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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: bronze
cipher variations:
cspoaf dtqpbg eurqch fvsrdi gwtsej
hxutfk iyvugl jzwvhm kaxwin lbyxjo
mczykp ndazlq oebamr pfcbns qgdcot
rhedpu sifeqv tjgfrw ukhgsx vlihty
wmjiuz xnkjva yolkwb zpmlxc aqnmyd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: bronze
Cipher: yilmav

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: bronze

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: bronze
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: bronze
Cipher: oebamr

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: bronze
Cipher: 212443335551

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: bronze
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b r o n z e 
2 2 4 3 5 5 
1 4 3 3 5 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: bronze
Cipher: gozqne

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Method #3

Plaintext: bronze
method variations:
ftnxzf tnxzff nxzfft
xzfftn zfftnx fftnxz

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: bronze

all 720 cipher variations:
bronze bronez brozne brozen broezn broenz brnoze brnoez brnzoe brnzeo brnezo
brneoz brznoe brzneo brzone brzoen brzeon brzeno brenzo brenoz brezno brezon
breozn breonz bornze bornez borzne borzen borezn borenz bonrze bonrez bonzre
bonzer bonezr bonerz boznre bozner bozrne bozren bozern bozenr boenzr boenrz
boeznr boezrn boerzn boernz bnorze bnorez bnozre bnozer bnoezr bnoerz bnroze
bnroez bnrzoe bnrzeo bnrezo bnreoz bnzroe bnzreo bnzore bnzoer bnzeor bnzero
bnerzo bneroz bnezro bnezor bneozr bneorz bzonre bzoner bzorne bzoren bzoern
bzoenr bznore bznoer bznroe bznreo bznero bzneor bzrnoe bzrneo bzrone bzroen
bzreon bzreno bzenro bzenor bzerno bzeron bzeorn bzeonr beonzr beonrz beoznr
beozrn beorzn beornz benozr benorz benzor benzro benrzo benroz beznor beznro
bezonr bezorn bezron bezrno bernzo bernoz berzno berzon berozn beronz rbonze
rbonez rbozne rbozen rboezn rboenz rbnoze rbnoez rbnzoe rbnzeo rbnezo rbneoz
rbznoe rbzneo rbzone rbzoen rbzeon rbzeno rbenzo rbenoz rbezno rbezon rbeozn
rbeonz robnze robnez robzne robzen robezn robenz ronbze ronbez ronzbe ronzeb
ronezb ronebz roznbe rozneb rozbne rozben rozebn rozenb roenzb roenbz roeznb
roezbn roebzn roebnz rnobze rnobez rnozbe rnozeb rnoezb rnoebz rnboze rnboez
rnbzoe rnbzeo rnbezo rnbeoz rnzboe rnzbeo rnzobe rnzoeb rnzeob rnzebo rnebzo
rneboz rnezbo rnezob rneozb rneobz rzonbe rzoneb rzobne rzoben rzoebn rzoenb
rznobe rznoeb rznboe rznbeo rznebo rzneob rzbnoe rzbneo rzbone rzboen rzbeon
rzbeno rzenbo rzenob rzebno rzebon rzeobn rzeonb reonzb reonbz reoznb reozbn
reobzn reobnz renozb renobz renzob renzbo renbzo renboz reznob reznbo rezonb
rezobn rezbon rezbno rebnzo rebnoz rebzno rebzon rebozn rebonz orbnze orbnez
orbzne orbzen orbezn orbenz ornbze ornbez ornzbe ornzeb ornezb ornebz orznbe
orzneb orzbne orzben orzebn orzenb orenzb orenbz oreznb orezbn orebzn orebnz
obrnze obrnez obrzne obrzen obrezn obrenz obnrze obnrez obnzre obnzer obnezr
obnerz obznre obzner obzrne obzren obzern obzenr obenzr obenrz obeznr obezrn
