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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: darmok
cipher variations:
ebsnpl fctoqm gduprn hevqso ifwrtp
jgxsuq khytvr lizuws mjavxt nkbwyu
olcxzv pmdyaw qnezbx rofacy spgbdz
tqhcea uridfb vsjegc wtkfhd xulgie
yvmhjf zwnikg axojlh bypkmi czqlnj

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: darmok
Cipher: wzinlp

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: darmok

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: darmok
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: darmok
Cipher: qnezbx

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: darmok
Cipher: 411124234352

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: darmok
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d a r m o k 
4 1 2 2 4 5 
1 1 4 3 3 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: darmok
Cipher: dgyaoh

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Method #3

Plaintext: darmok
method variations:
afisxr fisxra isxraf
sxrafi xrafis rafisx

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: darmok

all 720 cipher variations:
darmok darmko daromk darokm darkom darkmo damrok damrko damork damokr damkor
damkro daomrk daomkr daormk daorkm daokrm daokmr dakmor dakmro dakomr dakorm
dakrom dakrmo dramok dramko draomk draokm drakom drakmo drmaok drmako drmoak
drmoka drmkoa drmkao dromak dromka droamk droakm drokam drokma drkmoa drkmao
drkoma drkoam drkaom drkamo dmraok dmrako dmroak dmroka dmrkoa dmrkao dmarok
dmarko dmaork dmaokr dmakor dmakro dmoark dmoakr dmorak dmorka dmokra dmokar
dmkaor dmkaro dmkoar dmkora dmkroa dmkrao dormak dormka doramk dorakm dorkam
dorkma domrak domrka domark domakr domkar domkra doamrk doamkr doarmk doarkm
doakrm doakmr dokmar dokmra dokamr dokarm dokram dokrma dkrmoa dkrmao dkroma
dkroam dkraom dkramo dkmroa dkmrao dkmora dkmoar dkmaor dkmaro dkomra dkomar
dkorma dkoram dkoarm dkoamr dkamor dkamro dkaomr dkaorm dkarom dkarmo adrmok
adrmko adromk adrokm adrkom adrkmo admrok admrko admork admokr admkor admkro
adomrk adomkr adormk adorkm adokrm adokmr adkmor adkmro adkomr adkorm adkrom
adkrmo ardmok ardmko ardomk ardokm ardkom ardkmo armdok armdko armodk armokd
armkod armkdo aromdk aromkd arodmk arodkm arokdm arokmd arkmod arkmdo arkomd
arkodm arkdom arkdmo amrdok amrdko amrodk amrokd amrkod amrkdo amdrok amdrko
amdork amdokr amdkor amdkro amodrk amodkr amordk amorkd amokrd amokdr amkdor
amkdro amkodr amkord amkrod amkrdo aormdk aormkd aordmk aordkm aorkdm aorkmd
aomrdk aomrkd aomdrk aomdkr aomkdr aomkrd aodmrk aodmkr aodrmk aodrkm aodkrm
aodkmr aokmdr aokmrd aokdmr aokdrm aokrdm aokrmd akrmod akrmdo akromd akrodm
akrdom akrdmo akmrod akmrdo akmord akmodr akmdor akmdro akomrd akomdr akormd
akordm akodrm akodmr akdmor akdmro akdomr akdorm akdrom akdrmo radmok radmko
radomk radokm radkom radkmo ramdok ramdko ramodk ramokd ramkod ramkdo raomdk
raomkd raodmk raodkm raokdm raokmd rakmod rakmdo rakomd rakodm rakdom rakdmo
rdamok rdamko rdaomk rdaokm rdakom rdakmo rdmaok rdmako rdmoak rdmoka rdmkoa
rdmkao rdomak rdomka rdoamk rdoakm rdokam rdokma rdkmoa rdkmao rdkoma rdkoam
