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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: cecith
cipher variations:
dfdjui egekvj fhflwk gigmxl hjhnym
ikiozn jljpao kmkqbp lnlrcq momsdr
npntes oqouft prpvgu qsqwhv rtrxiw
susyjx tvtzky uwualz vxvbma wywcnb
xzxdoc yayepd zbzfqe acagrf bdbhsg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: cecith
Cipher: xvxrgs

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: cecith
Cipher: AAABA AABAA AAABA ABAAA BAABA AABBB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: cecith
cipher variations:
dfdjuihnhzgwlvlpskpdpfeytltvqmxtxlcafjfracjrjhmq
nznxyerhrnksvpvdwgzxztiuegekvjioiahxmwmqtlqeqgfz
umuwrnyuymdbgkgsbdkskinroaoyzfsisoltwqwexhayaujv
fhflwkjpjbiynxnrumrfrhgavnvxsozvznechlhtceltljos
pbpzagtjtpmuxrxfyibzbvkwgigmxlkqkcjzoyosvnsgsihb
wowytpawaofdimiudfmumkptqcqabhukuqnvysygzjcacwlx
hjhnymlrldkapzptwothtjicxpxzuqbxbpgejnjvegnvnlqu
rdrbcivlvrowztzhakdbdxmyikioznmsmelbqaquxpuiukjd
yqyavrcycqhfkokwfhowomrvsescdjwmwspxauaibleceynz
jljpaontnfmcrbrvyqvjvlkezrzbwsdzdriglplxgipxpnsw
tftdekxnxtqybvbjcmfdfzoakmkqbpouogndscswzrwkwmlf
asacxteaesjhmqmyhjqyqotxugueflyoyurzcwckdngegapb
lnlrcqpvphoetdtxasxlxnmgbtbdyufbftkinrnzikrzrpuy
vhvfgmzpzvsadxdleohfhbqcmomsdrqwqipfueuybtymyonh
cucezvgcguljosoajlsasqvzwiwghnaqawtbeyemfpigicrd
npntesrxrjqgvfvzcuznzpoidvdfawhdhvmkptpbkmtbtrwa
xjxhiobrbxucfzfngqjhjdseoqouftsyskrhwgwadvaoaqpj
ewegbxieiwnlquqclnucusxbykyijpcscyvdgagohrkiketf
prpvgutztlsixhxbewbpbrqkfxfhcyjfjxomrvrdmovdvtyc
zlzjkqdtdzwehbhpisljlfugqsqwhvuaumtjyiycfxcqcsrl
gygidzkgkypnswsenpwewuzdamaklreueaxficiqjtmkmgvh
rtrxiwvbvnukzjzdgydrdtsmhzhjealhlzqotxtfoqxfxvae
bnblmsfvfbygjdjrkunlnhwisusyjxwcwovlakaehzeseutn
iaikfbmimarpuyugprygywbfcocmntgwgczhkekslvomoixj
tvtzkyxdxpwmblbfiaftfvuojbjlgcnjnbsqvzvhqszhzxcg
dpdnouhxhdailfltmwpnpjykuwualzyeyqxncmcgjbgugwvp
kckmhdokoctrwawirtaiaydheqeopviyiebjmgmunxqoqkzl
vxvbmazfzryodndhkchvhxwqldlnieplpdusxbxjsubjbzei
frfpqwjzjfcknhnvoyrprlamwywcnbagaszpeoeildiwiyxr
memojfqmqevtycyktvckcafjgsgqrxkakgdloiowpzsqsmbn
xzxdocbhbtaqfpfjmejxjzysnfnpkgrnrfwuzdzluwdldbgk
hthrsylblhempjpxqatrtncoyayepdcicubrgqgknfkykazt
ogoqlhsosgxvaeamvxemechliuistzmcmifnqkqyrbusuodp
zbzfqedjdvcshrhloglzlbauphprmitpthywbfbnwyfnfdim
jvjtuandnjgorlrzscvtvpeqacagrfekewdtisimphmamcbv
qiqsnjuquizxcgcoxzgogejnkwkuvboeokhpsmsatdwuwqfr
bdbhsgflfxeujtjnqinbndcwrjrtokvrvjaydhdpyahphfko
lxlvwcpfpliqtntbuexvxrgscecithgmgyfvkukorjocoedx
sksuplwswkbzeieqzbiqiglpmymwxdqgqmjruoucvfywysht

