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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: bunyas
cipher variations:
cvozbt dwpacu exqbdv fyrcew gzsdfx
hategy ibufhz jcvgia kdwhjb lexikc
mfyjld ngzkme ohalnf pibmog qjcnph
rkdoqi sleprj tmfqsk ungrtl vohsum
wpitvn xqjuwo yrkvxp zslwyq atmxzr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: bunyas
Cipher: yfmbzh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: bunyas

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: bunyas
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: bunyas
Cipher: ohalnf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: bunyas
Cipher: 215433451134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: bunyas
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b u n y a s 
2 5 3 4 1 3 
1 4 3 5 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: bunyas
Cipher: wslqxq

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Method #3

Plaintext: bunyas
method variations:
voseli oseliv selivo
elivos livose ivosel

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: bunyas

all 720 cipher variations:
bunyas bunysa bunays bunasy bunsay bunsya buynas buynsa buyans buyasn buysan
buysna buayns buaysn buanys buansy buasny buasyn busyan busyna busayn busany
busnay busnya bnuyas bnuysa bnuays bnuasy bnusay bnusya bnyuas bnyusa bnyaus
bnyasu bnysau bnysua bnayus bnaysu bnauys bnausy bnasuy bnasyu bnsyau bnsyua
bnsayu bnsauy bnsuay bnsuya bynuas bynusa bynaus bynasu bynsau bynsua byunas
byunsa byuans byuasn byusan byusna byauns byausn byanus byansu byasnu byasun
bysuan bysuna bysaun bysanu bysnau bysnua banyus banysu banuys banusy bansuy
bansyu baynus baynsu bayuns bayusn baysun baysnu bauyns bauysn baunys baunsy
bausny bausyn basyun basynu basuyn basuny basnuy basnyu bsnyau bsnyua bsnayu
bsnauy bsnuay bsnuya bsynau bsynua bsyanu bsyaun bsyuan bsyuna bsaynu bsayun
bsanyu bsanuy bsauny bsauyn bsuyan bsuyna bsuayn bsuany bsunay bsunya ubnyas
ubnysa ubnays ubnasy ubnsay ubnsya ubynas ubynsa ubyans ubyasn ubysan ubysna
ubayns ubaysn ubanys ubansy ubasny ubasyn ubsyan ubsyna ubsayn ubsany ubsnay
ubsnya unbyas unbysa unbays unbasy unbsay unbsya unybas unybsa unyabs unyasb
unysab unysba unaybs unaysb unabys unabsy unasby unasyb unsyab unsyba unsayb
unsaby unsbay unsbya uynbas uynbsa uynabs uynasb uynsab uynsba uybnas uybnsa
uybans uybasn uybsan uybsna uyabns uyabsn uyanbs uyansb uyasnb uyasbn uysban
uysbna uysabn uysanb uysnab uysnba uanybs uanysb uanbys uanbsy uansby uansyb
uaynbs uaynsb uaybns uaybsn uaysbn uaysnb uabyns uabysn uabnys uabnsy uabsny
uabsyn uasybn uasynb uasbyn uasbny uasnby uasnyb usnyab usnyba usnayb usnaby
usnbay usnbya usynab usynba usyanb usyabn usyban usybna usaynb usaybn usanyb
usanby usabny usabyn usbyan usbyna usbayn usbany usbnay usbnya nubyas nubysa
nubays nubasy nubsay nubsya nuybas nuybsa nuyabs nuyasb nuysab nuysba nuaybs
nuaysb nuabys nuabsy nuasby nuasyb nusyab nusyba nusayb nusaby nusbay nusbya
nbuyas nbuysa nbuays nbuasy nbusay nbusya nbyuas nbyusa nbyaus nbyasu nbysau
nbysua nbayus nbaysu nbauys nbausy nbasuy nbasyu nbsyau nbsyua nbsayu nbsauy