rdkaom rdkamo rmdaok rmdako rmdoak rmdoka rmdkoa rmdkao rmadok rmadko rmaodk
rmaokd rmakod rmakdo rmoadk rmoakd rmodak rmodka rmokda rmokad rmkaod rmkado
rmkoad rmkoda rmkdoa rmkdao rodmak rodmka rodamk rodakm rodkam rodkma romdak
romdka romadk romakd romkad romkda roamdk roamkd roadmk roadkm roakdm roakmd
rokmad rokmda rokamd rokadm rokdam rokdma rkdmoa rkdmao rkdoma rkdoam rkdaom
rkdamo rkmdoa rkmdao rkmoda rkmoad rkmaod rkmado rkomda rkomad rkodma rkodam
rkoadm rkoamd rkamod rkamdo rkaomd rkaodm rkadom rkadmo mardok mardko marodk
marokd markod markdo madrok madrko madork madokr madkor madkro maodrk maodkr
maordk maorkd maokrd maokdr makdor makdro makodr makord makrod makrdo mradok
mradko mraodk mraokd mrakod mrakdo mrdaok mrdako mrdoak mrdoka mrdkoa mrdkao
mrodak mrodka mroadk mroakd mrokad mrokda mrkdoa mrkdao mrkoda mrkoad mrkaod
mrkado mdraok mdrako mdroak mdroka mdrkoa mdrkao mdarok mdarko mdaork mdaokr
mdakor mdakro mdoark mdoakr mdorak mdorka mdokra mdokar mdkaor mdkaro mdkoar
mdkora mdkroa mdkrao mordak mordka moradk morakd morkad morkda modrak modrka
modark modakr modkar modkra moadrk moadkr moardk moarkd moakrd moakdr mokdar
mokdra mokadr mokard mokrad mokrda mkrdoa mkrdao mkroda mkroad mkraod mkrado
mkdroa mkdrao mkdora mkdoar mkdaor mkdaro mkodra mkodar mkorda mkorad mkoard
mkoadr mkador mkadro mkaodr mkaord mkarod mkardo oarmdk oarmkd oardmk oardkm
oarkdm oarkmd oamrdk oamrkd oamdrk oamdkr oamkdr oamkrd oadmrk oadmkr oadrmk
oadrkm oadkrm oadkmr oakmdr oakmrd oakdmr oakdrm oakrdm oakrmd oramdk oramkd
oradmk oradkm orakdm orakmd ormadk ormakd ormdak ormdka ormkda ormkad ordmak
ordmka ordamk ordakm ordkam ordkma orkmda orkmad orkdma orkdam orkadm orkamd
omradk omrakd omrdak omrdka omrkda omrkad omardk omarkd omadrk omadkr omakdr
omakrd omdark omdakr omdrak omdrka omdkra omdkar omkadr omkard omkdar omkdra
omkrda omkrad odrmak odrmka odramk odrakm odrkam odrkma odmrak odmrka odmark
odmakr odmkar odmkra odamrk odamkr odarmk odarkm odakrm odakmr odkmar odkmra
odkamr odkarm odkram odkrma okrmda okrmad okrdma okrdam okradm okramd okmrda
okmrad okmdra okmdar okmadr okmard okdmra okdmar okdrma okdram okdarm okdamr
okamdr okamrd okadmr okadrm okardm okarmd karmod karmdo karomd karodm kardom
kardmo kamrod kamrdo kamord kamodr kamdor kamdro kaomrd kaomdr kaormd kaordm
kaodrm kaodmr kadmor kadmro kadomr kadorm kadrom kadrmo kramod kramdo kraomd
kraodm kradom kradmo krmaod krmado krmoad krmoda krmdoa krmdao kromad kromda
kroamd kroadm krodam krodma krdmoa krdmao krdoma krdoam krdaom krdamo kmraod
kmrado kmroad kmroda kmrdoa kmrdao kmarod kmardo kmaord kmaodr kmador kmadro
kmoard kmoadr kmorad kmorda kmodra kmodar kmdaor kmdaro kmdoar kmdora kmdroa
kmdrao kormad kormda koramd koradm kordam kordma komrad komrda komard komadr
komdar komdra koamrd koamdr koarmd koardm koadrm koadmr kodmar kodmra kodamr
kodarm kodram kodrma kdrmoa kdrmao kdroma kdroam kdraom kdramo kdmroa kdmrao
kdmora kdmoar kdmaor kdmaro kdomra kdomar kdorma kdoram kdoarm kdoamr kdamor
kdamro kdaomr kdaorm kdarom kdarmo

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History of cryptography
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