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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: crafts
cipher variations:
dsbgut etchvu fudiwv gvejxw hwfkyx
ixglzy jyhmaz kzinba lajocb mbkpdc
nclqed odmrfe pensgf qfothg rgpuih
shqvji tirwkj ujsxlk vktyml wluznm
xmvaon ynwbpo zoxcqp apydrq bqzesr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: crafts
Cipher: xizugh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: crafts

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: crafts
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: crafts
Cipher: pensgf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: crafts
Cipher: 312411124434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: crafts
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c r a f t s 
3 2 1 1 4 3 
1 4 1 2 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: crafts
Cipher: haoqft

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Method #3

Plaintext: crafts
method variations:
fdaroo daroof aroofd
roofda oofdar ofdaro

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: crafts

all 720 cipher variations:
crafts crafst cratfs cratsf crastf crasft crfats crfast crftas crftsa crfsta
crfsat crtfas crtfsa crtafs crtasf crtsaf crtsfa crsfta crsfat crstfa crstaf
crsatf crsaft carfts carfst cartfs cartsf carstf carsft cafrts cafrst caftrs
caftsr cafstr cafsrt catfrs catfsr catrfs catrsf catsrf catsfr casftr casfrt
castfr castrf casrtf casrft cfarts cfarst cfatrs cfatsr cfastr cfasrt cfrats
cfrast cfrtas cfrtsa cfrsta cfrsat cftras cftrsa cftars cftasr cftsar cftsra
cfsrta cfsrat cfstra cfstar cfsatr cfsart ctafrs ctafsr ctarfs ctarsf ctasrf
ctasfr ctfars ctfasr ctfras ctfrsa ctfsra ctfsar ctrfas ctrfsa ctrafs ctrasf
ctrsaf ctrsfa ctsfra ctsfar ctsrfa ctsraf ctsarf ctsafr csaftr csafrt csatfr
csatrf csartf csarft csfatr csfart csftar csftra csfrta csfrat cstfar cstfra
cstafr cstarf cstraf cstrfa csrfta csrfat csrtfa csrtaf csratf csraft rcafts
rcafst rcatfs rcatsf rcastf rcasft rcfats rcfast rcftas rcftsa rcfsta rcfsat
rctfas rctfsa rctafs rctasf rctsaf rctsfa rcsfta rcsfat rcstfa rcstaf rcsatf
rcsaft racfts racfst ractfs ractsf racstf racsft rafcts rafcst raftcs raftsc
rafstc rafsct ratfcs ratfsc ratcfs ratcsf ratscf ratsfc rasftc rasfct rastfc
rastcf rasctf rascft rfacts rfacst rfatcs rfatsc rfastc rfasct rfcats rfcast
rfctas rfctsa rfcsta rfcsat rftcas rftcsa rftacs rftasc rftsac rftsca rfscta
rfscat rfstca rfstac rfsatc rfsact rtafcs rtafsc rtacfs rtacsf rtascf rtasfc
rtfacs rtfasc rtfcas rtfcsa rtfsca rtfsac rtcfas rtcfsa rtcafs rtcasf rtcsaf
rtcsfa rtsfca rtsfac rtscfa rtscaf rtsacf rtsafc rsaftc rsafct rsatfc rsatcf
rsactf rsacft rsfatc rsfact rsftac rsftca rsfcta rsfcat rstfac rstfca rstafc
rstacf rstcaf rstcfa rscfta rscfat rsctfa rsctaf rscatf rscaft arcfts arcfst
arctfs arctsf arcstf arcsft arfcts arfcst arftcs arftsc arfstc arfsct artfcs
artfsc artcfs artcsf artscf artsfc arsftc arsfct arstfc arstcf arsctf arscft
acrfts acrfst acrtfs acrtsf acrstf acrsft acfrts acfrst acftrs acftsr acfstr
acfsrt actfrs actfsr actrfs actrsf actsrf actsfr acsftr acsfrt acstfr acstrf
