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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: cuneyt
cipher variations:
dvofzu ewpgav fxqhbw gyricx hzsjdy
iatkez jbulfa kcvmgb ldwnhc mexoid
nfypje ogzqkf pharlg qibsmh rjctni
skduoj tlevpk umfwql vngxrm wohysn
xpizto yqjaup zrkbvq aslcwr btmdxs

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: cuneyt
Cipher: xfmvbg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: cuneyt

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: cuneyt
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: cuneyt
Cipher: pharlg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: cuneyt
Cipher: 315433514544

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: cuneyt
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c u n e y t 
3 5 3 5 4 4 
1 4 3 1 5 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: cuneyt
Cipher: xxtqcu

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Method #3

Plaintext: cuneyt
method variations:
voxquo oxquov xquovo
quovox uovoxq ovoxqu

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: cuneyt

all 720 cipher variations:
cuneyt cunety cunyet cunyte cuntye cuntey cuenyt cuenty cueynt cueytn cuetyn
cuetny cuyent cuyetn cuynet cuynte cuytne cuyten cuteyn cuteny cutyen cutyne
cutnye cutney cnueyt cnuety cnuyet cnuyte cnutye cnutey cneuyt cneuty cneyut
cneytu cnetyu cnetuy cnyeut cnyetu cnyuet cnyute cnytue cnyteu cnteyu cnteuy
cntyeu cntyue cntuye cntuey cenuyt cenuty cenyut cenytu centyu centuy ceunyt
ceunty ceuynt ceuytn ceutyn ceutny ceyunt ceyutn ceynut ceyntu ceytnu ceytun
cetuyn cetuny cetyun cetynu cetnyu cetnuy cyneut cynetu cynuet cynute cyntue
cynteu cyenut cyentu cyeunt cyeutn cyetun cyetnu cyuent cyuetn cyunet cyunte
cyutne cyuten cyteun cytenu cytuen cytune cytnue cytneu ctneyu ctneuy ctnyeu
ctnyue ctnuye ctnuey ctenyu ctenuy cteynu cteyun cteuyn cteuny ctyenu ctyeun
ctyneu ctynue ctyune ctyuen ctueyn ctueny ctuyen ctuyne ctunye ctuney ucneyt
ucnety ucnyet ucnyte ucntye ucntey ucenyt ucenty uceynt uceytn ucetyn ucetny
ucyent ucyetn ucynet ucynte ucytne ucyten ucteyn ucteny uctyen uctyne uctnye
uctney unceyt uncety uncyet uncyte unctye unctey unecyt unecty uneyct uneytc
unetyc unetcy unyect unyetc unycet unycte unytce unytec unteyc untecy untyec
untyce untcye untcey uencyt uencty uenyct uenytc uentyc uentcy uecnyt uecnty
uecynt uecytn uectyn uectny ueycnt ueyctn ueynct ueyntc ueytnc ueytcn uetcyn
uetcny uetycn uetync uetnyc uetncy uynect uynetc uyncet uyncte uyntce uyntec
uyenct uyentc uyecnt uyectn uyetcn uyetnc uycent uycetn uycnet uycnte uyctne
uycten uytecn uytenc uytcen uytcne uytnce uytnec utneyc utnecy utnyec utnyce
utncye utncey utenyc utency uteync uteycn utecyn utecny utyenc utyecn utynec
utynce utycne utycen utceyn utceny utcyen utcyne utcnye utcney nuceyt nucety
nucyet nucyte nuctye nuctey nuecyt nuecty nueyct nueytc nuetyc nuetcy nuyect
nuyetc nuycet nuycte nuytce nuytec nuteyc nutecy nutyec nutyce nutcye nutcey
ncueyt ncuety ncuyet ncuyte ncutye ncutey nceuyt nceuty nceyut nceytu ncetyu
ncetuy ncyeut ncyetu ncyuet ncyute ncytue ncyteu ncteyu ncteuy nctyeu nctyue