nbsuay nbsuya nybuas nybusa nybaus nybasu nybsau nybsua nyubas nyubsa nyuabs
nyuasb nyusab nyusba nyaubs nyausb nyabus nyabsu nyasbu nyasub nysuab nysuba
nysaub nysabu nysbau nysbua nabyus nabysu nabuys nabusy nabsuy nabsyu naybus
naybsu nayubs nayusb naysub naysbu nauybs nauysb naubys naubsy nausby nausyb
nasyub nasybu nasuyb nasuby nasbuy nasbyu nsbyau nsbyua nsbayu nsbauy nsbuay
nsbuya nsybau nsybua nsyabu nsyaub nsyuab nsyuba nsaybu nsayub nsabyu nsabuy
nsauby nsauyb nsuyab nsuyba nsuayb nsuaby nsubay nsubya yunbas yunbsa yunabs
yunasb yunsab yunsba yubnas yubnsa yubans yubasn yubsan yubsna yuabns yuabsn
yuanbs yuansb yuasnb yuasbn yusban yusbna yusabn yusanb yusnab yusnba ynubas
ynubsa ynuabs ynuasb ynusab ynusba ynbuas ynbusa ynbaus ynbasu ynbsau ynbsua
ynabus ynabsu ynaubs ynausb ynasub ynasbu ynsbau ynsbua ynsabu ynsaub ynsuab
ynsuba ybnuas ybnusa ybnaus ybnasu ybnsau ybnsua ybunas ybunsa ybuans ybuasn
ybusan ybusna ybauns ybausn ybanus ybansu ybasnu ybasun ybsuan ybsuna ybsaun
ybsanu ybsnau ybsnua yanbus yanbsu yanubs yanusb yansub yansbu yabnus yabnsu
yabuns yabusn yabsun yabsnu yaubns yaubsn yaunbs yaunsb yausnb yausbn yasbun
yasbnu yasubn yasunb yasnub yasnbu ysnbau ysnbua ysnabu ysnaub ysnuab ysnuba
ysbnau ysbnua ysbanu ysbaun ysbuan ysbuna ysabnu ysabun ysanbu ysanub ysaunb
ysaubn ysuban ysubna ysuabn ysuanb ysunab ysunba aunybs aunysb aunbys aunbsy
aunsby aunsyb auynbs auynsb auybns auybsn auysbn auysnb aubyns aubysn aubnys
aubnsy aubsny aubsyn ausybn ausynb ausbyn ausbny ausnby ausnyb anuybs anuysb
anubys anubsy anusby anusyb anyubs anyusb anybus anybsu anysbu anysub anbyus
anbysu anbuys anbusy anbsuy anbsyu ansybu ansyub ansbyu ansbuy ansuby ansuyb
aynubs aynusb aynbus aynbsu aynsbu aynsub ayunbs ayunsb ayubns ayubsn ayusbn
ayusnb aybuns aybusn aybnus aybnsu aybsnu aybsun aysubn aysunb aysbun aysbnu
aysnbu aysnub abnyus abnysu abnuys abnusy abnsuy abnsyu abynus abynsu abyuns
abyusn abysun abysnu abuyns abuysn abunys abunsy abusny abusyn absyun absynu
absuyn absuny absnuy absnyu asnybu asnyub asnbyu asnbuy asnuby asnuyb asynbu
asynub asybnu asybun asyubn asyunb asbynu asbyun asbnyu asbnuy asbuny asbuyn
asuybn asuynb asubyn asubny asunby asunyb sunyab sunyba sunayb sunaby sunbay
sunbya suynab suynba suyanb suyabn suyban suybna suaynb suaybn suanyb suanby
suabny suabyn subyan subyna subayn subany subnay subnya snuyab snuyba snuayb
snuaby snubay snubya snyuab snyuba snyaub snyabu snybau snybua snayub snaybu
snauyb snauby snabuy snabyu snbyau snbyua snbayu snbauy snbuay snbuya synuab
synuba synaub synabu synbau synbua syunab syunba syuanb syuabn syuban syubna
syaunb syaubn syanub syanbu syabnu syabun sybuan sybuna sybaun sybanu sybnau
sybnua sanyub sanybu sanuyb sanuby sanbuy sanbyu saynub saynbu sayunb sayubn
saybun saybnu sauynb sauybn saunyb saunby saubny saubyn sabyun sabynu sabuyn
sabuny sabnuy sabnyu sbnyau sbnyua sbnayu sbnauy sbnuay sbnuya sbynau sbynua
sbyanu sbyaun sbyuan sbyuna sbaynu sbayun sbanyu sbanuy sbauny sbauyn sbuyan
sbuyna sbuayn sbuany sbunay sbunya

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History of cryptography
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