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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: cutups
cipher variations:
dvuvqt ewvwru fxwxsv gyxytw hzyzux
iazavy jbabwz kcbcxa ldcdyb medezc
nfefad ogfgbe phghcf qihidg rjijeh
skjkfi tlklgj umlmhk vnmnil wonojm
xpopkn yqpqlo zrqrmp asrsnq btstor

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: cutups
Cipher: xfgfkh

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: cutups
Cipher: AAABA BAABB BAABA BAABB ABBBA BAAAB

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: cutups
cipher variations:
dvuvqthjgjudlxsxynplelcxtzqzghxncnkrfpapsljdmdwv
nryrafrfkfepvtwtizzhihmjewvwruikhkvemytyzoqmfmdy
uarahiyodolsgqbqtmkenexwoszsbgsglgfqwuxujaaijink
fxwxsvjlilwfnzuzaprngnezvbsbijzpepmthrcrunlfofyx
ptatchthmhgrxvyvkbbjkjolgyxytwkmjmxgoavabqsohofa
wctcjkaqfqnuisdsvomgpgzyqubudiuinihsywzwlccklkpm
hzyzuxlnknyhpbwbcrtpipgbxdudklbrgrovjtetwpnhqhaz
rvcvejvjojitzxaxmddlmlqniazavymoloziqcxcdsuqjqhc
yevelmcshspwkufuxqoiribaswdwfkwkpkjuaybyneemnmro
jbabwznpmpajrdydetvrkridzfwfmndtitqxlvgvyrpjsjcb
txexglxlqlkvbzczoffnonspkcbcxaoqnqbksezefuwslsje
agxgnoeujurymwhwzsqktkdcuyfyhmymrmlwcadapggopotq
ldcdybprorcltfafgvxtmtkfbhyhopfvkvsznxixatrluled
vzgzinznsnmxdbebqhhpqpurmedezcqspsdmugbghwyunulg
cizipqgwlwtaoyjybusmvmfewahajoaotonyecfcriiqrqvs
nfefadrtqtenvhchixzvovmhdjajqrhxmxubpzkzcvtnwngf
xbibkpbpupozfdgdsjjrsrwtogfgbesurufowidijyawpwni
ekbkrsiynyvcqaladwuoxohgycjclqcqvqpagehetkkstsxu
phghcftvsvgpxjejkzbxqxojflclstjzozwdrbmbexvpypih
zdkdmrdrwrqbhfifulltutyvqihidguwtwhqykfklacyrypk
gmdmtukapaxescncfywqzqjiaelensesxsrcigjgvmmuvuzw
rjijehvxuxirzlglmbdzszqlhnenuvlbqbyftdodgzxrarkj
bfmfotftytsdjhkhwnnvwvaxskjkfiwyvyjsamhmnceatarm
iofovwmcrczguepehaysbslkcgngpuguzutekilixoowxwby
tlklgjxzwzktbninodfbubsnjpgpwxndsdahvfqfibztctml
dhohqvhvavufljmjyppxyxczumlmhkyaxalucojopegcvcto
kqhqxyoetebiwgrgjcaudunmeipirwiwbwvgmknkzqqyzyda
vnmnilzbybmvdpkpqfhdwduplriryzpfufcjxhshkdbvevon
fjqjsxjxcxwhnlolarrzazebwonojmaczcnweqlqrgiexevq
msjszaqgvgdkyitilecwfwpogkrktykydyxiompmbssabafc
xpopknbdadoxfrmrshjfyfwrntktabrhwhelzjujmfdxgxqp
hlsluzlzezyjpnqncttbcbgdyqpqlocebepygsnstikgzgxs
oulubcsixifmakvkngeyhyrqimtmvamafazkqoroduucdche
zrqrmpdfcfqzhtotujlhahytpvmvcdtjyjgnblwlohfzizsr
jnunwbnbgbalrpspevvdedifasrsnqegdgraiupuvkmibizu
qwnwdeukzkhocmxmpigajatskovoxcochcbmsqtqfwwefejg
btstorfhehsbjvqvwlnjcjavrxoxefvlalipdnynqjhbkbut
lpwpydpdidcntrurgxxfgfkhcutupsgifitckwrwxmokdkbw
sypyfgwmbmjqeozorkiclcvumqxqzeqejedousvshyyghgli

