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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: camarg
cipher variations:
dbnbsh ecocti fdpduj geqevk hfrfwl
igsgxm jhthyn kiuizo ljvjap mkwkbq
nlxlcr omymds pnznet qoaofu rpbpgv
sqcqhw trdrix usesjy vtftkz wugula
xvhvmb ywiwnc zxjxod aykype bzlzqf

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: camarg
Cipher: xznzit

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: camarg
Cipher: AAABA AAAAA ABABB AAAAA BAAAA AABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: camarg
cipher variations:
dbnbshhblbatlbjbifpbhbqrtbfbydxbdbgpfbzbwnjbxbez
nbvbmlrbtbuxvbrbcjzbpbkvecoctiicmcbumckcjgqcicrs
ucgczeycechqgcacxokcycfaocwcnmscucvywcscdkacqclw
fdpdujjdndcvndldkhrdjdstvdhdafzdfdirhdbdypldzdgb
pdxdontdvdwzxdtdelbdrdmxgeqevkkeoedwoemeliseketu
weiebgaegejsiecezqmeaehcqeyepouewexayeuefmceseny
hfrfwllfpfexpfnfmjtflfuvxfjfchbfhfktjfdfarnfbfid
rfzfqpvfxfybzfvfgndftfozigsgxmmgqgfyqgognkugmgvw
ygkgdicgiglukgegbsogcgjesgagrqwgygzcagwghoegugpa
jhthynnhrhgzrhpholvhnhwxzhlhejdhjhmvlhfhctphdhkf
thbhsrxhzhadbhxhipfhvhqbkiuizooisihasiqipmwioixy
aimifkeikinwmigiduqieilguicitsyiaibeciyijqgiwirc
ljvjappjtjibtjrjqnxjpjyzbjnjglfjljoxnjhjevrjfjmh
vjdjutzjbjcfdjzjkrhjxjsdmkwkbqqkukjcukskroykqkza
ckokhmgkmkpyokikfwskgkniwkekvuakckdgekaklsikykte
nlxlcrrlvlkdvltlspzlrlabdlplinhlnlqzpljlgxtlhloj
xlflwvbldlehflblmtjlzlufomymdssmwmlewmumtqamsmbc
emqmjoimomraqmkmhyumimpkymgmxwcmemfigmcmnukmamvg
pnznettnxnmfxnvnurbntncdfnrnkpjnpnsbrnlnizvnjnql
znhnyxdnfngjhndnovlnbnwhqoaofuuoyongyowovscouode
gosolqkoqotcsomojawokormaoiozyeogohkioeopwmocoxi
rpbpgvvpzpohzpxpwtdpvpefhptpmrlprpudtpnpkbxplpsn
bpjpazfphpiljpfpqxnpdpyjsqcqhwwqaqpiaqyqxueqwqfg
iquqnsmqsqveuqoqlcyqmqtocqkqbagqiqjmkqgqryoqeqzk
trdrixxrbrqjbrzryvfrxrghjrvrotnrtrwfvrprmdzrnrup
drlrcbhrjrknlrhrszprfralusesjyyscsrkcsaszwgsyshi
kswspuosusxgwsqsneasosvqesmsdciskslomsistaqsgsbm
vtftkzztdtsldtbtaxhtztijltxtqvptvtyhxtrtofbtptwr
ftntedjtltmpntjtubrthtcnwugulaaueutmeucubyiuaujk
muyurwquwuziyusupgcuquxsguoufekumunqoukuvcsuiudo
xvhvmbbvfvunfvdvczjvbvklnvzvsxrvxvajzvtvqhdvrvyt
hvpvgflvnvorpvlvwdtvjvepywiwnccwgwvogwewdakwcwlm
owawtyswywbkawuwriewswzuiwqwhgmwowpsqwmwxeuwkwfq
zxjxoddxhxwphxfxeblxdxmnpxbxuztxzxclbxvxsjfxtxav
jxrxihnxpxqtrxnxyfvxlxgraykypeeyiyxqiygyfcmyeyno
qycyvauyaydmcywytkgyuybwkysyjioyqyrusyoyzgwymyhs
bzlzqffzjzyrjzhzgdnzfzoprzdzwbvzbzendzxzulhzvzcx
lztzkjpzrzsvtzpzahxznzitcamarggakazskaiaheoagapq
saeaxcwacafoeayavmiawadymaualkqasatwuaqabiyaoaju

