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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: dallan
cipher variations:
ebmmbo fcnncp gdoodq hepper ifqqfs
jgrrgt khsshu littiv mjuujw nkvvkx
olwwly pmxxmz qnyyna rozzob spaapc
tqbbqd urccre vsddsf wteetg xuffuh
yvggvi zwhhwj axiixk byjjyl czkkzm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: dallan
Cipher: wzoozm

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: dallan
Cipher: AAABB AAAAA ABABA ABABA AAAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: dallan
cipher variations:
ebmmbokbiiboqbeebowbaabocbwwboibssboubkkboabggbo
gbccbombyybosbuuboybqqbofcnncplcjjcprcffcpxcbbcp
dcxxcpjcttcpvcllcpbchhcphcddcpnczzcptcvvcpzcrrcp
gdoodqmdkkdqsdggdqydccdqedyydqkduudqwdmmdqcdiidq
ideedqodaadqudwwdqadssdqheppernellertehherzedder
fezzerlevverxennerdejjerjefferpebbervexxerbetter
ifqqfsofmmfsufiifsafeefsgfaafsmfwwfsyfoofsefkkfs
kfggfsqfccfswfyyfscfuufsjgrrgtpgnngtvgjjgtbgffgt
hgbbgtngxxgtzgppgtfgllgtlghhgtrgddgtxgzzgtdgvvgt
khsshuqhoohuwhkkhuchgghuihcchuohyyhuahqqhughmmhu
mhiihusheehuyhaahuehwwhulittivrippivxillivdihhiv
jiddivpizzivbirrivhinnivnijjivtiffivzibbivfixxiv
mjuujwsjqqjwyjmmjwejiijwkjeejwqjaajwcjssjwijoojw
ojkkjwujggjwajccjwgjyyjwnkvvkxtkrrkxzknnkxfkjjkx
lkffkxrkbbkxdkttkxjkppkxpkllkxvkhhkxbkddkxhkzzkx
olwwlyulsslyaloolyglkklymlgglyslcclyeluulyklqqly
qlmmlywliilycleelyilaalypmxxmzvmttmzbmppmzhmllmz
nmhhmztmddmzfmvvmzlmrrmzrmnnmzxmjjmzdmffmzjmbbmz
qnyynawnuunacnqqnainmmnaoniinauneenagnwwnamnssna
snoonaynkknaenggnaknccnarozzobxovvobdorrobjonnob
pojjobvoffobhoxxobnottobtoppobzollobfohhobloddob
spaapcypwwpcepsspckpoopcqpkkpcwpggpcipyypcopuupc
upqqpcapmmpcgpiipcmpeepctqbbqdzqxxqdfqttqdlqppqd
rqllqdxqhhqdjqzzqdpqvvqdvqrrqdbqnnqdhqjjqdnqffqd
urccrearyyregruuremrqqresrmmreyriirekraareqrwwre
wrssrecrooreirkkreorggrevsddsfbszzsfhsvvsfnsrrsf
tsnnsfzsjjsflsbbsfrsxxsfxsttsfdsppsfjsllsfpshhsf
wteetgctaatgitwwtgotsstgutootgatkktgmtcctgstyytg
ytuutgetqqtgktmmtgqtiitgxuffuhdubbuhjuxxuhputtuh
vuppuhbulluhnudduhtuzzuhzuvvuhfurruhlunnuhrujjuh
yvggvievccvikvyyviqvuuviwvqqvicvmmvioveeviuvaavi
avwwvigvssvimvoovisvkkvizwhhwjfwddwjlwzzwjrwvvwj
xwrrwjdwnnwjpwffwjvwbbwjbwxxwjhwttwjnwppwjtwllwj
axiixkgxeexkmxaaxksxwwxkyxssxkexooxkqxggxkwxccxk
cxyyxkixuuxkoxqqxkuxmmxkbyjjylhyffylnybbyltyxxyl
zyttylfyppylryhhylxyddyldyzzyljyvvylpyrrylvynnyl
czkkzmizggzmozcczmuzyyzmazuuzmgzqqzmsziizmyzeezm
ezaazmkzwwzmqzsszmwzoozmdallanjahhanpaddanvazzan
bavvanharrantajjanzaffanfabbanlaxxanrattanxappan

