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unfittingly

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confecturum

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calapite


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: datcha
cipher variations:
ebudib fcvejc gdwfkd hexgle ifyhmf
jgzing khajoh libkpi mjclqj nkdmrk
olensl pmfotm qngpun rohqvo spirwp
tqjsxq urktyr vsluzs wtmvat xunwbu
yvoxcv zwpydw axqzex byrafy czsbgz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: datcha
Cipher: wzgxsz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: datcha
Cipher: AAABB AAAAA BAABA AAABA AABBB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: datcha
cipher variations:
ebudibkbghwbqbslkbwbepybcbqtmbibcxabubafcbabmjqb
gbynebmbkrsbsbwvgbybizubfcvejclchixcrctmlcxcfqzc
dcruncjcdybcvcbgdcbcnkrchczofcnclstctcxwhczcjavc
gdwfkdmdijydsdunmdydgradedsvodkdezcdwdchedcdolsd
idapgdodmtududyxidadkbwdhexglenejkzetevonezehsbe
fetwpelefadexedifedepmtejebqhepenuvevezyjebelcxe
ifyhmfofklafufwpofafitcfgfuxqfmfgbefyfejgfefqnuf
kfcrifqfovwfwfazkfcfmdyfjgzingpglmbgvgxqpgbgjudg
hgvyrgnghcfgzgfkhgfgrovglgdsjgrgpwxgxgbalgdgnezg
khajohqhmnchwhyrqhchkvehihwzshohidghahglihghspwh
mhetkhshqxyhyhcbmhehofahlibkpirinodixizsridilwfi
jixatipijehibihmjihitqxinifulitiryzizidcnifipgbi
mjclqjsjopejyjatsjejmxgjkjybujqjkfijcjinkjijuryj
ojgvmjujszajajedojgjqhcjnkdmrktkpqfkzkbutkfknyhk
lkzcvkrklgjkdkjolkjkvszkpkhwnkvktabkbkfepkhkridk
olenslulqrglalcvulglozilmladwlslmhklelkpmlklwtal
qlixolwlubclclgfqlilsjelpmfotmvmrshmbmdwvmhmpajm
nmbexmtmnilmfmlqnmlmxubmrmjypmxmvcdmdmhgrmjmtkfm
qngpunwnstincnexwninqbknoncfynunojmngnmronmnyvcn
snkzqnynwdenenihsnknulgnrohqvoxotujodofyxojorclo
podgzovopknohonsponozwdotolarozoxefofojitolovmho
spirwpypuvkpepgzypkpsdmpqpehapwpqlopipotqpopaxep
upmbspapyfgpgpkjupmpwniptqjsxqzqvwlqfqhazqlqtenq
rqfibqxqrmpqjqpurqpqbyfqvqnctqbqzghqhqlkvqnqxojq
urktyrarwxmrgribarmruforsrgjcryrsnqrkrqvsrqrczgr
wrodurcrahirirmlwrorypkrvsluzsbsxynshsjcbsnsvgps
tshkdszstorslsrwtsrsdahsxspevsdsbijsjsnmxspszqls
wtmvatctyzotitkdctotwhqtutiletatupstmtsxutstebit
ytqfwtetcjktktonytqtarmtxunwbuduzapujuledupuxiru
vujmfubuvqtunutyvutufcjuzurgxufudklulupozurubsnu
yvoxcvevabqvkvmfevqvyjsvwvkngvcvwruvovuzwvuvgdkv
avshyvgvelmvmvqpavsvctovzwpydwfwbcrwlwngfwrwzktw
xwlohwdwxsvwpwvaxwvwhelwbwtizwhwfmnwnwrqbwtwdupw
axqzexgxcdsxmxohgxsxaluxyxmpixexytwxqxwbyxwxifmx
cxujaxixgnoxoxsrcxuxevqxbyrafyhydetynypihytybmvy
zynqjyfyzuxyryxczyxyjgnydyvkbyjyhopypytsdyvyfwry
czsbgzizefuzozqjizuzcnwzazorkzgzavyzszydazyzkhoz
ezwlczkzipqzqzutezwzgxszdatchajafgvaparkjavadoxa
bapslahabwzatazebazalipafaxmdalajqraravufaxahyta