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: camarg
Cipher: pnznet

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: camarg
Cipher: 311123112422

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: camarg
method variations:
hfrfwmnlwlbrsqbqgwxvgvmb

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c a m a r g 
3 1 2 1 2 2 
1 1 3 1 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
312122113142
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: camarg
Cipher: cbgaci

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: camarg
method variations:
afcfim fcfima cfimaf
fimafc imafcf mafcfi

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: camarg

all 720 cipher variations:
camarg camagr camrag camrga camgra camgar caamrg caamgr caarmg caargm caagrm
caagmr caramg caragm carmag carmga cargma cargam cagarm cagamr cagram cagrma
cagmra cagmar cmaarg cmaagr cmarag cmarga cmagra cmagar cmaarg cmaagr cmarag
cmarga cmagra cmagar cmraag cmraga cmraag cmraga cmrgaa cmrgaa cmgara cmgaar
cmgraa cmgraa cmgara cmgaar camarg camagr camrag camrga camgra camgar caamrg
caamgr caarmg caargm caagrm caagmr caramg caragm carmag carmga cargma cargam
cagarm cagamr cagram cagrma cagmra cagmar crmaag crmaga crmaag crmaga crmgaa
crmgaa cramag cramga craamg craagm cragam cragma craamg craagm cramag cramga
cragma cragam crgaam crgama crgaam crgama crgmaa crgmaa cgmara cgmaar cgmraa
cgmraa cgmara cgmaar cgamra cgamar cgarma cgaram cgaarm cgaamr cgrama cgraam
cgrmaa cgrmaa cgrama cgraam cgaarm cgaamr cgaram cgarma cgamra cgamar acmarg
acmagr acmrag acmrga acmgra acmgar acamrg acamgr acarmg acargm acagrm acagmr
acramg acragm acrmag acrmga acrgma acrgam acgarm acgamr acgram acgrma acgmra
acgmar amcarg amcagr amcrag amcrga amcgra amcgar amacrg amacgr amarcg amargc
amagrc amagcr amracg amragc amrcag amrcga amrgca amrgac amgarc amgacr amgrac
amgrca amgcra amgcar aamcrg aamcgr aamrcg aamrgc aamgrc aamgcr aacmrg aacmgr
aacrmg aacrgm aacgrm aacgmr aarcmg aarcgm aarmcg aarmgc aargmc aargcm aagcrm
aagcmr aagrcm aagrmc aagmrc aagmcr armacg armagc armcag armcga armgca armgac
aramcg aramgc aracmg aracgm aragcm aragmc arcamg arcagm arcmag arcmga arcgma
arcgam argacm argamc argcam argcma argmca argmac agmarc agmacr agmrac agmrca
agmcra agmcar agamrc agamcr agarmc agarcm agacrm agacmr agramc agracm agrmac
agrmca agrcma agrcam agcarm agcamr agcram agcrma agcmra agcmar macarg macagr
macrag macrga macgra macgar maacrg maacgr maarcg maargc maagrc maagcr maracg
maragc marcag marcga margca margac magarc magacr magrac magrca magcra magcar
mcaarg mcaagr mcarag mcarga mcagra mcagar mcaarg mcaagr mcarag mcarga mcagra
mcagar mcraag mcraga mcraag mcraga mcrgaa mcrgaa mcgara mcgaar mcgraa mcgraa
mcgara mcgaar macarg macagr macrag macrga macgra macgar maacrg maacgr maarcg
maargc maagrc maagcr maracg maragc marcag marcga margca margac magarc magacr
magrac magrca magcra magcar mrcaag mrcaga mrcaag mrcaga mrcgaa mrcgaa mracag
