadvli dadlvi dadliv dalidv dalivd daldiv daldvi dalvdi dalvid dvaidl dvaild
dvadil dvadli dvaldi dvalid dviadl dviald dvidal dvidla dvilda dvilad dvdial
dvdila dvdail dvdali dvdlai dvdlia dvlida dvliad dvldia dvldai dvladi dvlaid
divadl divald divdal divdla divlda divlad diavdl diavld diadvl diadlv dialdv
dialvd didavl didalv didval didvla didlva didlav diladv dilavd dildav dildva
dilvda dilvad ddvial ddvila ddvail ddvali ddvlai ddvlia ddival ddivla ddiavl
ddialv ddilav ddilva ddaivl ddailv ddavil ddavli ddalvi ddaliv ddliav ddliva
ddlaiv ddlavi ddlvai ddlvia dlvida dlviad dlvdia dlvdai dlvadi dlvaid dlivda
dlivad dlidva dlidav dliadv dliavd dldiva dldiav dldvia dldvai dldavi dldaiv
dlaidv dlaivd dladiv dladvi dlavdi dlavid lavidd lavidd lavdid lavddi lavddi
lavdid laivdd laivdd laidvd laiddv laiddv laidvd ladivd ladidv ladvid ladvdi
laddvi laddiv ladidv ladivd laddiv laddvi ladvdi ladvid lvaidd lvaidd lvadid
lvaddi lvaddi lvadid lviadd lviadd lvidad lvidda lvidda lvidad lvdiad lvdida
lvdaid lvdadi lvddai lvddia lvdida lvdiad lvddia lvddai lvdadi lvdaid livadd
livadd livdad livdda livdda livdad liavdd liavdd liadvd liaddv liaddv liadvd
lidavd lidadv lidvad lidvda liddva liddav lidadv lidavd liddav liddva lidvda
lidvad ldviad ldvida ldvaid ldvadi ldvdai ldvdia ldivad ldivda ldiavd ldiadv
ldidav ldidva ldaivd ldaidv ldavid ldavdi ldadvi ldadiv lddiav lddiva lddaiv
lddavi lddvai lddvia ldvida ldviad ldvdia ldvdai ldvadi ldvaid ldivda ldivad
ldidva ldidav ldiadv ldiavd lddiva lddiav lddvia lddvai lddavi lddaiv ldaidv
ldaivd ldadiv ldadvi ldavdi ldavid

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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