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: datcha
Cipher: qngpun

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: datcha
Cipher: 411144313211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: datcha
method variations:
ifyhnfoldnsltqisxqyvoxcv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d a t c h a 
4 1 4 3 3 1 
1 1 4 1 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
414331114121
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: datcha
Cipher: docadb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: datcha
method variations:
aqolbq qolbqa olbqaq
lbqaqo bqaqol qaqolb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: datcha

all 720 cipher variations:
datcha datcah dathca dathac datahc datach dactha dactah dachta dachat dacaht
dacath dahcta dahcat dahtca dahtac dahatc dahact daacht daacth daahct daahtc
daathc daatch dtacha dtacah dtahca dtahac dtaahc dtaach dtcaha dtcaah dtchaa
dtchaa dtcaha dtcaah dthcaa dthcaa dthaca dthaac dthaac dthaca dtacha dtacah
dtahca dtahac dtaahc dtaach dctaha dctaah dcthaa dcthaa dctaha dctaah dcatha
dcatah dcahta dcahat dcaaht dcaath dchata dchaat dchtaa dchtaa dchata dchaat
dcaaht dcaath dcahat dcahta dcatha dcatah dhtcaa dhtcaa dhtaca dhtaac dhtaac
dhtaca dhctaa dhctaa dhcata dhcaat dhcaat dhcata dhacta dhacat dhatca dhatac
dhaatc dhaact dhacat dhacta dhaact dhaatc dhatac dhatca datcha datcah dathca
dathac datahc datach dactha dactah dachta dachat dacaht dacath dahcta dahcat
dahtca dahtac dahatc dahact daacht daacth daahct daahtc daathc daatch adtcha
adtcah adthca adthac adtahc adtach adctha adctah adchta adchat adcaht adcath
adhcta adhcat adhtca adhtac adhatc adhact adacht adacth adahct adahtc adathc
adatch atdcha atdcah atdhca atdhac atdahc atdach atcdha atcdah atchda atchad
atcahd atcadh athcda athcad athdca athdac athadc athacd atachd atacdh atahcd
atahdc atadhc atadch actdha actdah acthda acthad actahd actadh acdtha acdtah
acdhta acdhat acdaht acdath achdta achdat achtda achtad achatd achadt acadht
acadth acahdt acahtd acathd acatdh ahtcda ahtcad ahtdca ahtdac ahtadc ahtacd
ahctda ahctad ahcdta ahcdat ahcadt ahcatd ahdcta ahdcat ahdtca ahdtac ahdatc
ahdact ahacdt ahactd ahadct ahadtc ahatdc ahatcd aatchd aatcdh aathcd aathdc
aatdhc aatdch aacthd aactdh aachtd aachdt aacdht aacdth aahctd aahcdt aahtcd
aahtdc aahdtc aahdct aadcht aadcth aadhct aadhtc aadthc aadtch tadcha tadcah
tadhca tadhac tadahc tadach tacdha tacdah tachda tachad tacahd tacadh tahcda
tahcad tahdca tahdac tahadc tahacd taachd taacdh taahcd taahdc taadhc taadch
tdacha tdacah tdahca tdahac tdaahc tdaach tdcaha tdcaah tdchaa tdchaa tdcaha
tdcaah tdhcaa tdhcaa tdhaca tdhaac tdhaac tdhaca tdacha tdacah tdahca tdahac
tdaahc tdaach tcdaha tcdaah tcdhaa tcdhaa tcdaha tcdaah tcadha tcadah tcahda
tcahad tcaahd tcaadh tchada tchaad tchdaa tchdaa tchada tchaad tcaahd tcaadh
tcahad tcahda tcadha tcadah thdcaa thdcaa thdaca thdaac thdaac thdaca thcdaa