mracga mraacg mraagc mragac mragca mraacg mraagc mracag mracga mragca mragac
mrgaac mrgaca mrgaac mrgaca mrgcaa mrgcaa mgcara mgcaar mgcraa mgcraa mgcara
mgcaar mgacra mgacar mgarca mgarac mgaarc mgaacr mgraca mgraac mgrcaa mgrcaa
mgraca mgraac mgaarc mgaacr mgarac mgarca mgacra mgacar aamcrg aamcgr aamrcg
aamrgc aamgrc aamgcr aacmrg aacmgr aacrmg aacrgm aacgrm aacgmr aarcmg aarcgm
aarmcg aarmgc aargmc aargcm aagcrm aagcmr aagrcm aagrmc aagmrc aagmcr amacrg
amacgr amarcg amargc amagrc amagcr amcarg amcagr amcrag amcrga amcgra amcgar
amrcag amrcga amracg amragc amrgac amrgca amgcra amgcar amgrca amgrac amgarc
amgacr acmarg acmagr acmrag acmrga acmgra acmgar acamrg acamgr acarmg acargm
acagrm acagmr acramg acragm acrmag acrmga acrgma acrgam acgarm acgamr acgram
acgrma acgmra acgmar armcag armcga armacg armagc armgac armgca arcmag arcmga
arcamg arcagm arcgam arcgma aracmg aracgm aramcg aramgc aragmc aragcm argcam
argcma argacm argamc argmac argmca agmcra agmcar agmrca agmrac agmarc agmacr
agcmra agcmar agcrma agcram agcarm agcamr agrcma agrcam agrmca agrmac agramc
agracm agacrm agacmr agarcm agarmc agamrc agamcr ramacg ramagc ramcag ramcga
ramgca ramgac raamcg raamgc raacmg raacgm raagcm raagmc racamg racagm racmag
racmga racgma racgam ragacm ragamc ragcam ragcma ragmca ragmac rmaacg rmaagc
rmacag rmacga rmagca rmagac rmaacg rmaagc rmacag rmacga rmagca rmagac rmcaag
rmcaga rmcaag rmcaga rmcgaa rmcgaa rmgaca rmgaac rmgcaa rmgcaa rmgaca rmgaac
ramacg ramagc ramcag ramcga ramgca ramgac raamcg raamgc raacmg raacgm raagcm
raagmc racamg racagm racmag racmga racgma racgam ragacm ragamc ragcam ragcma
ragmca ragmac rcmaag rcmaga rcmaag rcmaga rcmgaa rcmgaa rcamag rcamga rcaamg
rcaagm rcagam rcagma rcaamg rcaagm rcamag rcamga rcagma rcagam rcgaam rcgama
rcgaam rcgama rcgmaa rcgmaa rgmaca rgmaac rgmcaa rgmcaa rgmaca rgmaac rgamca
rgamac rgacma rgacam rgaacm rgaamc rgcama rgcaam rgcmaa rgcmaa rgcama rgcaam
rgaacm rgaamc rgacam rgacma rgamca rgamac gamarc gamacr gamrac gamrca gamcra
gamcar gaamrc gaamcr gaarmc gaarcm gaacrm gaacmr garamc garacm garmac garmca
garcma garcam gacarm gacamr gacram gacrma gacmra gacmar gmaarc gmaacr gmarac
gmarca gmacra gmacar gmaarc gmaacr gmarac gmarca gmacra gmacar gmraac gmraca
gmraac gmraca gmrcaa gmrcaa gmcara gmcaar gmcraa gmcraa gmcara gmcaar gamarc
gamacr gamrac gamrca gamcra gamcar gaamrc gaamcr gaarmc gaarcm gaacrm gaacmr
garamc garacm garmac garmca garcma garcam gacarm gacamr gacram gacrma gacmra
gacmar grmaac grmaca grmaac grmaca grmcaa grmcaa gramac gramca graamc graacm
gracam gracma graamc graacm gramac gramca gracma gracam grcaam grcama grcaam
grcama grcmaa grcmaa gcmara gcmaar gcmraa gcmraa gcmara gcmaar gcamra gcamar
gcarma gcaram gcaarm gcaamr gcrama gcraam gcrmaa gcrmaa gcrama gcraam gcaarm
gcaamr gcaram gcarma gcamra gcamar

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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