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: cutups
Cipher: phghcf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: cutups
Cipher: 315444545334

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: cutups
method variations:
hzyzuxnedezcskikehxpopkn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c u t u p s 
3 5 4 5 5 3 
1 4 4 4 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
354553144434
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: cutups
Cipher: xypqts

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: cutups
method variations:
vtyyno tyynov yynovt
ynovty novtyy ovtyyn

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: cutups

all 720 cipher variations:
cutups cutusp cutpus cutpsu cutspu cutsup cuutps cuutsp cuupts cuupst cuuspt
cuustp cuputs cupust cuptus cuptsu cupstu cupsut cusupt cusutp cusput cusptu
custpu custup ctuups ctuusp ctupus ctupsu ctuspu ctusup ctuups ctuusp ctupus
ctupsu ctuspu ctusup ctpuus ctpusu ctpuus ctpusu ctpsuu ctpsuu ctsupu ctsuup
ctspuu ctspuu ctsupu ctsuup cutups cutusp cutpus cutpsu cutspu cutsup cuutps
cuutsp cuupts cuupst cuuspt cuustp cuputs cupust cuptus cuptsu cupstu cupsut
cusupt cusutp cusput cusptu custpu custup cptuus cptusu cptuus cptusu cptsuu
cptsuu cputus cputsu cpuuts cpuust cpusut cpustu cpuuts cpuust cputus cputsu
cpustu cpusut cpsuut cpsutu cpsuut cpsutu cpstuu cpstuu cstupu cstuup cstpuu
cstpuu cstupu cstuup csutpu csutup csuptu csuput csuupt csuutp csputu cspuut
csptuu csptuu csputu cspuut csuupt csuutp csuput csuptu csutpu csutup uctups
uctusp uctpus uctpsu uctspu uctsup ucutps ucutsp ucupts ucupst ucuspt ucustp
ucputs ucpust ucptus ucptsu ucpstu ucpsut ucsupt ucsutp ucsput ucsptu ucstpu
ucstup utcups utcusp utcpus utcpsu utcspu utcsup utucps utucsp utupcs utupsc
utuspc utuscp utpucs utpusc utpcus utpcsu utpscu utpsuc utsupc utsucp utspuc
utspcu utscpu utscup uutcps uutcsp uutpcs uutpsc uutspc uutscp uuctps uuctsp
uucpts uucpst uucspt uucstp uupcts uupcst uuptcs uuptsc uupstc uupsct uuscpt
uusctp uuspct uusptc uustpc uustcp uptucs uptusc uptcus uptcsu uptscu uptsuc
uputcs uputsc upucts upucst upusct upustc upcuts upcust upctus upctsu upcstu
upcsut upsuct upsutc upscut upsctu upstcu upstuc ustupc ustucp ustpuc ustpcu
ustcpu ustcup usutpc usutcp usuptc usupct usucpt usuctp usputc uspuct usptuc
usptcu uspctu uspcut uscupt uscutp uscput uscptu usctpu usctup tucups tucusp
tucpus tucpsu tucspu tucsup tuucps tuucsp tuupcs tuupsc tuuspc tuuscp tupucs
tupusc tupcus tupcsu tupscu tupsuc tusupc tusucp tuspuc tuspcu tuscpu tuscup
tcuups tcuusp tcupus tcupsu tcuspu tcusup tcuups tcuusp tcupus tcupsu tcuspu
tcusup tcpuus tcpusu tcpuus tcpusu tcpsuu tcpsuu tcsupu tcsuup tcspuu tcspuu
tcsupu tcsuup tucups tucusp tucpus tucpsu tucspu tucsup tuucps tuucsp tuupcs
tuupsc tuuspc tuuscp tupucs tupusc tupcus tupcsu tupscu tupsuc tusupc tusucp
tuspuc tuspcu tuscpu tuscup tpcuus tpcusu tpcuus tpcusu tpcsuu tpcsuu tpucus