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: dallan
Cipher: qnyyna

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: dallan
Cipher: 411113131133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: dallan
method variations:
ifqqfsolvvlxtqaaqcyvffvh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
d a l l a n 
4 1 1 1 1 3 
1 1 3 3 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
411113113313
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: dallan
Cipher: dalanl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: dallan
method variations:
aaccls acclsa cclsaa
clsaac lsaacc saaccl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: dallan

all 720 cipher variations:
dallan dallna dalaln dalanl dalnal dalnla dallan dallna dalaln dalanl dalnal
dalnla daalln daalnl daalln daalnl daanll daanll danlal danlla danall danall
danlal danlla dlalan dlalna dlaaln dlaanl dlanal dlanla dllaan dllana dllaan
dllana dllnaa dllnaa dlalan dlalna dlaaln dlaanl dlanal dlanla dlnlaa dlnlaa
dlnala dlnaal dlnaal dlnala dllaan dllana dllaan dllana dllnaa dllnaa dlalan
dlalna dlaaln dlaanl dlanal dlanla dlaaln dlaanl dlalan dlalna dlanla dlanal
dlnaal dlnala dlnaal dlnala dlnlaa dlnlaa dallan dallna dalaln dalanl dalnal
dalnla dallan dallna dalaln dalanl dalnal dalnla daalln daalnl daalln daalnl
daanll daanll danlal danlla danall danall danlal danlla dnllaa dnllaa dnlala
dnlaal dnlaal dnlala dnllaa dnllaa dnlala dnlaal dnlaal dnlala dnalla dnalal
dnalla dnalal dnaall dnaall dnalal dnalla dnaall dnaall dnalal dnalla adllan
adllna adlaln adlanl adlnal adlnla adllan adllna adlaln adlanl adlnal adlnla
adalln adalnl adalln adalnl adanll adanll adnlal adnlla adnall adnall adnlal
adnlla aldlan aldlna aldaln aldanl aldnal aldnla alldan alldna alladn alland
allnad allnda alaldn alalnd aladln aladnl alandl alanld alnlad alnlda alnald
alnadl alndal alndla alldan alldna alladn alland allnad allnda aldlan aldlna
aldaln aldanl aldnal aldnla aladln aladnl alaldn alalnd alanld alandl alndal
alndla alnadl alnald alnlad alnlda aalldn aallnd aaldln aaldnl aalndl aalnld
aalldn aallnd aaldln aaldnl aalndl aalnld aadlln aadlnl aadlln aadlnl aadnll
aadnll aanldl aanlld aandll aandll aanldl aanlld anllad anllda anlald anladl
anldal anldla anllad anllda anlald anladl anldal anldla analld analdl analld
analdl anadll anadll andlal andlla andall andall andlal andlla ladlan ladlna
ladaln ladanl ladnal ladnla laldan laldna laladn laland lalnad lalnda laaldn
laalnd laadln laadnl laandl laanld lanlad lanlda lanald lanadl landal landla
ldalan ldalna ldaaln ldaanl ldanal ldanla ldlaan ldlana ldlaan ldlana ldlnaa
ldlnaa ldalan ldalna ldaaln ldaanl ldanal ldanla ldnlaa ldnlaa ldnala ldnaal
ldnaal ldnala lldaan lldana lldaan lldana lldnaa lldnaa lladan lladna llaadn
llaand llanad llanda llaadn llaand lladan lladna llanda llanad llnaad llnada
llnaad llnada llndaa llndaa ladlan ladlna ladaln ladanl ladnal ladnla laldan