nctuye nctuey necuyt necuty necyut necytu nectyu nectuy neucyt neucty neuyct
neuytc neutyc neutcy neyuct neyutc neycut neyctu neytcu neytuc netuyc netucy
netyuc netycu netcyu netcuy nyceut nycetu nycuet nycute nyctue nycteu nyecut
nyectu nyeuct nyeutc nyetuc nyetcu nyuect nyuetc nyucet nyucte nyutce nyutec
nyteuc nytecu nytuec nytuce nytcue nytceu ntceyu ntceuy ntcyeu ntcyue ntcuye
ntcuey ntecyu ntecuy nteycu nteyuc nteuyc nteucy ntyecu ntyeuc ntyceu ntycue
ntyuce ntyuec ntueyc ntuecy ntuyec ntuyce ntucye ntucey euncyt euncty eunyct
eunytc euntyc euntcy eucnyt eucnty eucynt eucytn euctyn euctny euycnt euyctn
euynct euyntc euytnc euytcn eutcyn eutcny eutycn eutync eutnyc eutncy enucyt
enucty enuyct enuytc enutyc enutcy encuyt encuty encyut encytu enctyu enctuy
enycut enyctu enyuct enyutc enytuc enytcu entcyu entcuy entycu entyuc entuyc
entucy ecnuyt ecnuty ecnyut ecnytu ecntyu ecntuy ecunyt ecunty ecuynt ecuytn
ecutyn ecutny ecyunt ecyutn ecynut ecyntu ecytnu ecytun ectuyn ectuny ectyun
ectynu ectnyu ectnuy eyncut eynctu eynuct eynutc eyntuc eyntcu eycnut eycntu
eycunt eycutn eyctun eyctnu eyucnt eyuctn eyunct eyuntc eyutnc eyutcn eytcun
eytcnu eytucn eytunc eytnuc eytncu etncyu etncuy etnycu etnyuc etnuyc etnucy
etcnyu etcnuy etcynu etcyun etcuyn etcuny etycnu etycun etyncu etynuc etyunc
etyucn etucyn etucny etuycn etuync etunyc etuncy yunect yunetc yuncet yuncte
yuntce yuntec yuenct yuentc yuecnt yuectn yuetcn yuetnc yucent yucetn yucnet
yucnte yuctne yucten yutecn yutenc yutcen yutcne yutnce yutnec ynuect ynuetc
ynucet ynucte ynutce ynutec yneuct yneutc ynecut ynectu ynetcu ynetuc ynceut
yncetu yncuet yncute ynctue yncteu yntecu ynteuc yntceu yntcue yntuce yntuec
yenuct yenutc yencut yenctu yentcu yentuc yeunct yeuntc yeucnt yeuctn yeutcn
yeutnc yecunt yecutn yecnut yecntu yectnu yectun yetucn yetunc yetcun yetcnu
yetncu yetnuc ycneut ycnetu ycnuet ycnute ycntue ycnteu ycenut ycentu yceunt
yceutn ycetun ycetnu ycuent ycuetn ycunet ycunte ycutne ycuten ycteun yctenu
yctuen yctune yctnue yctneu ytnecu ytneuc ytnceu ytncue ytnuce ytnuec ytencu
ytenuc ytecnu ytecun yteucn yteunc ytcenu ytceun ytcneu ytcnue ytcune ytcuen
ytuecn ytuenc ytucen ytucne ytunce ytunec tuneyc tunecy tunyec tunyce tuncye
tuncey tuenyc tuency tueync tueycn tuecyn tuecny tuyenc tuyecn tuynec tuynce
tuycne tuycen tuceyn tuceny tucyen tucyne tucnye tucney tnueyc tnuecy tnuyec
tnuyce tnucye tnucey tneuyc tneucy tneyuc tneycu tnecyu tnecuy tnyeuc tnyecu
tnyuec tnyuce tnycue tnyceu tnceyu tnceuy tncyeu tncyue tncuye tncuey tenuyc
tenucy tenyuc tenycu tencyu tencuy teunyc teuncy teuync teuycn teucyn teucny
teyunc teyucn teynuc teyncu teycnu teycun tecuyn tecuny tecyun tecynu tecnyu
tecnuy tyneuc tynecu tynuec tynuce tyncue tynceu tyenuc tyencu tyeunc tyeucn
tyecun tyecnu tyuenc tyuecn tyunec tyunce tyucne tyucen tyceun tycenu tycuen
tycune tycnue tycneu tcneyu tcneuy tcnyeu tcnyue tcnuye tcnuey tcenyu tcenuy
tceynu tceyun tceuyn tceuny tcyenu tcyeun tcyneu tcynue tcyune tcyuen tcueyn
tcueny tcuyen tcuyne tcunye tcuney

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History of cryptography
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