acsrtf acsrft afcrts afcrst afctrs afctsr afcstr afcsrt afrcts afrcst afrtcs
afrtsc afrstc afrsct aftrcs aftrsc aftcrs aftcsr aftscr aftsrc afsrtc afsrct
afstrc afstcr afsctr afscrt atcfrs atcfsr atcrfs atcrsf atcsrf atcsfr atfcrs
atfcsr atfrcs atfrsc atfsrc atfscr atrfcs atrfsc atrcfs atrcsf atrscf atrsfc
atsfrc atsfcr atsrfc atsrcf atscrf atscfr ascftr ascfrt asctfr asctrf ascrtf
ascrft asfctr asfcrt asftcr asftrc asfrtc asfrct astfcr astfrc astcfr astcrf
astrcf astrfc asrftc asrfct asrtfc asrtcf asrctf asrcft fracts fracst fratcs
fratsc frastc frasct frcats frcast frctas frctsa frcsta frcsat frtcas frtcsa
frtacs frtasc frtsac frtsca frscta frscat frstca frstac frsatc frsact farcts
farcst fartcs fartsc farstc farsct facrts facrst factrs factsr facstr facsrt
fatcrs fatcsr fatrcs fatrsc fatsrc fatscr fasctr fascrt fastcr fastrc fasrtc
fasrct fcarts fcarst fcatrs fcatsr fcastr fcasrt fcrats fcrast fcrtas fcrtsa
fcrsta fcrsat fctras fctrsa fctars fctasr fctsar fctsra fcsrta fcsrat fcstra
fcstar fcsatr fcsart ftacrs ftacsr ftarcs ftarsc ftasrc ftascr ftcars ftcasr
ftcras ftcrsa ftcsra ftcsar ftrcas ftrcsa ftracs ftrasc ftrsac ftrsca ftscra
ftscar ftsrca ftsrac ftsarc ftsacr fsactr fsacrt fsatcr fsatrc fsartc fsarct
fscatr fscart fsctar fsctra fscrta fscrat fstcar fstcra fstacr fstarc fstrac
fstrca fsrcta fsrcat fsrtca fsrtac fsratc fsract trafcs trafsc tracfs tracsf
trascf trasfc trfacs trfasc trfcas trfcsa trfsca trfsac trcfas trcfsa trcafs
trcasf trcsaf trcsfa trsfca trsfac trscfa trscaf trsacf trsafc tarfcs tarfsc
tarcfs tarcsf tarscf tarsfc tafrcs tafrsc tafcrs tafcsr tafscr tafsrc tacfrs
tacfsr tacrfs tacrsf tacsrf tacsfr tasfcr tasfrc tascfr tascrf tasrcf tasrfc
tfarcs tfarsc tfacrs tfacsr tfascr tfasrc tfracs tfrasc tfrcas tfrcsa tfrsca
tfrsac tfcras tfcrsa tfcars tfcasr tfcsar tfcsra tfsrca tfsrac tfscra tfscar
tfsacr tfsarc tcafrs tcafsr tcarfs tcarsf tcasrf tcasfr tcfars tcfasr tcfras
tcfrsa tcfsra tcfsar tcrfas tcrfsa tcrafs tcrasf tcrsaf tcrsfa tcsfra tcsfar
tcsrfa tcsraf tcsarf tcsafr tsafcr tsafrc tsacfr tsacrf tsarcf tsarfc tsfacr
tsfarc tsfcar tsfcra tsfrca tsfrac tscfar tscfra tscafr tscarf tscraf tscrfa
tsrfca tsrfac tsrcfa tsrcaf tsracf tsrafc sraftc srafct sratfc sratcf sractf
sracft srfatc srfact srftac srftca srfcta srfcat srtfac srtfca srtafc srtacf
srtcaf srtcfa srcfta srcfat srctfa srctaf srcatf srcaft sarftc sarfct sartfc
sartcf sarctf sarcft safrtc safrct saftrc saftcr safctr safcrt satfrc satfcr
satrfc satrcf satcrf satcfr sacftr sacfrt sactfr sactrf sacrtf sacrft sfartc
sfarct sfatrc sfatcr sfactr sfacrt sfratc sfract sfrtac sfrtca sfrcta sfrcat
sftrac sftrca sftarc sftacr sftcar sftcra sfcrta sfcrat sfctra sfctar sfcatr
sfcart stafrc stafcr starfc starcf stacrf stacfr stfarc stfacr stfrac stfrca
stfcra stfcar strfac strfca strafc stracf strcaf strcfa stcfra stcfar stcrfa
stcraf stcarf stcafr scaftr scafrt scatfr scatrf scartf scarft scfatr scfart
scftar scftra scfrta scfrat sctfar sctfra sctafr sctarf sctraf sctrfa scrfta
scrfat scrtfa scrtaf scratf scraft

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History of cryptography
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