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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: cacaoi
cipher variations:
dbdbpj ececqk fdfdrl gegesm hfhftn
igiguo jhjhvp kikiwq ljljxr mkmkys
nlnlzt omomau pnpnbv qoqocw rprpdx
sqsqey trtrfz ususga vtvthb wuwuic
xvxvjd ywywke zxzxlf ayaymg bzbznh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: cacaoi
Cipher: xzxzlr

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: cacaoi
Cipher: AAABA AAAAA AAABA AAAAA ABBAB ABAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: cacaoi
cipher variations:
dbdbpjhbhbrzlblbtppbpbvftbtbxvxbxbzlfbfbdrjbjbfh
nbnbhxrbrbjnvbvbldzbzbntececqkicicsamcmcuqqcqcwg
ucucywycycamgcgceskckcgiocociyscsckowcwcmeacacou
fdfdrljdjdtbndndvrrdrdxhvdvdzxzdzdbnhdhdftldldhj
pdpdjztdtdlpxdxdnfbdbdpvgegesmkekeucoeoewsseseyi
weweayaeaecoieiegumemeikqeqekaueuemqyeyeogceceqw
hfhftnlflfvdpfpfxttftfzjxfxfbzbfbfdpjfjfhvnfnfjl
rfrflbvfvfnrzfzfphdfdfrxigiguomgmgweqgqgyuugugak
ygygcacgcgeqkgkgiwogogkmsgsgmcwgwgosagagqiegegsy
jhjhvpnhnhxfrhrhzvvhvhblzhzhdbdhdhfrlhlhjxphphln
ththndxhxhptbhbhrjfhfhtzkikiwqoioiygsisiawwiwicm
aiaieceieigsmimikyqiqimouiuioeyiyiquciciskgigiua
ljljxrpjpjzhtjtjbxxjxjdnbjbjfdfjfjhtnjnjlzrjrjnp
vjvjpfzjzjrvdjdjtlhjhjvbmkmkysqkqkaiukukcyykykeo
ckckgegkgkiuokokmaskskoqwkwkqgakakswekekumikikwc
nlnlztrlrlbjvlvldzzlzlfpdldlhfhlhljvplplnbtltlpr
xlxlrhblbltxflflvnjljlxdomomausmsmckwmwmeaamamgq
ememigimimkwqmqmocumumqsymymsicmcmuygmgmwokmkmye
pnpnbvtntndlxnxnfbbnbnhrfnfnjhjnjnlxrnrnpdvnvnrt
znzntjdndnvzhnhnxplnlnzfqoqocwuouoemyoyogccocois
gogokikokomysosoqewowosuaoaoukeoeowaioioyqmomoag
rprpdxvpvpfnzpzphddpdpjthphpljlplpnztptprfxpxptv
bpbpvlfpfpxbjpjpzrnpnpbhsqsqeywqwqgoaqaqieeqeqku
iqiqmkmqmqoauquqsgyqyquwcqcqwmgqgqyckqkqasoqoqci
trtrfzxrxrhpbrbrjffrfrlvjrjrnlnrnrpbvrvrthzrzrvx
drdrxnhrhrzdlrlrbtprprdjususgaysysiqcscskggsgsmw
ksksomososqcwswsuiasaswyesesyoisisaemsmscuqsqsek
vtvthbztztjrdtdtlhhthtnxltltpnptptrdxtxtvjbtbtxz
ftftzpjtjtbfntntdvrtrtflwuwuicauaukseueumiiuiuoy
mumuqoququseyuyuwkcucuyaguguaqkukucgououewsusugm
xvxvjdbvbvltfvfvnjjvjvpznvnvrprvrvtfzvzvxldvdvzb
hvhvbrlvlvdhpvpvfxtvtvhnywywkecwcwmugwgwokkwkwqa
owowsqswswugawawymewewaciwiwcsmwmweiqwqwgyuwuwio
zxzxlfdxdxnvhxhxpllxlxrbpxpxtrtxtxvhbxbxznfxfxbd
jxjxdtnxnxfjrxrxhzvxvxjpayaymgeyeyowiyiyqmmymysc
qyqyusuyuywicycyaogygycekykyeuoyoygksysyiawywykq
bzbznhfzfzpxjzjzrnnznztdrzrzvtvzvzxjdzdzbphzhzdf
lzlzfvpzpzhltztzjbxzxzlrcacaoigagaqykakasooaoaue
sasawuwawaykeaeacqiaiaegmamagwqaqaimuauakcyayams