tpucsu tpuucs tpuusc tpusuc tpuscu tpuucs tpuusc tpucus tpucsu tpuscu tpusuc
tpsuuc tpsucu tpsuuc tpsucu tpscuu tpscuu tscupu tscuup tscpuu tscpuu tscupu
tscuup tsucpu tsucup tsupcu tsupuc tsuupc tsuucp tspucu tspuuc tspcuu tspcuu
tspucu tspuuc tsuupc tsuucp tsupuc tsupcu tsucpu tsucup uutcps uutcsp uutpcs
uutpsc uutspc uutscp uuctps uuctsp uucpts uucpst uucspt uucstp uupcts uupcst
uuptcs uuptsc uupstc uupsct uuscpt uusctp uuspct uusptc uustpc uustcp utucps
utucsp utupcs utupsc utuspc utuscp utcups utcusp utcpus utcpsu utcspu utcsup
utpcus utpcsu utpucs utpusc utpsuc utpscu utscpu utscup utspcu utspuc utsupc
utsucp uctups uctusp uctpus uctpsu uctspu uctsup ucutps ucutsp ucupts ucupst
ucuspt ucustp ucputs ucpust ucptus ucptsu ucpstu ucpsut ucsupt ucsutp ucsput
ucsptu ucstpu ucstup uptcus uptcsu uptucs uptusc uptsuc uptscu upctus upctsu
upcuts upcust upcsut upcstu upucts upucst uputcs uputsc upustc upusct upscut
upsctu upsuct upsutc upstuc upstcu ustcpu ustcup ustpcu ustpuc ustupc ustucp
usctpu usctup uscptu uscput uscupt uscutp uspctu uspcut usptcu usptuc usputc
uspuct usucpt usuctp usupct usuptc usutpc usutcp putucs putusc putcus putcsu
putscu putsuc puutcs puutsc puucts puucst puusct puustc pucuts pucust puctus
puctsu pucstu pucsut pusuct pusutc puscut pusctu pustcu pustuc ptuucs ptuusc
ptucus ptucsu ptuscu ptusuc ptuucs ptuusc ptucus ptucsu ptuscu ptusuc ptcuus
ptcusu ptcuus ptcusu ptcsuu ptcsuu ptsucu ptsuuc ptscuu ptscuu ptsucu ptsuuc
putucs putusc putcus putcsu putscu putsuc puutcs puutsc puucts puucst puusct
puustc pucuts pucust puctus puctsu pucstu pucsut pusuct pusutc puscut pusctu
pustcu pustuc pctuus pctusu pctuus pctusu pctsuu pctsuu pcutus pcutsu pcuuts
pcuust pcusut pcustu pcuuts pcuust pcutus pcutsu pcustu pcusut pcsuut pcsutu
pcsuut pcsutu pcstuu pcstuu pstucu pstuuc pstcuu pstcuu pstucu pstuuc psutcu
psutuc psuctu psucut psuuct psuutc pscutu pscuut psctuu psctuu pscutu pscuut
psuuct psuutc psucut psuctu psutcu psutuc sutupc sutucp sutpuc sutpcu sutcpu
sutcup suutpc suutcp suuptc suupct suucpt suuctp suputc supuct suptuc suptcu
supctu supcut sucupt sucutp sucput sucptu suctpu suctup stuupc stuucp stupuc
stupcu stucpu stucup stuupc stuucp stupuc stupcu stucpu stucup stpuuc stpucu
stpuuc stpucu stpcuu stpcuu stcupu stcuup stcpuu stcpuu stcupu stcuup sutupc
sutucp sutpuc sutpcu sutcpu sutcup suutpc suutcp suuptc suupct suucpt suuctp
suputc supuct suptuc suptcu supctu supcut sucupt sucutp sucput sucptu suctpu
suctup sptuuc sptucu sptuuc sptucu sptcuu sptcuu sputuc sputcu spuutc spuuct
spucut spuctu spuutc spuuct sputuc sputcu spuctu spucut spcuut spcutu spcuut
spcutu spctuu spctuu sctupu sctuup sctpuu sctpuu sctupu sctuup scutpu scutup
scuptu scuput scuupt scuutp scputu scpuut scptuu scptuu scputu scpuut scuupt
scuutp scuput scuptu scutpu scutup

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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