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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: chrish
cipher variations:
disjti ejtkuj fkulvk glvmwl hmwnxm
inxoyn joypzo kpzqap lqarbq mrbscr
nsctds otduet puevfu qvfwgv rwgxhw
sxhyix tyizjy uzjakz vakbla wblcmb
xcmdnc ydneod zeofpe afpgqf bgqhrg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: chrish
Cipher: xsirhs

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: chrish
Cipher: AAABA AABBB BAAAA ABAAA BAAAB AABBB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: chrish
cipher variations:
disjtihwazdwlkipnkpyqfxytmyvhmxaglrafcwrlcjqehvq
nemxfersunpsvgcdzgzuktjuejtkujixbaexmljqolqzrgyz
unzwinybhmsbgdxsmdkrfiwrofnygfstvoqtwhdeahavlukv
fkulvkjycbfynmkrpmrashzavoaxjozcintcheytnelsgjxs
pgozhgtuwpruxiefbibwmvlwglvmwlkzdcgzonlsqnsbtiab
wpbykpadjoudifzuofmthkytqhpaihuvxqsvyjfgcjcxnwmx
hmwnxmlaedhapomtrotcujbcxqczlqbekpvejgavpgnuilzu
riqbjivwyrtwzkghdkdyoxnyinxoynmbfeibqpnuspudvkcd
yrdamrcflqwfkhbwqhovjmavsjrckjwxzsuxalhielezpyoz
joypzoncgfjcrqovtqvewldezsebnsdgmrxglicxripwknbw
tksdlkxyatvybmijfmfaqzpakpzqapodhgkdsrpwurwfxmef
atfcotehnsyhmjdysjqxlocxultemlyzbuwzcnjkgngbraqb
lqarbqpeihletsqxvsxgynfgbugdpufiotzinkeztkrympdy
vmufnmzacvxadoklhohcsbrcmrbscrqfjimfutrywtyhzogh
cvheqvgjpuajolfaulsznqezwnvgonabdwybeplmipidtcsd
nsctdsrgkjngvuszxuziaphidwifrwhkqvbkpmgbvmtaorfa
xowhpobcexzcfqmnjqjeudteotduetshlkohwvtayvajbqij
exjgsxilrwclqnhcwnubpsgbypxiqpcdfyadgrnokrkfveuf
puevfutimlpixwubzwbkcrjkfykhtyjmsxdmroidxovcqthc
zqyjrqdegzbehsoplslgwfvgqvfwgvujnmqjyxvcaxcldskl
gzliuzkntyenspjeypwdruidarzksrefhacfitpqmtmhxgwh
rwgxhwvkonrkzywdbydmetlmhamjvalouzfotqkfzqxesvje
bsaltsfgibdgjuqrnuniyhxisxhyixwlposlazxeczenfumn
ibnkwbmpvagpurlgaryftwkfctbmutghjcehkvrsovojziyj
tyizjyxmqptmbayfdafogvnojcolxcnqwbhqvsmhbszguxlg
ducnvuhikdfilwstpwpkajzkuzjakzynrquncbzgebgphwop
kdpmydorxcirwtnictahvymhevdowvijlegjmxtuqxqlbkal
vakblazosrvodcahfchqixpqleqnzepsydjsxuojdubiwzni
fwepxwjkmfhknyuvryrmclbmwblcmbaptswpedbigdirjyqr
mfroafqtzektyvpkevcjxaojgxfqyxklngilozvwszsndmcn
xcmdncbqutxqfecjhejskzrsngspbgruafluzwqlfwdkybpk
hygrzylmohjmpawxtatoendoydneodcrvuyrgfdkifktlast
ohtqchsvbgmvaxrmgxelzcqlizhsazmnpiknqbxyubupfoep
zeofpedswvzshgeljglumbtupiurditwchnwbysnhyfmadrm
jaitbanoqjlorcyzvcvqgpfqafpgqfetxwatihfmkhmvncuv
qjvsejuxdioxcztoizgnbesnkbjucboprkmpsdzawdwrhqgr
bgqhrgfuyxbujignlinwodvwrkwtfkvyejpydaupjahocfto
lckvdcpqslnqteabxexsirhschrishgvzycvkjhomjoxpewx
slxuglwzfkqzebvqkbipdgupmdlwedqrtmorufbcyfytjsit