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: cacaoi
Cipher: pnpnbv

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: cacaoi
Cipher: 311131114342

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: cacaoi
method variations:
hfhftonlnlytsqsqdyxvxvid

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
c a c a o i 
3 1 3 1 4 4 
1 1 1 1 3 2 
They are then read out in rows:
313144111132
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: cacaoi
Cipher: cctaah

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: cacaoi
method variations:
alaqsm laqsma aqsmal
qsmala smalaq malaqs

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: cacaoi

all 720 cipher variations:
cacaoi cacaio cacoai cacoia cacioa caciao caacoi caacio caaoci caaoic caaioc
caaico caoaci caoaic caocai caocia caoica caoiac caiaoc caiaco caioac caioca
caicoa caicao ccaaoi ccaaio ccaoai ccaoia ccaioa ccaiao ccaaoi ccaaio ccaoai
ccaoia ccaioa ccaiao ccoaai ccoaia ccoaai ccoaia ccoiaa ccoiaa cciaoa cciaao
ccioaa ccioaa cciaoa cciaao cacaoi cacaio cacoai cacoia cacioa caciao caacoi
caacio caaoci caaoic caaioc caaico caoaci caoaic caocai caocia caoica caoiac
caiaoc caiaco caioac caioca caicoa caicao cocaai cocaia cocaai cocaia cociaa
cociaa coacai coacia coaaci coaaic coaiac coaica coaaci coaaic coacai coacia
coaica coaiac coiaac coiaca coiaac coiaca coicaa coicaa cicaoa cicaao cicoaa
cicoaa cicaoa cicaao ciacoa ciacao ciaoca ciaoac ciaaoc ciaaco cioaca cioaac
ciocaa ciocaa cioaca cioaac ciaaoc ciaaco ciaoac ciaoca ciacoa ciacao accaoi
accaio accoai accoia accioa acciao acacoi acacio acaoci acaoic acaioc acaico
acoaci acoaic acocai acocia acoica acoiac aciaoc aciaco acioac acioca acicoa
acicao accaoi accaio accoai accoia accioa acciao acacoi acacio acaoci acaoic
acaioc acaico acoaci acoaic acocai acocia acoica acoiac aciaoc aciaco acioac
acioca acicoa acicao aaccoi aaccio aacoci aacoic aacioc aacico aaccoi aaccio
aacoci aacoic aacioc aacico aaocci aaocic aaocci aaocic aaoicc aaoicc aaicoc
aaicco aaiocc aaiocc aaicoc aaicco aocaci aocaic aoccai aoccia aocica aociac
aoacci aoacic aoacci aoacic aoaicc aoaicc aocaci aocaic aoccai aoccia aocica
aociac aoiacc aoiacc aoicac aoicca aoicca aoicac aicaoc aicaco aicoac aicoca
aiccoa aiccao aiacoc aiacco aiaocc aiaocc aiacoc aiacco aioacc aioacc aiocac
aiocca aiocca aiocac aicaoc aicaco aicoac aicoca aiccoa aiccao cacaoi cacaio
cacoai cacoia cacioa caciao caacoi caacio caaoci caaoic caaioc caaico caoaci
caoaic caocai caocia caoica caoiac caiaoc caiaco caioac caioca caicoa caicao
ccaaoi ccaaio ccaoai ccaoia ccaioa ccaiao ccaaoi ccaaio ccaoai ccaoia ccaioa
ccaiao ccoaai ccoaia ccoaai ccoaia ccoiaa ccoiaa cciaoa cciaao ccioaa ccioaa
cciaoa cciaao cacaoi cacaio cacoai cacoia cacioa caciao caacoi caacio caaoci
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caioac caioca caicoa caicao cocaai cocaia cocaai cocaia cociaa cociaa coacai