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: cecith
Cipher: prpvgu

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: cecith
Cipher: 315131424432

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: cecith
method variations:
hkhoynnpntdssusyixxzxdoc

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c e c i t h 
3 5 3 4 4 3 
1 1 1 2 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
353443111242
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: cecith
Cipher: xsoafi

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: cecith
method variations:
vlqrom lqromv qromvl
romvlq omvlqr mvlqro

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: cecith

all 720 cipher variations:
cecith ceciht cectih cecthi cechti cechit ceicth ceicht ceitch ceithc ceihtc
ceihct cetich cetihc cetcih cetchi cethci cethic cehitc cehict cehtic cehtci
cehcti cehcit cceith cceiht ccetih ccethi ccehti ccehit ccieth ccieht cciteh
ccithe ccihte ccihet cctieh cctihe ccteih cctehi ccthei ccthie cchite cchiet
cchtie cchtei ccheti ccheit ciceth ciceht cicteh cicthe cichte cichet ciecth
ciecht cietch ciethc ciehtc ciehct citech citehc citceh citche cithce cithec
cihetc cihect cihtec cihtce cihcte cihcet ctcieh ctcihe ctceih ctcehi ctchei
ctchie cticeh ctiche ctiech ctiehc ctihec ctihce cteich cteihc ctecih ctechi
ctehci ctehic cthiec cthice ctheic ctheci cthcei cthcie chcite chciet chctie
chctei chceti chceit chicte chicet chitce chitec chietc chiect chtice chtiec
chtcie chtcei chteci chteic cheitc cheict chetic chetci checti checit eccith
ecciht ecctih eccthi ecchti ecchit ecicth ecicht ecitch ecithc ecihtc ecihct
ectich ectihc ectcih ectchi ecthci ecthic echitc echict echtic echtci echcti
echcit eccith ecciht ecctih eccthi ecchti ecchit ecicth ecicht ecitch ecithc
ecihtc ecihct ectich ectihc ectcih ectchi ecthci ecthic echitc echict echtic
echtci echcti echcit eiccth eiccht eictch eicthc eichtc eichct eiccth eiccht
eictch eicthc eichtc eichct eitcch eitchc eitcch eitchc eithcc eithcc eihctc
eihcct eihtcc eihtcc eihctc eihcct etcich etcihc etccih etcchi etchci etchic
eticch etichc eticch etichc etihcc etihcc etcich etcihc etccih etcchi etchci
etchic ethicc ethicc ethcic ethcci ethcci ethcic ehcitc ehcict ehctic ehctci
ehccti ehccit ehictc ehicct ehitcc ehitcc ehictc ehicct ehticc ehticc ehtcic
ehtcci ehtcci ehtcic ehcitc ehcict ehctic ehctci ehccti ehccit cecith ceciht
cectih cecthi cechti cechit ceicth ceicht ceitch ceithc ceihtc ceihct cetich
cetihc cetcih cetchi cethci cethic cehitc cehict cehtic cehtci cehcti cehcit
cceith cceiht ccetih ccethi ccehti ccehit ccieth ccieht cciteh ccithe ccihte
ccihet cctieh cctihe ccteih cctehi ccthei ccthie cchite cchiet cchtie cchtei
ccheti ccheit ciceth ciceht cicteh cicthe cichte cichet ciecth ciecht cietch
ciethc ciehtc ciehct citech citehc citceh citche cithce cithec cihetc cihect
cihtec cihtce cihcte cihcet ctcieh ctcihe ctceih ctcehi ctchei ctchie cticeh