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: chrish
Cipher: puevfu

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: chrish
Cipher: 313224423432

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: chrish
method variations:
hnwoxnnsbtcssxgyhxxcmdnc

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c h r i s h 
3 3 2 4 3 3 
1 2 4 2 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
332433124242
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: chrish
Cipher: nrnfii

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: chrish
method variations:
lgtmom gtmoml tmomlg
momlgt omlgtm mlgtmo

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: chrish

all 720 cipher variations:
chrish chrihs chrsih chrshi chrhsi chrhis chirsh chirhs chisrh chishr chihsr
chihrs chsirh chsihr chsrih chsrhi chshri chshir chhisr chhirs chhsir chhsri
chhrsi chhris crhish crhihs crhsih crhshi crhhsi crhhis crihsh crihhs crishh
crishh crihsh crihhs crsihh crsihh crshih crshhi crshhi crshih crhish crhihs
crhsih crhshi crhhsi crhhis cirhsh cirhhs cirshh cirshh cirhsh cirhhs cihrsh
cihrhs cihsrh cihshr cihhsr cihhrs cishrh cishhr cisrhh cisrhh cishrh cishhr
cihhsr cihhrs cihshr cihsrh cihrsh cihrhs csrihh csrihh csrhih csrhhi csrhhi
csrhih csirhh csirhh csihrh csihhr csihhr csihrh cshirh cshihr cshrih cshrhi
cshhri cshhir cshihr cshirh cshhir cshhri cshrhi cshrih chrish chrihs chrsih
chrshi chrhsi chrhis chirsh chirhs chisrh chishr chihsr chihrs chsirh chsihr
chsrih chsrhi chshri chshir chhisr chhirs chhsir chhsri chhrsi chhris hcrish
hcrihs hcrsih hcrshi hcrhsi hcrhis hcirsh hcirhs hcisrh hcishr hcihsr hcihrs
hcsirh hcsihr hcsrih hcsrhi hcshri hcshir hchisr hchirs hchsir hchsri hchrsi
hchris hrcish hrcihs hrcsih hrcshi hrchsi hrchis hricsh hrichs hrisch hrishc
hrihsc hrihcs hrsich hrsihc hrscih hrschi hrshci hrshic hrhisc hrhics hrhsic
hrhsci hrhcsi hrhcis hircsh hirchs hirsch hirshc hirhsc hirhcs hicrsh hicrhs
hicsrh hicshr hichsr hichrs hiscrh hischr hisrch hisrhc hishrc hishcr hihcsr
hihcrs hihscr hihsrc hihrsc hihrcs hsrich hsrihc hsrcih hsrchi hsrhci hsrhic
hsirch hsirhc hsicrh hsichr hsihcr hsihrc hscirh hscihr hscrih hscrhi hschri
hschir hshicr hshirc hshcir hshcri hshrci hshric hhrisc hhrics hhrsic hhrsci
hhrcsi hhrcis hhirsc hhircs hhisrc hhiscr hhicsr hhicrs hhsirc hhsicr hhsric
hhsrci hhscri hhscir hhcisr hhcirs hhcsir hhcsri hhcrsi hhcris rhcish rhcihs
rhcsih rhcshi rhchsi rhchis rhicsh rhichs rhisch rhishc rhihsc rhihcs rhsich
rhsihc rhscih rhschi rhshci rhshic rhhisc rhhics rhhsic rhhsci rhhcsi rhhcis
rchish rchihs rchsih rchshi rchhsi rchhis rcihsh rcihhs rcishh rcishh rcihsh
rcihhs rcsihh rcsihh rcshih rcshhi rcshhi rcshih rchish rchihs rchsih rchshi
rchhsi rchhis richsh richhs ricshh ricshh richsh richhs rihcsh rihchs rihsch
rihshc rihhsc rihhcs rishch rishhc rischh rischh rishch rishhc rihhsc rihhcs
rihshc rihsch rihcsh rihchs rscihh rscihh rschih rschhi rschhi rschih rsichh