thcdaa thcada thcaad thcaad thcada thacda thacad thadca thadac thaadc thaacd
thacad thacda thaacd thaadc thadac thadca tadcha tadcah tadhca tadhac tadahc
tadach tacdha tacdah tachda tachad tacahd tacadh tahcda tahcad tahdca tahdac
tahadc tahacd taachd taacdh taahcd taahdc taadhc taadch catdha catdah cathda
cathad catahd catadh cadtha cadtah cadhta cadhat cadaht cadath cahdta cahdat
cahtda cahtad cahatd cahadt caadht caadth caahdt caahtd caathd caatdh ctadha
ctadah ctahda ctahad ctaahd ctaadh ctdaha ctdaah ctdhaa ctdhaa ctdaha ctdaah
cthdaa cthdaa cthada cthaad cthaad cthada ctadha ctadah ctahda ctahad ctaahd
ctaadh cdtaha cdtaah cdthaa cdthaa cdtaha cdtaah cdatha cdatah cdahta cdahat
cdaaht cdaath cdhata cdhaat cdhtaa cdhtaa cdhata cdhaat cdaaht cdaath cdahat
cdahta cdatha cdatah chtdaa chtdaa chtada chtaad chtaad chtada chdtaa chdtaa
chdata chdaat chdaat chdata chadta chadat chatda chatad chaatd chaadt chadat
chadta chaadt chaatd chatad chatda catdha catdah cathda cathad catahd catadh
cadtha cadtah cadhta cadhat cadaht cadath cahdta cahdat cahtda cahtad cahatd
cahadt caadht caadth caahdt caahtd caathd caatdh hatcda hatcad hatdca hatdac
hatadc hatacd hactda hactad hacdta hacdat hacadt hacatd hadcta hadcat hadtca
hadtac hadatc hadact haacdt haactd haadct haadtc haatdc haatcd htacda htacad
htadca htadac htaadc htaacd htcada htcaad htcdaa htcdaa htcada htcaad htdcaa
htdcaa htdaca htdaac htdaac htdaca htacda htacad htadca htadac htaadc htaacd
hctada hctaad hctdaa hctdaa hctada hctaad hcatda hcatad hcadta hcadat hcaadt
hcaatd hcdata hcdaat hcdtaa hcdtaa hcdata hcdaat hcaadt hcaatd hcadat hcadta
hcatda hcatad hdtcaa hdtcaa hdtaca hdtaac hdtaac hdtaca hdctaa hdctaa hdcata
hdcaat hdcaat hdcata hdacta hdacat hdatca hdatac hdaatc hdaact hdacat hdacta
hdaact hdaatc hdatac hdatca hatcda hatcad hatdca hatdac hatadc hatacd hactda
hactad hacdta hacdat hacadt hacatd hadcta hadcat hadtca hadtac hadatc hadact
haacdt haactd haadct haadtc haatdc haatcd aatchd aatcdh aathcd aathdc aatdhc
aatdch aacthd aactdh aachtd aachdt aacdht aacdth aahctd aahcdt aahtcd aahtdc
aahdtc aahdct aadcht aadcth aadhct aadhtc aadthc aadtch atachd atacdh atahcd
atahdc atadhc atadch atcahd atcadh atchad atchda atcdha atcdah athcad athcda
athacd athadc athdac athdca atdcha atdcah atdhca atdhac atdahc atdach actahd
actadh acthad acthda actdha actdah acathd acatdh acahtd acahdt acadht acadth
achatd achadt achtad achtda achdta achdat acdaht acdath acdhat acdhta acdtha
acdtah ahtcad ahtcda ahtacd ahtadc ahtdac ahtdca ahctad ahctda ahcatd ahcadt
ahcdat ahcdta ahactd ahacdt ahatcd ahatdc ahadtc ahadct ahdcat ahdcta ahdact
ahdatc ahdtac ahdtca adtcha adtcah adthca adthac adtahc adtach adctha adctah
adchta adchat adcaht adcath adhcta adhcat adhtca adhtac adhatc adhact adacht
adacth adahct adahtc adathc adatch

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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