ctiche ctiech ctiehc ctihec ctihce cteich cteihc ctecih ctechi ctehci ctehic
cthiec cthice ctheic ctheci cthcei cthcie chcite chciet chctie chctei chceti
chceit chicte chicet chitce chitec chietc chiect chtice chtiec chtcie chtcei
chteci chteic cheitc cheict chetic chetci checti checit ieccth ieccht iectch
iecthc iechtc iechct ieccth ieccht iectch iecthc iechtc iechct ietcch ietchc
ietcch ietchc iethcc iethcc iehctc iehcct iehtcc iehtcc iehctc iehcct icecth
icecht icetch icethc icehtc icehct icceth icceht iccteh iccthe icchte icchet
ictceh ictche ictech ictehc icthec icthce ichcte ichcet ichtce ichtec ichetc
ichect icceth icceht iccteh iccthe icchte icchet icecth icecht icetch icethc
icehtc icehct ictech ictehc ictceh ictche icthce icthec ichetc ichect ichtec
ichtce ichcte ichcet itcceh itcche itcech itcehc itchec itchce itcceh itcche
itcech itcehc itchec itchce itecch itechc itecch itechc itehcc itehcc ithcec
ithcce ithecc ithecc ithcec ithcce ihccte ihccet ihctce ihctec ihcetc ihcect
ihccte ihccet ihctce ihctec ihcetc ihcect ihtcce ihtcec ihtcce ihtcec ihtecc
ihtecc ihectc ihecct ihetcc ihetcc ihectc ihecct tecich tecihc teccih tecchi
techci techic teicch teichc teicch teichc teihcc teihcc tecich tecihc teccih
tecchi techci techic tehicc tehicc tehcic tehcci tehcci tehcic tceich tceihc
tcecih tcechi tcehci tcehic tciech tciehc tciceh tciche tcihce tcihec tccieh
tccihe tcceih tccehi tcchei tcchie tchice tchiec tchcie tchcei tcheci tcheic
ticech ticehc ticceh ticche tichce tichec tiecch tiechc tiecch tiechc tiehcc
tiehcc ticech ticehc ticceh ticche tichce tichec tihecc tihecc tihcec tihcce
tihcce tihcec tccieh tccihe tcceih tccehi tcchei tcchie tciceh tciche tciech
tciehc tcihec tcihce tceich tceihc tcecih tcechi tcehci tcehic tchiec tchice
tcheic tcheci tchcei tchcie thcice thciec thccie thccei thceci thceic thicce
thicec thicce thicec thiecc thiecc thcice thciec thccie thccei thceci thceic
theicc theicc thecic thecci thecci thecic hecitc hecict hectic hectci heccti
heccit heictc heicct heitcc heitcc heictc heicct heticc heticc hetcic hetcci
hetcci hetcic hecitc hecict hectic hectci heccti heccit hceitc hceict hcetic
hcetci hcecti hcecit hcietc hciect hcitec hcitce hcicte hcicet hctiec hctice
hcteic hcteci hctcei hctcie hccite hcciet hcctie hcctei hcceti hcceit hicetc
hicect hictec hictce hiccte hiccet hiectc hiecct hietcc hietcc hiectc hiecct
hitecc hitecc hitcec hitcce hitcce hitcec hicetc hicect hictec hictce hiccte
hiccet htciec htcice htceic htceci htccei htccie hticec hticce htiecc htiecc
hticec hticce hteicc hteicc htecic htecci htecci htecic htciec htcice htceic
htceci htccei htccie hccite hcciet hcctie hcctei hcceti hcceit hcicte hcicet
hcitce hcitec hcietc hciect hctice hctiec hctcie hctcei hcteci hcteic hceitc
hceict hcetic hcetci hcecti hcecit

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History of cryptography
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