oberzn obernz onbrze onbrez onbzre onbzer onbezr onberz onrbze onrbez onrzbe
onrzeb onrezb onrebz onzrbe onzreb onzbre onzber onzebr onzerb onerzb onerbz
onezrb onezbr onebzr onebrz ozbnre ozbner ozbrne ozbren ozbern ozbenr oznbre
oznber oznrbe oznreb oznerb oznebr ozrnbe ozrneb ozrbne ozrben ozrebn ozrenb
ozenrb ozenbr ozernb ozerbn ozebrn ozebnr oebnzr oebnrz oebznr oebzrn oebrzn
oebrnz oenbzr oenbrz oenzbr oenzrb oenrzb oenrbz oeznbr oeznrb oezbnr oezbrn
oezrbn oezrnb oernzb oernbz oerznb oerzbn oerbzn oerbnz nrobze nrobez nrozbe
nrozeb nroezb nroebz nrboze nrboez nrbzoe nrbzeo nrbezo nrbeoz nrzboe nrzbeo
nrzobe nrzoeb nrzeob nrzebo nrebzo nreboz nrezbo nrezob nreozb nreobz norbze
norbez norzbe norzeb norezb norebz nobrze nobrez nobzre nobzer nobezr noberz
nozbre nozber nozrbe nozreb nozerb nozebr noebzr noebrz noezbr noezrb noerzb
noerbz nborze nborez nbozre nbozer nboezr nboerz nbroze nbroez nbrzoe nbrzeo
nbrezo nbreoz nbzroe nbzreo nbzore nbzoer nbzeor nbzero nberzo nberoz nbezro
nbezor nbeozr nbeorz nzobre nzober nzorbe nzoreb nzoerb nzoebr nzbore nzboer
nzbroe nzbreo nzbero nzbeor nzrboe nzrbeo nzrobe nzroeb nzreob nzrebo nzebro
nzebor nzerbo nzerob nzeorb nzeobr neobzr neobrz neozbr neozrb neorzb neorbz
nebozr neborz nebzor nebzro nebrzo nebroz nezbor nezbro nezobr nezorb nezrob
nezrbo nerbzo nerboz nerzbo nerzob nerozb nerobz zronbe zroneb zrobne zroben
zroebn zroenb zrnobe zrnoeb zrnboe zrnbeo zrnebo zrneob zrbnoe zrbneo zrbone
zrboen zrbeon zrbeno zrenbo zrenob zrebno zrebon zreobn zreonb zornbe zorneb
zorbne zorben zorebn zorenb zonrbe zonreb zonbre zonber zonebr zonerb zobnre
zobner zobrne zobren zobern zobenr zoenbr zoenrb zoebnr zoebrn zoerbn zoernb
znorbe znoreb znobre znober znoebr znoerb znrobe znroeb znrboe znrbeo znrebo
znreob znbroe znbreo znbore znboer znbeor znbero znerbo znerob znebro znebor
zneobr zneorb zbonre zboner zborne zboren zboern zboenr zbnore zbnoer zbnroe
zbnreo zbnero zbneor zbrnoe zbrneo zbrone zbroen zbreon zbreno zbenro zbenor
zberno zberon zbeorn zbeonr zeonbr zeonrb zeobnr zeobrn zeorbn zeornb zenobr
zenorb zenbor zenbro zenrbo zenrob zebnor zebnro zebonr zeborn zebron zebrno
zernbo zernob zerbno zerbon zerobn zeronb eronzb eronbz eroznb erozbn erobzn
erobnz ernozb ernobz ernzob ernzbo ernbzo ernboz erznob erznbo erzonb erzobn
erzbon erzbno erbnzo erbnoz erbzno erbzon erbozn erbonz eornzb eornbz eorznb
eorzbn eorbzn eorbnz eonrzb eonrbz eonzrb eonzbr eonbzr eonbrz eoznrb eoznbr
eozrnb eozrbn eozbrn eozbnr eobnzr eobnrz eobznr eobzrn eobrzn eobrnz enorzb
enorbz enozrb enozbr enobzr enobrz enrozb enrobz enrzob enrzbo enrbzo enrboz
enzrob enzrbo enzorb enzobr enzbor enzbro enbrzo enbroz enbzro enbzor enbozr
enborz ezonrb ezonbr ezornb ezorbn ezobrn ezobnr eznorb eznobr eznrob eznrbo
eznbro eznbor ezrnob ezrnbo ezronb ezrobn ezrbon ezrbno ezbnro ezbnor ezbrno
ezbron ezborn ezbonr ebonzr ebonrz eboznr ebozrn eborzn ebornz ebnozr ebnorz
ebnzor ebnzro ebnrzo ebnroz ebznor ebznro ebzonr ebzorn ebzron ebzrno ebrnzo
ebrnoz ebrzno ebrzon ebrozn ebronz

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History of cryptography
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