rsichh rsihch rsihhc rsihhc rsihch rshich rshihc rshcih rshchi rshhci rshhic
rshihc rshich rshhic rshhci rshchi rshcih rhcish rhcihs rhcsih rhcshi rhchsi
rhchis rhicsh rhichs rhisch rhishc rhihsc rhihcs rhsich rhsihc rhscih rhschi
rhshci rhshic rhhisc rhhics rhhsic rhhsci rhhcsi rhhcis ihrcsh ihrchs ihrsch
ihrshc ihrhsc ihrhcs ihcrsh ihcrhs ihcsrh ihcshr ihchsr ihchrs ihscrh ihschr
ihsrch ihsrhc ihshrc ihshcr ihhcsr ihhcrs ihhscr ihhsrc ihhrsc ihhrcs irhcsh
irhchs irhsch irhshc irhhsc irhhcs irchsh irchhs ircshh ircshh irchsh irchhs
irschh irschh irshch irshhc irshhc irshch irhcsh irhchs irhsch irhshc irhhsc
irhhcs icrhsh icrhhs icrshh icrshh icrhsh icrhhs ichrsh ichrhs ichsrh ichshr
ichhsr ichhrs icshrh icshhr icsrhh icsrhh icshrh icshhr ichhsr ichhrs ichshr
ichsrh ichrsh ichrhs isrchh isrchh isrhch isrhhc isrhhc isrhch iscrhh iscrhh
ischrh ischhr ischhr ischrh ishcrh ishchr ishrch ishrhc ishhrc ishhcr ishchr
ishcrh ishhcr ishhrc ishrhc ishrch ihrcsh ihrchs ihrsch ihrshc ihrhsc ihrhcs
ihcrsh ihcrhs ihcsrh ihcshr ihchsr ihchrs ihscrh ihschr ihsrch ihsrhc ihshrc
ihshcr ihhcsr ihhcrs ihhscr ihhsrc ihhrsc ihhrcs shrich shrihc shrcih shrchi
shrhci shrhic shirch shirhc shicrh shichr shihcr shihrc shcirh shcihr shcrih
shcrhi shchri shchir shhicr shhirc shhcir shhcri shhrci shhric srhich srhihc
srhcih srhchi srhhci srhhic srihch srihhc srichh srichh srihch srihhc srcihh
srcihh srchih srchhi srchhi srchih srhich srhihc srhcih srhchi srhhci srhhic
sirhch sirhhc sirchh sirchh sirhch sirhhc sihrch sihrhc sihcrh sihchr sihhcr
sihhrc sichrh sichhr sicrhh sicrhh sichrh sichhr sihhcr sihhrc sihchr sihcrh
sihrch sihrhc scrihh scrihh scrhih scrhhi scrhhi scrhih scirhh scirhh scihrh
scihhr scihhr scihrh schirh schihr schrih schrhi schhri schhir schihr schirh
schhir schhri schrhi schrih shrich shrihc shrcih shrchi shrhci shrhic shirch
shirhc shicrh shichr shihcr shihrc shcirh shcihr shcrih shcrhi shchri shchir
shhicr shhirc shhcir shhcri shhrci shhric hhrisc hhrics hhrsic hhrsci hhrcsi
hhrcis hhirsc hhircs hhisrc hhiscr hhicsr hhicrs hhsirc hhsicr hhsric hhsrci
hhscri hhscir hhcisr hhcirs hhcsir hhcsri hhcrsi hhcris hrhisc hrhics hrhsic
hrhsci hrhcsi hrhcis hrihsc hrihcs hrishc hrisch hricsh hrichs hrsihc hrsich
hrshic hrshci hrschi hrscih hrcish hrcihs hrcsih hrcshi hrchsi hrchis hirhsc
hirhcs hirshc hirsch hircsh hirchs hihrsc hihrcs hihsrc hihscr hihcsr hihcrs
hishrc hishcr hisrhc hisrch hiscrh hischr hichsr hichrs hicshr hicsrh hicrsh
hicrhs hsrihc hsrich hsrhic hsrhci hsrchi hsrcih hsirhc hsirch hsihrc hsihcr
hsichr hsicrh hshirc hshicr hshric hshrci hshcri hshcir hscihr hscirh hschir
hschri hscrhi hscrih hcrish hcrihs hcrsih hcrshi hcrhsi hcrhis hcirsh hcirhs
hcisrh hcishr hcihsr hcihrs hcsirh hcsihr hcsrih hcsrhi hcshri hcshir hchisr
hchirs hchsir hchsri hchrsi hchris

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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