laldna laladn laland lalnad lalnda laaldn laalnd laadln laadnl laandl laanld
lanlad lanlda lanald lanadl landal landla lndlaa lndlaa lndala lndaal lndaal
lndala lnldaa lnldaa lnlada lnlaad lnlaad lnlada lnalda lnalad lnadla lnadal
lnaadl lnaald lnalad lnalda lnaald lnaadl lnadal lnadla laldan laldna laladn
laland lalnad lalnda ladlan ladlna ladaln ladanl ladnal ladnla laadln laadnl
laaldn laalnd laanld laandl landal landla lanadl lanald lanlad lanlda lladan
lladna llaadn llaand llanad llanda lldaan lldana lldaan lldana lldnaa lldnaa
lladan lladna llaadn llaand llanad llanda llndaa llndaa llnada llnaad llnaad
llnada ldlaan ldlana ldlaan ldlana ldlnaa ldlnaa ldalan ldalna ldaaln ldaanl
ldanal ldanla ldaaln ldaanl ldalan ldalna ldanla ldanal ldnaal ldnala ldnaal
ldnala ldnlaa ldnlaa laldan laldna laladn laland lalnad lalnda ladlan ladlna
ladaln ladanl ladnal ladnla laadln laadnl laaldn laalnd laanld laandl landal
landla lanadl lanald lanlad lanlda lnldaa lnldaa lnlada lnlaad lnlaad lnlada
lndlaa lndlaa lndala lndaal lndaal lndala lnadla lnadal lnalda lnalad lnaald
lnaadl lnadal lnadla lnaadl lnaald lnalad lnalda aalldn aallnd aaldln aaldnl
aalndl aalnld aalldn aallnd aaldln aaldnl aalndl aalnld aadlln aadlnl aadlln
aadlnl aadnll aadnll aanldl aanlld aandll aandll aanldl aanlld alaldn alalnd
aladln aladnl alandl alanld alladn alland alldan alldna allnda allnad aldlan
aldlna aldaln aldanl aldnal aldnla alnlda alnlad alndla alndal alnadl alnald
alladn alland alldan alldna allnda allnad alaldn alalnd aladln aladnl alandl
alanld aldaln aldanl aldlan aldlna aldnla aldnal alnadl alnald alndal alndla
alnlda alnlad adllan adllna adlaln adlanl adlnal adlnla adllan adllna adlaln
adlanl adlnal adlnla adalln adalnl adalln adalnl adanll adanll adnlal adnlla
adnall adnall adnlal adnlla anllda anllad anldla anldal anladl anlald anllda
anllad anldla anldal anladl anlald andlla andlal andlla andlal andall andall
analdl analld anadll anadll analdl analld nallad nallda nalald naladl naldal
naldla nallad nallda nalald naladl naldal naldla naalld naaldl naalld naaldl
naadll naadll nadlal nadlla nadall nadall nadlal nadlla nlalad nlalda nlaald
nlaadl nladal nladla nllaad nllada nllaad nllada nlldaa nlldaa nlalad nlalda
nlaald nlaadl nladal nladla nldlaa nldlaa nldala nldaal nldaal nldala nllaad
nllada nllaad nllada nlldaa nlldaa nlalad nlalda nlaald nlaadl nladal nladla
nlaald nlaadl nlalad nlalda nladla nladal nldaal nldala nldaal nldala nldlaa
nldlaa nallad nallda nalald naladl naldal naldla nallad nallda nalald naladl
naldal naldla naalld naaldl naalld naaldl naadll naadll nadlal nadlla nadall
nadall nadlal nadlla ndllaa ndllaa ndlala ndlaal ndlaal ndlala ndllaa ndllaa
ndlala ndlaal ndlaal ndlala ndalla ndalal ndalla ndalal ndaall ndaall ndalal
ndalla ndaall ndaall ndalal ndalla

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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