coacia coaaci coaaic coaiac coaica coaaci coaaic coacai coacia coaica coaiac
coiaac coiaca coiaac coiaca coicaa coicaa cicaoa cicaao cicoaa cicoaa cicaoa
cicaao ciacoa ciacao ciaoca ciaoac ciaaoc ciaaco cioaca cioaac ciocaa ciocaa
cioaca cioaac ciaaoc ciaaco ciaoac ciaoca ciacoa ciacao aaccoi aaccio aacoci
aacoic aacioc aacico aaccoi aaccio aacoci aacoic aacioc aacico aaocci aaocic
aaocci aaocic aaoicc aaoicc aaicoc aaicco aaiocc aaiocc aaicoc aaicco acacoi
acacio acaoci acaoic acaioc acaico accaoi accaio accoai accoia accioa acciao
acocai acocia acoaci acoaic acoiac acoica acicoa acicao acioca acioac aciaoc
aciaco accaoi accaio accoai accoia accioa acciao acacoi acacio acaoci acaoic
acaioc acaico acoaci acoaic acocai acocia acoica acoiac aciaoc aciaco acioac
acioca acicoa acicao aoccai aoccia aocaci aocaic aociac aocica aoccai aoccia
aocaci aocaic aociac aocica aoacci aoacic aoacci aoacic aoaicc aoaicc aoicac
aoicca aoiacc aoiacc aoicac aoicca aiccoa aiccao aicoca aicoac aicaoc aicaco
aiccoa aiccao aicoca aicoac aicaoc aicaco aiocca aiocac aiocca aiocac aioacc
aioacc aiacoc aiacco aiaocc aiaocc aiacoc aiacco oacaci oacaic oaccai oaccia
oacica oaciac oaacci oaacic oaacci oaacic oaaicc oaaicc oacaci oacaic oaccai
oaccia oacica oaciac oaiacc oaiacc oaicac oaicca oaicca oaicac ocaaci ocaaic
ocacai ocacia ocaica ocaiac ocaaci ocaaic ocacai ocacia ocaica ocaiac occaai
occaia occaai occaia occiaa occiaa ociaca ociaac ocicaa ocicaa ociaca ociaac
oacaci oacaic oaccai oaccia oacica oaciac oaacci oaacic oaacci oaacic oaaicc
oaaicc oacaci oacaic oaccai oaccia oacica oaciac oaiacc oaiacc oaicac oaicca
oaicca oaicac occaai occaia occaai occaia occiaa occiaa ocacai ocacia ocaaci
ocaaic ocaiac ocaica ocaaci ocaaic ocacai ocacia ocaica ocaiac ociaac ociaca
ociaac ociaca ocicaa ocicaa oicaca oicaac oiccaa oiccaa oicaca oicaac oiacca
oiacac oiacca oiacac oiaacc oiaacc oicaca oicaac oiccaa oiccaa oicaca oicaac
oiaacc oiaacc oiacac oiacca oiacca oiacac iacaoc iacaco iacoac iacoca iaccoa
iaccao iaacoc iaacco iaaocc iaaocc iaacoc iaacco iaoacc iaoacc iaocac iaocca
iaocca iaocac iacaoc iacaco iacoac iacoca iaccoa iaccao icaaoc icaaco icaoac
icaoca icacoa icacao icaaoc icaaco icaoac icaoca icacoa icacao icoaac icoaca
icoaac icoaca icocaa icocaa iccaoa iccaao iccoaa iccoaa iccaoa iccaao iacaoc
iacaco iacoac iacoca iaccoa iaccao iaacoc iaacco iaaocc iaaocc iaacoc iaacco
iaoacc iaoacc iaocac iaocca iaocca iaocac iacaoc iacaco iacoac iacoca iaccoa
iaccao iocaac iocaca iocaac iocaca ioccaa ioccaa ioacac ioacca ioaacc ioaacc
ioacac ioacca ioaacc ioaacc ioacac ioacca ioacca ioacac iocaac iocaca iocaac
iocaca ioccaa ioccaa iccaoa iccaao iccoaa iccoaa iccaoa iccaao icacoa icacao
icaoca icaoac icaaoc icaaco icoaca icoaac icocaa icocaa icoaca icoaac icaaoc
icaaco icaoac icaoca icacoa icacao

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